A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be
used to contain digital information represented by the presence or
absence of holes in predefined positions. The information might be
data for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to
directly control automated machinery.
Punched cards were widely used through much of the 20th century in
what became known as the data processing industry, where specialized
and increasingly complex unit record machines, organized into
semiautomatic data processing systems, used punched cards for data
input, output, and storage. Many early digital computers used
punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary
medium for input of both computer programs and data.
While punched cards are now obsolete as a recording medium, as of
2012, some voting machines still use punched cards to record votes.
A general-purpose punched card from the mid-twentieth century.
Close-up of the 8 × 26 hole punched cards on a Jacquard loom
3 Card formats
3.1 Hollerith's early punched card formats
3.2 IBM 80-column punched card format and character codes
3.3 IBM Stub card or Short card formats
3.4 IBM 40-column Port-A-Punch card format
3.5 IBM 96-column punched card format
UNIVAC 90-column punched card format
3.7 Powers-Samas punched card formats
Mark sense card format
Aperture card format
4 IBM punched card manufacturing
5 Cultural impact
Punched card machines
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Basile Bouchon developed the control of a loom by punched holes in
paper tape in 1725. The design was improved by his assistant
Jean-Baptiste Falcon and
Jacques Vaucanson (1740) Although these
improvements controlled the patterns woven, they still required an
assistant to operate the mechanism. In 1804 Joseph Marie Jacquard
demonstrated a mechanism to automate loom operation. A number of
punched cards were linked into a chain of any length. Each card held
the instructions for shedding (raising and lowering the warp) and
selecting the shuttle for a single pass. It is considered an important
step in the history of computing hardware.
Semen Korsakov's punched card
Semen Korsakov was reputedly the first to use the punched
cards in informatics for information store and
search. Korsakov announced his new method and machines in September
1832; rather than seeking patents, he offered the machines for public
Charles Babbage proposed the use of "Number Cards", "pierced with
certain holes and stand opposite levers connected with a set of figure
wheels ... advanced they push in those levers opposite to which there
are no holes on the card and thus transfer that number" in his
description of the Calculating Engine's Store.
Jules Carpentier developed a method of recording and playing
back performances on a harmonium using punched cards. The system was
called the Mélographe Répétiteur and “writes down ordinary music
played on the keyboard dans la langage de Jacquard”, that is as
holes punched in a series of cards. By 1887 Carpentier had separated
the mechanism into the Melograph which recorded the player's key
presses and the Melotrope which played the music.
Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a medium that could
then be read by a machine. Prior uses of machine readable media, such
as those above (other than Korsakov, Fenby and Carpentier), had been
for control, not data. "After some initial trials with paper tape, he
settled on punched cards...", developing punched card data processing
technology for the 1890 US census.
Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company (1896) which was one
of four companies that were amalgamated (via stock acquisition) to
form a fifth company, Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR),
International Business Machines
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). Other
companies entering the punched card business included The Tabulator
Limited (1902) (later renamed the British Tabulating Machine Company),
Deutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft mbH (Dehomag) (1911), Powers
Accounting Machine Company (1911),
Remington Rand (1927), and Groupe
Bull (1931). These companies, and others, manufactured and
marketed a variety of punched cards and unit record machines for
creating, sorting, and tabulating punched cards, even after the
development of electronic computers in the 1950s.
Both IBM and
Remington Rand tied punched card purchases to machine
leases, a violation of the 1914 Clayton Antitrust Act. In 1932, the US
government took both to court on this issue.
Remington Rand settled
quickly. IBM viewed its business as providing a service and that the
cards were part of the machine. IBM fought all the way to the Supreme
Court and lost in 1936; the court ruling that IBM could only set card
"By 1937... IBM had 32 presses at work in Endicott, N.Y., printing,
cutting and stacking five to 10 million punched cards every day."
Punched cards were even used as legal documents, such as U.S.
Government checks and savings bonds.
During WW II punched card equipment was used by the Allies in some of
their efforts to decrypt Axis communications. See, for example,
Central Bureau in Australia. At
Bletchley Park in England, 2,000,000
punched cards were used each week for storing decrypted German
Punched card technology developed into a powerful tool for business
data-processing. By 1950 punched cards had become ubiquitous in
industry and government. "Do not fold, spindle or mutilate," a
generalized version of the warning that appeared on some punched cards
(generally on those distributed as paper documents to be later
returned for further machine processing, checks for example), became a
motto for the post-
World War II
World War II era.
In 1955 IBM signed a consent decree requiring, amongst other things,
that IBM would by 1962 have no more than one-half of the punched card
manufacturing capacity in the United States. Tom Watson Jr.'s decision
to sign this decree, where IBM saw the punched card provisions as the
most significant point, completed the transfer of power to him from
Thomas Watson, Sr.
UNITYPER introduced magnetic tape for data entry in the 1950s.
During the 1960s, the punched card was gradually replaced as the
primary means for data storage by magnetic tape, as better, more
capable computers became available.
Mohawk Data Sciences introduced a
magnetic tape encoder in 1965, a system marketed as a keypunch
replacement which was somewhat successful. Punched cards were still
commonly used for entering both data and computer programs until the
mid-1980s when the combination of lower cost magnetic disk storage,
and affordable interactive terminals on less expensive minicomputers
made punched cards obsolete for these roles as well. However,
their influence lives on through many standard conventions and file
formats. The terminals that replaced the punched cards, the IBM 3270
for example, displayed 80 columns of text in text mode, for
compatibility with existing software. Some programs still operate on
the convention of 80 text columns, although fewer and fewer do as
newer systems employ graphical user interfaces with variable-width
A deck of punched cards comprising a computer program
The terms punched card, punch card, and punchcard were all commonly
used, as were IBM card and Hollerith card (after Herman
Hollerith). IBM used "IBM card" or, later, "punched card" at first
mention in its documentation and thereafter simply "card" or
"cards". Specific formats were often indicated by the number
of character positions available, e.g. 80-column card. A sequence of
cards that is input to or output from some step in an application's
processing is called a card deck or simply deck. The rectangular,
round, or oval bits of paper punched out were called chad (chads) or
chips (in IBM usage). Sequential card columns allocated for a specific
use, such as names, addresses, multi-digit numbers, etc., are known as
a field. The first card of a group of cards, containing fixed or
indicative information for that group, is known as a master card.
Cards that are not master cards are detail cards.
The Hollerith punched cards used for the US 1890 census were
blank. Following that, cards commonly had printing such that the
row and column position of a hole could be easily seen. Printing could
include having fields named and marked by vertical lines, logos, and
more. "General purpose" layouts (see, for example, the IBM 5081
below) were also available. For applications requiring master cards to
be separated from following detail cards, the respective cards had
different upper corner diagonal cuts and thus could be separated by a
sorter. Other cards typically had one upper corner diagonal cut so
that cards not oriented correctly, or cards with different corner
cuts, could be identified.
Hollerith's early punched card formats
Hollerith card as shown in the
Railroad Gazette in 1895, with 12 rows
and 24 columns.
Herman Hollerith was awarded a series of patents in 1889 for
electromechanical tabulating machines. These patents described both
paper tape and rectangular cards as possible recording media. The card
shown in U.S. Patent 395,781 of June 8 was printed with a template and
had hole positions arranged close to the edges so they could be
reached by a railroad conductor's ticket punch, with the center
reserved for written descriptions. Hollerith was originally inspired
by railroad tickets that let the conductor encode a rough description
of the passenger:
"I was traveling in the West and I had a ticket with what I think was
called a punch photograph...the conductor...punched out a description
of the individual, as light hair, dark eyes, large nose, etc. So you
see, I only made a punch photograph of each person."
When use of the ticket punch proved tiring and error prone Hollerith
developed the pantograph "keyboard punch". It featured an enlarged
diagram of the card, indicating the positions of the holes to be
punched. A printed reading board could be placed under a card that was
to be read manually.
Hollerith envisioned a number of card sizes. In an article he wrote
describing his proposed system for tabulating the 1890 U.S. Census,
Hollerith suggested a card 3 inches by 5½ inches of Manila stock
"would be sufficient to answer all ordinary purposes." The cards
used in the 1890 census had round holes, 12 rows and 24 columns. A
reading board for these cards can be seen at the Columbia University
Computing History site. At some point, 3 1⁄4 by
7 3⁄8 inches (82.6 by 187.3 mm) became the standard card
size. These are the dimensions of the then current paper currency of
Hollerith's original system used an ad-hoc coding system for each
application, with groups of holes assigned specific meanings, e.g. sex
or marital status. His tabulating machine had up to 40 counters, each
with a dial divided into 100 divisions, with two indicator hands; one
which stepped one unit with each counting pulse, the other which
advanced one unit every time the other dial made a complete
revolution. This arrangement allowed a count up to 10,000. During a
given tabulating run, each counter was typically assigned a specific
hole. Hollerith also used relay logic to allow counts of combination
Later designs led to a card with ten rows, each row assigned a digit
value, 0 through 9, and 45 columns. This card provided for fields
to record multi-digit numbers that tabulators could sum, instead of
their simply counting cards. Hollerith's 45 column punched cards are
illustrated in Comrie's The application of the Hollerith Tabulating
Machine to Brown's Tables of the Moon.
IBM 80-column punched card format and character codes
Punched card from a
Fortran program: Z(1) = Y + W(1)
By the late 1920s customers wanted to store more data on each punched
Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson Sr., IBM’s head, asked two of his top
inventors, Clair D. Lake and J. Royden Peirce, to independently
develop ways to increase data capacity without increasing the size of
the punched card. Pierce wanted to keep round holes and 45 columns,
but allow each column to store more data. Lake suggested rectangular
holes, which could be spaced more tightly, allowing 80 columns per
punched card, thereby nearly doubling the capacity of the older
format. Watson picked the latter solution, introduced as The IBM
Computer Card, in part because it was compatible with existing
tabulator designs and in part because it could be protected by patents
and give the company a distinctive advantage.
This IBM card format, introduced in 1928, has rectangular holes,
80 columns, and 12 rows. Card columns were generally used for single
digits, sometimes with overpunches. Card size is exactly
7 3⁄8 by 3 1⁄4 inches (187.325 mm
× 82.55 mm). The cards are made of smooth stock, 0.007
inches (180 μm) thick. There are about 143 cards to the inch
(56/cm). In 1964, IBM changed from square to round corners. They
come typically in boxes of 2000 cards or as continuous form cards.
Continuous form cards could be both pre-numbered and pre-punched for
document control (checks, for example).
The top three positions of a column are called zone punching
positions, 12 (top), 11, and 0 (0 may be either a zone punch or a
digit punch). For decimal data the lower ten positions are called
digit punching positions, 0 (top) through 9. An arithmetic sign
can be specified for a decimal field by overpunching the field's
rightmost column with a zone punch: 12 for plus, 11 for minus (CR).
Pound sterling pre-decimalization currency a penny column
represents the values zero through eleven; 10 (top), 11, then 0
through 9 as above. An arithmetic sign can be punched in the adjacent
shilling column. Zone punches had other uses in processing, such
as indicating a master card.
An 80-column punched card of the type most widely used in the 20th
century. The size of the card is 7 3⁄8 in
× 3 1⁄4 in (187 mm × 83 mm).
12 x xxxxxxxxx
11 x xxxxxxxxx
0 x xxxxxxxxx
1 x x x x
2 x x x x
3 x x x x
4 x x x x
5 x x x x
6 x x x x
7 x x x x
8 x x x x
9 x x x x
Reference: Note: The 11 and 12 zones were also called the X and
Y zones, respectively.
In 1931 IBM began introducing upper-case letters and special
characters (Powers-Samas had developed the first commercial alphabetic
punched card representation in 1921). The 26 letters have
two punches (zone [12,11,0] + digit [1–9]). The languages of
Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Spain, Portugal and Finland require
up to three additional letters; their punching is not shown
here.:88-90 Most special characters have two or three punches
(zone [12,11,0, or none] + digit [2–7] + 8); a few special
characters were exceptions: "&" is 12 only, "-" is 11 only, and
"/" is 0 + 1). The Space character has no punches.:38 The
information represented in a column by a combination of zones [12, 11,
0] and digits [0–9] is dependent on the use of that column. For
example, the combination "12-1" is the letter "A" in an alphabetic
column, a plus signed digit "1" in a signed numeric column, or an
unsigned digit "1" in a column where the "12" has some other use. The
EBCDIC in 1964 defined columns with as many as six
punches (zones [12,11,0,8,9] + digit [1–7]). IBM and other
manufacturers used many different 80-column card character
encodings. A 1969 American National Standard defined the
punches for 128 characters and was named the Hollerith Punched Card
Code (often referred to simply as Hollerith Card Code), honoring
Binary punched card.
For some computer applications, binary formats were used, where each
hole represented a single binary digit (or "bit"), every column (or
row) is treated as a simple bit field, and every combination of holes
Invalid "lace cards" such as these pose mechanical problems for card
As a prank, in binary mode, punched cards could be made where every
possible punch position had a hole. Such "lace cards" lacked
structural strength, and would frequently buckle and jam inside the
The IBM 80-column punched card format dominated the industry, becoming
known as just IBM cards, even though other companies made cards and
equipment to process them.
A 5081 card from a non-IBM manufacturer.
One of the most common punched card formats is the IBM 5081 card
format, a general purpose layout with no field divisions. This format
has digits printed on it corresponding to the punch positions of the
digits in each of the 80 columns. Other punched card vendors
manufactured cards with this same layout and number.
IBM Stub card or Short card formats
The 80-column card could be scored, on either end, creating a stub
that could be torn off, leaving a stub card or short card. A common
length for stub cards was 51-columns. Stub cards were used in
applications requiring tags, labels, or carbon copies.
IBM 40-column Port-A-Punch card format
FORTRAN Port-A-Punch card. Compiler directive "SQUEEZE" removed the
alternating blank columns from the input.
IBM 96 column punched card
According to the IBM Archive: IBM's Supplies Division introduced the
Port-A-Punch in 1958 as a fast, accurate means of manually punching
holes in specially scored IBM punched cards. Designed to fit in the
pocket, Port-A-Punch made it possible to create punched card documents
anywhere. The product was intended for "on-the-spot" recording
operations—such as physical inventories, job tickets and statistical
surveys—because it eliminated the need for preliminary writing or
typing of source documents.
IBM 96-column punched card format
In the late 1960s, IBM introduced a new, smaller, round-hole,
96-column card format along with the IBM
System/3 computer. These
cards have tiny (1 mm), circular holes, smaller than those in
paper tape. Data is stored in 6-bit BCD, with three rows of 32
characters each, or 8-bit EBCDIC. In this format, each column of the
top tiers are combined with two punch rows from the bottom tier to
form an 8-bit byte, and the middle tier is combined with two more
punch rows, so that each card contains 64 bytes of 8-bit-per-byte
binary coded data.
UNIVAC 90-column punched card format
UNIVAC format card. Card courtesy of MIT
Remington Rand card with an IBM card for comparison
Remington Rand card format was initially the same as
Hollerith's; 45 columns and round holes. In 1930, Remington Rand
leap-frogged IBM's 80 column format from 1928 by coding two characters
in each of the 45 columns – producing what is now commonly called
the 90-column card. There are two sets of six rows across each
card. The rows in each set are labeled 0, 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8 and 9.
The even numbers in a pair are formed by combining that punch with a 9
punch. Alphabetic and special characters use 3 or more punches
Powers-Samas punched card formats
The Powers-Samas card formats began with 45 columns and round holes.
Later 36, 40 and 65 column cards were provided. A 130 column card was
also available - formed by dividing the card into two rows, each row
with 65 columns and each character space with 5 punch positions. A 21
column card was comparable to the IBM Stub card.
Mark sense card format
HP Educational Basic optical mark-reader card.
Mark sense (electrographic) cards, developed by
Reynold B. Johnson at
IBM, have printed ovals that could be marked with a special
electrographic pencil. Cards would typically be punched with some
initial information, such as the name and location of an inventory
item. Information to be added, such as quantity of the item on hand,
would be marked in the ovals. Card punches with an option to detect
mark sense cards could then punch the corresponding information into
Aperture card format
Aperture cards have a cut-out hole on the right side of the punched
card. A 35 mm microfilm chip containing a microform image is
mounted in the hole. Aperture cards are used for engineering drawings
from all engineering disciplines. Information about the drawing, for
example the drawing number, is typically punched and printed on the
remainder of the card.
IBM punched card manufacturing
IBM's Fred M. Carroll developed a series of rotary presses that
were used to produce punched cards, including a 1921 model that
operated at 460 cards per minute (cpm). In 1936 he introduced a
completely different press that operated at 850 cpm. Carroll's
high-speed press, containing a printing cylinder, revolutionized the
company's manufacturing of punched cards. It is estimated that
between 1930 and 1950, the Carroll press accounted for as much as 25
percent of the company's profits.
Institutions, such as universities, often had their general purpose
cards printed with a logo. A wide variety of forms and documents were
printed on punched cards, including checks. Such printing did not
interfere with the operation of the machinery.
A punched card printing plate.
Discarded printing plates from these card presses, each printing plate
the size of an IBM card and formed into a cylinder, often found use as
desk pen/pencil holders, and even today are collectible IBM artifacts
(every card layout had its own printing plate).
A $75 U.S. Savings Bond, Series EE issued as a punched card. Eight of
the holes record the bond serial number.
Cartons of punched cards stored in a United States National Archives
Records Service facility in 1959. Each carton could hold 2,000 cards.
While punched cards have not been widely used for a generation, the
impact was so great for most of the 20th century that they still
appear from time to time in popular culture. For example:
Artist and architect
Maya Lin in 2004 designed a public art
installation at Ohio University, titled "Input", that looks like a
punched card from the air.
The Man Whose Name Wouldn't Fit: a book by Theodore Tyler
The warning often printed on punched cards that were to be
individually handled, "Do not fold, spindle or mutilate", coined by
Charles A. Phillips, became a motto for the post-
World War II
World War II era
(even though many people had no idea what spindle meant). The
motto was also used for a book by
Doris Miles Disney and a movie based
on that book.
Tucker Hall at the University of Missouri - Columbia features
architecture that is reportedly influenced by punched cards. It is
said that the spacing and pattern of the windows on the building will
spell out “M-I-Z beat k-U!” on a punched card, making reference to
the University and state's rivalry with neighboring state Kansas.
At the University of Wisconsin - Madison, the exterior windows of the
Engineering Research Building were modeled after a punched card
layout, during its construction in 1966.
At the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks, a portion of the
exterior of Gamble Hall (College of Business and Public
Administration), has a series of light-colored bricks that resembles a
punched card spelling out "University of North Dakota."
In the Simpsons episode "Much Apu About Nothing", Apu showed Bart his
PhD thesis, the world's first computer tic-tac-toe game, stored in a
box full of punched cards.
In the Futurama episode "Mother's Day", as several robots are seen
shouting 'Hey hey! Hey ho! 100110!' in protest, one of them burns a
punch card in a manner reminiscent of draft-card burning. In another
episode, Put Your Head on My Shoulders, Bender offers a dating
service. He hands characters punch cards so they can put in what they
want, before throwing them in his chest cabinet and 'calculating' the
'match' for the person. Bender is shown 'folding', 'bending', and
'mutilating' the punched card, accentuating the fact that he is making
up the 'calculations'.
In the 1964–65 Free Speech Movement, punched cards became a
metaphor... symbol of the "system"—first the registration system and
then bureaucratic systems more generally ... a symbol of alienation
... Punched cards were the symbol of information machines, and so they
became the symbolic point of attack. Punched cards, used for class
registration, were first and foremost a symbol of uniformity. .... A
student might feel "he is one of out of 27,500 IBM cards" ... The
president of the Undergraduate Association criticized the University
as "a machine ... IBM pattern of education."... Robert Blaumer
explicated the symbolism: he referred to the "sense of
impersonality... symbolized by the IBM technology."...
A legacy of the 80 column punched card format is that a display of 80
characters per row was a common choice in the design of
character-based terminals. As of September 2014, some character
interface defaults, such as the command prompt window's width in
Microsoft Windows, remain set at 80 columns and some file formats,
such as FITS, still use 80-character card images.
In Arthur C. Clarke's early short story "Rescue Party", the alien
explorers find a "... wonderful battery of almost human Hollerith
analyzers and the five thousand million punched cards holding all that
could be recorded on each man, woman and child on the planet". Writing
in 1946, Clarke, like almost all sci-fi authors, had not then foreseen
the development and eventual ubiquity of the computer.
ANSI INCITS 21-1967 (R2002), Rectangular Holes in Twelve-Row Punched
Cards (formerly ANSI X3.21-1967 (R1997)) Specifies the size and
location of rectangular holes in twelve-row 3 1⁄4-inch-wide
(83 mm) punched cards.
ANSI X3.11 – 1990 American National Standard Specifications for
Paper Cards for Information Processing
ANSI X3.26 – 1980/R1991) Hollerith Punched Card Code
ISO 1681:1973 Information processing – Unpunched paper cards –
Data processing – Implementation of the ISO 7- bit and
8- bit coded character sets on punched cards. Defines ISO 7-bit and
8-bit character sets on punched cards as well as the representation of
7-bit and 8-bit combinations on 12-row punched cards. Derived from,
and compatible with, the Hollerith Code, ensuring compatibility with
existing punched card files.
Punched card machines
Processing of punched cards was handled by a variety of machines,
Keypunches — machines with a keyboard that punch cards from operator
Unit record equipment
Unit record equipment — machines that process data on punched cards.
Employed prior to the widespread use of digital computers. Includes
card sorters, tabulating machines and a variety of other machines
Computer punched card reader — a computer input device used to read
executable computer programs and data from punched cards under
Computer card punch — a computer output device that punches holes in
cards under computer control.
Voting machines — used into the 21st century
Computer programming in the punched card era
History of computing hardware
Kimball tag—punched card price tags
Paper data storage
The initial version of this article, October 18, 2001, was based on
material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing and
incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.1.
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^ (Truesdell 1965, p.43)
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^ Bashe, Charles J.; Johnson, Lyle R.; Palmer, John H.; Pugh, Emerson
W. (1986). IBM's Early Computers. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT
Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-262-02225-7. Also see pages 5-14
for additional information on punched cards.
^ Plates from: Comrie, L.J. (1932). "The application of the Hollerith
Tabulating Machine to Brown's Tables of the Moon". Monthly Notices of
the Royal Astronomical Society. 92 (7): 694–707.
^ Comrie, L.J. (1932). "The application of the Hollerith tabulating
machine to Brown's tables of the moon". Monthly Notices of the Royal
Astronomical Society. 92 (7): 694–707. Bibcode:1932MNRAS..92..694C.
doi:10.1093/mnras/92.7.694. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
^ U.S. Patent 1,772,492, Record Sheet for Tabulating Machines, C. D.
Lake, filed June 20, 1928
^ The IBM Punched Card, IBM100
^ IBM Archive: 1928.
^ IBM Archive: Old/New-Cards.
^ p. 405, "How Computational Chemistry Became Important in the
Pharmaceutical Industry", Donald B. Boyd, chapter 7 in Reviews in
Computational Chemistry, Volume 23, edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz,
Thomas R. Cundari and Donald B. Boyd, Wiley & Son, 2007,
^ a b IBM (1953). Principles of IBM Accounting. 224-5527-2.
Punched card Data Processing Principles. IBM. 1961. p. 3.
Punched card Data Processing Principles. IBM. 1961. p. 3.
^ Cemach, 1951, p.9, 17. Cemach has examples of shillings as 2 columns
(p.9) and 1 column (p.17). This text assumes that 2 columns was
normal, that 1 column was the exception.
^ IBM Operator's Guide A24-1010, 1959, p.141: Master Card: The first
card of a group containing fixed or indicative information for that
^ "Punched Card Codes". Cs.uiowa.edu. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
^ Rojas, Raul (editor) (2001). Encyclopedia of Computers and Computer
History. Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 656. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
^ Pugh, Emerson W. (1995). Building IBM: Shaping and Industry and Its
Technology. MIT Press. pp. 50–51.
Special characters are non-alphabetic, non-numeric, such as
^ a b c Mackenzie, Charles E. (1980). Coded Character Sets, History
and Development (PDF). The Systems Programming Series (1 ed.).
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 0-201-14460-3.
LCCN 77-90165. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 26,
^ Winter, Dik T. "80-column Punched Card Codes". Archived from the
original on April 8, 2007. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
^ Jones, Douglas W. "Punched Card Codes". Retrieved February 20,
^ Raymond, Eric S. (1991). The New Hacker's Dictionary. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press. p. 219.
^ "IBM Archive: Port-A-Punch". 03.ibm.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
^ Winter, Dik T. "96-column Punched Card Code". Archived from the
original on April 15, 2007. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
^ Aspray (ed.). op. cit. p. 142. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
^ "The Punched Card". Quadibloc.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
^ Winter, Dik T. "90-column Punched Card Code". Archived from the
original on February 28, 2005. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
^ (Cemach, 1951, pp 47-51)
^ "IBM Archives/Business Machines: Fred M. Carroll". 03.ibm.com.
^ "IBM Archives: Fred M. Carroll". 03.ibm.com. Retrieved
^ "IBM Archives: (IBM) Carroll Press". 03.ibm.com. Retrieved
^ "IBM Archives:1939 Layout department". 03.ibm.com. Retrieved
^ "Mayalin.com". Mayalin.com. 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
^ Tyler, Theodore (1968). The Man Whose Name Wouldn't Fit. Doubleday
Science Fiction. p. 262.
^ Lee, J.A.L. (1995) Computer Pioneers, IEEE, p.557
^ Disney, Doris Miles (1970). Do Not Fold, Spindle or Mutilate. Crime
Club. p. 183.
^ "Mizzou Alumni Association- Campus Traditions". Mizzou Alumni
Association. Mizzou Alumni Association. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
^ "University of Wisconsin-Madison Buildings:". Fpm.wisc.edu.
^ "Photo of Gamble Hall by gatty790". Panoramio.com. Archived from the
original on 2013-07-15. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
^ Lubar, Steven. "Do Not Fold, Spindle Or Mutilate: A Cultural History
Of The Punch Card" (PDF). Journal of American Culture. 1992 (Winter).
Retrieved June 12, 2011.
Austrian, Geoffrey D. (1982). Herman Hollerith: The Forgotten Giant of
Columbia University Press. p. 418.
Cemach, Harry P. (1951). The Elements of Punched Card Accounting. Sir
Issac Pitman & Sons Ltd. p. 137. Machine illustrations
were provided by Power-Samas Accounting Machines and British
Tabulating Machine Co.
Fierheller, George A. (2006). Do not fold, spindle or mutilate: the
"hole" story of punched cards (PDF). Stewart Pub.
ISBN 1-894183-86-X. Retrieved April 3, 2018. An accessible
book of recollections (sometimes with errors), with photographs and
descriptions of many unit record machines.
Murray, Francis J. (1961). Mathematical Machines Volume 1: Digital
Columbia University Press. Includes a description of
Samas punched cards and illustration of an Underwood Samas punched
Truedsell, Leon E. (1965). The Development of Punch Card Tabulation in
the Bureau of the Census 1890-1940. US GPO. Includes extensive,
detailed, description of Hollerith's first machines and their use for
the 1890 census.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Punch card.
IBM. "The IBM Punched Card". Retrieved April 25, 2014.
Lubar, Steve (May 1991). "Do not fold, spindle or mutilate: A cultural
history of the punch card". Archived from the original on
Jones, Douglas W. "Punched Cards". Retrieved October 20, 2006.
(Collection shows examples of left, right, and no corner cuts.)
VintageTech – a U.S. company that converts punched cards to
Dyson, George (March 1999). "The Undead". Wired magazine. 7 (3).
Retrieved 2017-07-04. article about modern-day use of punched
Williams, Robert V. (2002). "Punched Cards: A Brief Tutorial". IEEE
Annals – Web extra. Retrieved 2015-03-26.
UNIVAC Punch Card Gallery (Shows examples of both left and right
Cardamation at the
Wayback Machine (archived October 17, 2011) – a
U.S. company that supplied punched card equipment and supplies until
An Emulator for Punched cards
Brian De Palma
Brian De Palma (Director) (1961). 660124: The Story of an IBM Card
Povarov G.N. Semen Nikolayevich Korsakov. Machines for the Comparison
of Philosophical Ideas. In: Trogemann, Georg; Ernst, Wolfgang and
Nitussov, Alexander, Computing in Russia: The History of Computer
Devices and Information Technology Revealed (pp 47–49), Verlag,
2001. Translated by Alexander Y. Nitussov. ISBN 3-528-05757-2,
Korsakov S.N. A Depiction of a New Research Method, Using Machines
which Compare Ideas, Ed. by Alexander Mikhailov, MEPhI, 2009 (in
Paper data storage media
Writing on papyrus (c. 3000 BCE)
Paper (105 CE)
Railroad/Transit Punch Photograph (1880s)
Punched card (1890)
Edge-notched card (1896)
Optical mark recognition
Optical character recognition (1929)