HOME
The Info List - Psychoactive


--- Advertisement ---



A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness or behavior.[1] These substances may be used medically; recreationally; to purposefully improve performance or alter one's consciousness; as entheogens; for ritual, spiritual, or shamanic purposes; or for research. Some categories of psychoactive drugs, which have therapeutic value, are prescribed by physicians and other healthcare practitioners. Examples include anesthetics, analgesics, anticonvulsant and antiparkinsonian drugs as well as medications used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders, such as antidepressants, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, and stimulant medications. Some psychoactive substances may be used in the detoxification and rehabilitation programs for persons dependent on or addicted to other psychoactive drugs. Psychoactive substances often bring about subjective (although these may be objectively observed) changes in consciousness and mood that the user may find rewarding and pleasant (e.g., euphoria or a sense of relaxation) or advantageous (e.g. increased alertness) and are thus reinforcing. Substances which are both rewarding and positively reinforcing have the potential to induce a state of addiction – compulsive drug use despite negative consequences. In addition, sustained use of some substances may produce physical or psychological dependence or both, associated with somatic or psychological-emotional withdrawal states respectively. Drug rehabilitation attempts to reduce addiction, through a combination of psychotherapy, support groups, and other psychoactive substances. Conversely, certain psychoactive drugs may be so unpleasant that the person will never use the substance again. This is especially true of certain deliriants (e.g. Jimson weed), powerful dissociatives (e.g. Salvia divinorum), and classic psychedelics (e.g. LSD, psilocybin), in the form of a "bad trip". Psychoactive drug
Psychoactive drug
misuse, dependence and addiction have resulted in legal measures and moral debate. Governmental controls on manufacture, supply and prescription attempt to reduce problematic medical drug use. Ethical concerns have also been raised about over-use of these drugs clinically, and about their marketing by manufacturers. Popular campaigns to allow certain recreational drug use (e.g. cannabis) are also ongoing.

Contents

1 History 2 Purposes 3 Uses

3.1 Anesthesia 3.2 Pain management 3.3 Mental disorders 3.4 Recreation 3.5 Ritual and spiritual 3.6 Military

4 Route of administration 5 Determinants of effects 6 Effects

6.1 Affected neurotransmitter systems

7 Addiction
Addiction
and dependence 8 Legality 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit]

Alcohol
Alcohol
is a widely used and abused psychoactive drug. The global alcoholic drinks market was expected to exceed $1 trillion in 2013.[2] Beer
Beer
is the third-most popular drink overall, after water and tea.[3]

Psychoactive drug
Psychoactive drug
use can be traced to prehistory. There is archaeological evidence of the use of psychoactive substances (mostly plants) dating back at least 10,000 years, and historical evidence of cultural use over the past 5,000 years.[4] The chewing of coca leaves, for example, dates back over 8,000 years ago in Peruvian society.[5][6] Medicinal use is one important facet of psychoactive drug usage. However, some have postulated that the urge to alter one's consciousness is as primary as the drive to satiate thirst, hunger or sexual desire.[7] Supporters of this belief contend that the history of drug use and even children's desire for spinning, swinging, or sliding indicate that the drive to alter one's state of mind is universal.[8] One of the first people to articulate this point of view, set aside from a medicinal context, was American author Fitz Hugh Ludlow (1836–1870) in his book The Hasheesh Eater
The Hasheesh Eater
(1857):

[D]rugs are able to bring humans into the neighborhood of divine experience and can thus carry us up from our personal fate and the everyday circumstances of our life into a higher form of reality. It is, however, necessary to understand precisely what is meant by the use of drugs. We do not mean the purely physical craving...That of which we speak is something much higher, namely the knowledge of the possibility of the soul to enter into a lighter being, and to catch a glimpse of deeper insights and more magnificent visions of the beauty, truth, and the divine than we are normally able to spy through the cracks in our prison cell. But there are not many drugs which have the power of stilling such craving. The entire catalog, at least to the extent that research has thus far written it, may include only opium, hashish, and in rarer cases alcohol, which has enlightening effects only upon very particular characters.[9]

This relationship is not limited to humans. A number of animals consume different psychoactive plants, animals, berries and even fermented fruit, becoming intoxicated, such as cats after consuming catnip. Traditional legends of sacred plants often contain references to animals that introduced humankind to their use.[10] Animals and psychoactive plants appear to have co-evolved, possibly explaining why these chemicals and their receptors exist within the nervous system.[11] During the 20th century, many governments across the world initially responded to the use of recreational drugs by banning them and making their use, supply, or trade a criminal offense. A notable example of this was Prohibition
Prohibition
in the United States, where alcohol was made illegal for 13 years. However, many governments, government officials and persons in law enforcement have concluded that illicit drug use cannot be sufficiently stopped through criminalization. Organizations such as Law Enforcement Against Prohibition
Prohibition
(LEAP) have come to such a conclusion, believing:

[T]he existing drug policies have failed in their intended goals of addressing the problems of crime, drug abuse, addiction, juvenile drug use, stopping the flow of illegal drugs into this country and the internal sale and use of illegal drugs. By fighting a war on drugs the government has increased the problems of society and made them far worse. A system of regulation rather than prohibition is a less harmful, more ethical and a more effective public policy.[12][not in citation given]

In some countries, there has been a move toward harm reduction by health services, where the use of illicit drugs is neither condoned nor promoted, but services and support are provided to ensure users have adequate factual information readily available, and that the negative effects of their use be minimized. Such is the case of Portuguese drug policy of decriminalization, which achieved its primary goal of reducing the adverse health effects of drug abuse.[13] Purposes[edit] Psychoactive substances are used by humans for a number of different purposes to achieve a specific end. These uses vary widely between cultures. Some substances may have controlled or illegal uses while others may have shamanic purposes, and still others are used medicinally. Other examples would be social drinking, nootropic, or sleep aids. Caffeine
Caffeine
is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive substance, but unlike many others, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all jurisdictions. In North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily.[14] Psychoactive drugs are divided into different groups according to their pharmacological effects. Commonly used psychoactive drugs and groups:

Anxiolytics

Example: benzodiazepines, barbiturates

Empathogen–entactogens

Example: MDMA
MDMA
(Ecstasy), MDA, 6-APB, AMP

Stimulants
Stimulants
("uppers"). This category comprises substances that wake one up, stimulate the mind, and may cause euphoria, but do not affect perception.

Examples: amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, nicotine

Depressants
Depressants
("downers"), including sedatives, hypnotics, and opioids. This category includes all of the calmative, sleep-inducing, anxiety-reducing, anesthetizing substances, which sometimes induce perceptual changes, such as dream images, and also often evoke feelings of euphoria.

Examples: ethanol (alcoholic beverages), opioids, barbiturates, benzodiazepines.

Hallucinogens, including psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants. This category encompasses all those substances that produce distinct alterations in perception, sensation of space and time, and emotional states[15]

Examples: psilocybin, LSD, Salvia divinorum
Salvia divinorum
and nitrous oxide.

Uses[edit] Anesthesia[edit] Main article: Anesthesia General anesthetics are a class of psychoactive drug used on people to block physical pain and other sensations. Most anesthetics induce unconsciousness, allowing the person to undergo medical procedures like surgery without the feelings of physical pain or emotional trauma.[16] To induce unconsciousness, anesthetics affect the GABA
GABA
and NMDA
NMDA
systems. For example, propofol is a GABA
GABA
agonist,[17] and ketamine is an NMDA
NMDA
receptor antagonist.[18] Pain management[edit] Main article: Analgesics Psychoactive drugs are often prescribed to manage pain. The subjective experience of pain is primarily regulated by endogenous opioid peptides. Thus, pain can often be managed using psychoactives that operate on this neurotransmitter system, also known as opioid receptor agonists. This class of drugs can be highly addictive, and includes opiate narcotics, like morphine and codeine.[19] NSAIDs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, are also analgesics. These agents also reduce eicosanoid-mediated inflammation by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Mental disorders[edit] Main article: Psychiatric medications

Zoloft (sertraline) is an SSRI
SSRI
antidepressant.

Psychiatric medications
Psychiatric medications
are psychoactive drugs prescribed for the management of mental and emotional disorders, or to aid in overcoming challenging behavior.[20] There are six major classes of psychiatric medications:

Antidepressants
Antidepressants
treat disorders such as clinical depression, dysthymia, anxiety, eating disorders and borderline personality disorder.[21] Stimulants, used to treat disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, and for weight reduction. Antipsychotics, used to treat psychotic symptoms, such as those associated with schizophrenia or severe mania, or as adjuncts to relieve clinical depression. Mood stabilizers, used to treat bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. Anxiolytics, used to treat anxiety disorders. Depressants, used as hypnotics, sedatives, and anesthetics, depending upon dosage.

In addition, several psychoactive substances are currently employed to treat various addictions. These include acamprosate or naltrexone in the treatment of alcoholism, or methadone or buprenorphine maintenance therapy in the case of opioid addiction.[22] Exposure to psychoactive drugs can cause changes to the brain that counteract or augment some of their effects; these changes may be beneficial or harmful. However, there is a significant amount of evidence that relapse rate of mental disorders negatively corresponds with length of properly followed treatment regimens (that is, relapse rate substantially declines over time), and to a much greater degree than placebo.[23] Recreation[edit] Main article: Recreational drug use Many psychoactive substances are used for their mood and perception altering effects, including those with accepted uses in medicine and psychiatry. Examples of psychoactive substances include caffeine, alcohol, cocaine, LSD, and cannabis.[24] Classes of drugs frequently used recreationally include:

Stimulants, which activate the central nervous system. These are used recreationally for their euphoric effects. Hallucinogens
Hallucinogens
(psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants), which induce perceptual and cognitive alterations. Hypnotics, which depress the central nervous system. Opioid
Opioid
analgesics, which also depress the central nervous system. These are used recreationally because of their euphoric effects. Inhalants, in the forms of gas aerosols, or solvents, which are inhaled as a vapor because of their stupefying effects. Many inhalants also fall into the above categories (such as nitrous oxide which is also an analgesic).

In some modern and ancient cultures, drug usage is seen as a status symbol. Recreational drugs are seen as status symbols in settings such as at nightclubs and parties.[25] For example, in ancient Egypt, gods were commonly pictured holding hallucinogenic plants.[26] Because there is controversy about regulation of recreational drugs, there is an ongoing debate about drug prohibition. Critics of prohibition believe that regulation of recreational drug use is a violation of personal autonomy and freedom.[27] In the United States, critics have noted that prohibition or regulation of recreational and spiritual drug use might be unconstitutional, and causing more harm than is prevented.[28] Ritual and spiritual[edit]

Timothy Leary
Timothy Leary
was a leading proponent of spiritual hallucinogen use.

Main article: Entheogens Certain psychoactives, particularly hallucinogens, have been used for religious purposes since prehistoric times. Native Americans have used peyote cacti containing mescaline for religious ceremonies for as long as 5700 years.[29] The muscimol-containing Amanita muscaria
Amanita muscaria
mushroom was used for ritual purposes throughout prehistoric Europe.[30] The use of entheogens for religious purposes resurfaced in the West during the counterculture movements of the 1960s and 70s. Under the leadership of Timothy Leary, new spiritual and intention-based movements began to use LSD
LSD
and other hallucinogens as tools to access deeper inner exploration. In the United States, the use of peyote for ritual purposes is protected only for members of the Native American Church, which is allowed to cultivate and distribute peyote. However, the genuine religious use of peyote, regardless of one's personal ancestry, is protected in Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Oregon.[31] Military[edit] Main articles: Psychochemical warfare and List of drugs used by militaries Psychoactive drugs have been used in military applications as non-lethal weapons. In World War II, between 1939 and 1945, 60 million amphetamine pills were made for use by soldiers.[citation needed] Both military and civilian American intelligence officials are known to have used psychoactive drugs while interrogating captives apprehended in its War on Terror. In July 2012, Jason Leopold
Jason Leopold
and Jeffrey Kaye, psychologists and human rights workers, had a Freedom of Information Act request fulfilled that confirmed that the use of psychoactive drugs during interrogation was a long-standing practice.[32][33] Captives and former captives had been reporting medical staff collaborating with interrogators to drug captives with powerful psychoactive drugs prior to interrogation since the very first captives' release.[34][35] In May 2003, recently released Pakistani captive Sha Mohammed Alikhel described the routine use of psychoactive drugs. He said that Jihan Wali, a captive kept in a nearby cell, was rendered catatonic through the use of these drugs. The military justice system has also been known to use psychoactive drugs to obtain a conviction. (U.S. vs. Juillerat)[36] Route of administration[edit] Psychoactive drugs are administered via oral ingestion as a tablet, capsule, powder, liquid, and beverage; via injection by subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous route; via rectum by suppository and enema; and via inhalation by smoking, vaporization and insufflation ("snorting"). The efficiency of each method of administration varies from drug to drug.[37] The psychiatric drugs fluoxetine, quetiapine, and lorazepam are ingested orally in tablet or capsule form. Alcohol
Alcohol
and caffeine are ingested in beverage form; nicotine and cannabis are smoked or vaped; peyote and psilocybin mushrooms are ingested in botanical form or dried; and crystalline drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamines are usually insufflated (inhaled or "snorted"). Determinants of effects[edit] The theory of dosage, set, and setting is a useful model in dealing with the effects of psychoactive substances, especially in a controlled therapeutic setting as well as in recreational use. Dr. Timothy Leary, based on his own experiences and systematic observations on psychedelics, developed this theory along with his colleagues Ralph Metzner, and Richard Alpert
Richard Alpert
(Ram Dass) in the 1960s.[38]

Dosage

The first factor, dosage, has been a truism since ancient times, or at least since Paracelsus
Paracelsus
who said, "Dose makes the poison." Some compounds are beneficial or pleasurable when consumed in small amounts, but harmful, deadly, or evoke discomfort in higher doses.

Set

The set is the internal attitudes and constitution of the person, including their expectations, wishes, fears, and sensitivity to the drug. This factor is especially important for the hallucinogens, which have the ability to make conscious experiences out of the unconscious. In traditional cultures, set is shaped primarily by the worldview, health and genetic characteristics that all the members of the culture share.

Setting

The third aspect is setting, which pertains to the surroundings, the place, and the time in which the experiences transpire. This theory clearly states that the effects are equally the result of chemical, pharmacological, psychological, and physical influences. The model that Timothy Leary
Timothy Leary
proposed applied to the psychedelics, although it also applies to other psychoactives.[39] Effects[edit]

Illustration of the major elements of neurotransmission. Depending on its method of action, a psychoactive substance may block the receptors on the post-synaptic neuron (dendrite), or block reuptake or affect neurotransmitter synthesis in the pre-synaptic neuron (axon).

Main article: Neuropsychopharmacology Psychoactive drugs operate by temporarily affecting a person's neurochemistry, which in turn causes changes in a person's mood, cognition, perception and behavior. There are many ways in which psychoactive drugs can affect the brain. Each drug has a specific action on one or more neurotransmitter or neuroreceptor in the brain. Drugs that increase activity in particular neurotransmitter systems are called agonists. They act by increasing the synthesis of one or more neurotransmitters, by reducing its reuptake from the synapses, or by mimicking the action by binding directly to the postsynaptic receptor. Drugs that reduce neurotransmitter activity are called antagonists, and operate by interfering with synthesis or blocking postsynaptic receptors so that neurotransmitters cannot bind to them.[40] Exposure to a psychoactive substance can cause changes in the structure and functioning of neurons, as the nervous system tries to re-establish the homeostasis disrupted by the presence of the drug (see also, neuroplasticity). Exposure to antagonists for a particular neurotransmitter can increase the number of receptors for that neurotransmitter or the receptors themselves may become more responsive to neurotransmitters; this is called sensitization. Conversely, overstimulation of receptors for a particular neurotransmitter may cause a decrease in both number and sensitivity of these receptors, a process called desensitization or tolerance. Sensitization and desensitization are more likely to occur with long-term exposure, although they may occur after only a single exposure. These processes are thought to play a role in drug dependence and addiction.[41] Physical dependence on antidepressants or anxiolytics may result in worse depression or anxiety, respectively, as withdrawal symptoms. Unfortunately, because clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder) is often referred to simply as depression, antidepressants are often requested by and prescribed for patients who are depressed, but not clinically depressed. Affected neurotransmitter systems[edit] The following is a brief table of notable drugs and their primary neurotransmitter, receptor or method of action. It should be noted that many drugs act on more than one transmitter or receptor in the brain.[42]

Neurotransmitter/receptor Classification Examples

Acetylcholine

Cholinergics (acetylcholine receptor agonists) arecoline, nicotine, piracetam

Muscarinic antagonists (acetylcholine receptor antagonists) scopolamine, benzatropine, dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, atropine, quetiapine, olanzapine, most tricyclics

Nicotinic antagonists (acetylcholine receptor antagonists) memantine, bupropion

Adenosine

Adenosine
Adenosine
receptor antagonists[43] caffeine, theobromine, theophylline

Dopamine

Dopamine
Dopamine
reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) cocaine, bupropion, methylphenidate, St John's wort, and certain TAAR1 agonists like amphetamine, phenethylamine, and methamphetamine

Dopamine
Dopamine
releasers Cavendish bananas,[44] TAAR1 agonists like amphetamine, phenethylamine, and methamphetamine

Dopamine
Dopamine
receptor agonists pramipexole, Ropinirole, L-DOPA
L-DOPA
(prodrug), memantine (also see NMDA, below)

Dopamine
Dopamine
receptor antagonists haloperidol, droperidol, many antipsychotics (e.g., risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine)

Dopamine
Dopamine
receptor partial agonists LSD, aripiprazole

gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)

GABA
GABA
reuptake inhibitors tiagabine, St John's wort, vigabatrin, deramciclane

GABA
GABA
receptor agonists ethanol, niacin,[45] barbiturates, diazepam, clonazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, alprazolam and other benzodiazepines, zolpidem, eszopiclone, zaleplon and other nonbenzodiazepines, muscimol

GABA
GABA
receptor antagonists thujone, bicuculline

Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
reuptake inhibitors St John's wort,[46] most non- SSRI
SSRI
antidepressants such as amoxapine, atomoxetine, bupropion, venlafaxine, quetiapine, the tricyclics, methylphenidate, SNRIs such as duloxetine, venlafaxine, cocaine, tramadol, and certain TAAR1 agonists like amphetamine, phenethylamine, methamphetamine.

Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
releasers ephedrine, PPA, pseudoephedrine, amphetamine, phenethylamine, methamphetamine

Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
receptor agonists clonidine, guanfacine, phenylephrine

Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
receptor antagonists carvedilol, metoprolol, mianserin, prazosin, propranolol, trazodone, yohimbine, olanzapine

Serotonin

Serotonin
Serotonin
receptor agonists methylphenidate, LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, DMT

Serotonin
Serotonin
reuptake inhibitors most antidepressants including St John's wort, tricyclics such as imipramine, SSRIs such as fluoxetine, sertraline and citalopram, and SNRIs such as duloxetine and venlafaxine, cocaine, tramadol, and certain TAAR1 agonists like amphetamine, tryptamine, and methamphetamine

Serotonin
Serotonin
releasers fenfluramine, MDMA
MDMA
(ecstasy), tryptamine

Serotonin
Serotonin
receptor antagonists ritanserin, mirtazapine, mianserin, trazodone, cyproheptadine, memantine, atypical antipsychotics (e.g., risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine)

AMPA receptor

AMPA receptor
AMPA receptor
positive allosteric modulators aniracetam, CX717, piracetam

AMPA receptor
AMPA receptor
antagonists kynurenic acid, NBQX, topiramate

Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
receptor

Cannabinoid receptor
Cannabinoid receptor
agonists JWH-018

Cannabinoid receptor
Cannabinoid receptor
partial agonists Anandamide, THC, cannabidiol, cannabinol

Cannabinoid receptor
Cannabinoid receptor
inverse agonists Rimonabant

Anandamide
Anandamide
reuptake inhibitors[47] LY 2183240, VDM 11, AM 404

FAAH enzyme inhibitors MAFP, URB597, N-Arachidonylglycine

Melanocortin receptor

Melanocortin receptor agonists bremelanotide

NMDA
NMDA
receptor

NMDA
NMDA
receptor antagonists ethanol, ketamine, PCP, DXM, Nitrous Oxide, glutamate, memantine (used for moderate to severe Alzheimers)

GHB receptor

GHB receptor agonists GHB, Amisulpride, T-HCA

Sigma receptor

Sigma-1 receptor agonists cocaine, DMT, DXM, fluvoxamine, ibogaine, opipramol, PCP, methamphetamine

Sigma-2 receptor agonists methamphetamine

Opioid
Opioid
receptor

μ-opioid receptor agonists morphine, heroin, oxycodone, codeine

μ-opioid receptor partial agonists buprenorphine

μ-opioid receptor inverse agonists naloxone

μ-opioid receptor antagonists naltrexone

κ-opioid receptor agonists salvinorin A, butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, ibogaine[48]

κ-opioid receptor antagonists buprenorphine

Histamine receptor

H1 histamine receptor antagonists diphenhydramine, doxylamine, mirtazapine, mianserin, quetiapine, olanzapine, meclozine, dimenhydrinate, most tricyclics

Monoamine oxidase

Monoamine oxidase
Monoamine oxidase
inhibitors (MAOIs) phenelzine, iproniazid, tranylcypromine, selegiline, rasagiline, moclobemide, isocarboxazid, Linezolid, benmoxin, St John's wort, coffee,[49] garlic[50]

Melatonin
Melatonin
receptor

Melatonin receptor agonists ramelteon

Imidazoline receptor

Imidazoline receptor agonists apraclonidine, clonidine, moxonidine, rilmenidine

Orexin receptor

Orexin receptor agonists modafinil

Orexin receptor antagonists SB-334,867, SB-408,124, TCS-OX2-29, suvorexant

Addiction
Addiction
and dependence[edit]

Addiction
Addiction
and dependence glossary[51][52][53][54]

addiction – a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences addictive behavior – a behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing addictive drug – a drug that is both rewarding and reinforcing dependence – an adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated exposure to a stimulus (e.g., drug intake) drug sensitization or reverse tolerance – the escalating effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose drug withdrawal – symptoms that occur upon cessation of repeated drug use physical dependence – dependence that involves persistent physical–somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue and delirium tremens) psychological dependence – dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia) reinforcing stimuli – stimuli that increase the probability of repeating behaviors paired with them rewarding stimuli – stimuli that the brain interprets as intrinsically positive and desirable or as something to approach sensitization – an amplified response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to it substance use disorder – a condition in which the use of substances leads to clinically and functionally significant impairment or distress tolerance – the diminishing effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose

v t e

Main articles: addiction and ΔFosB

Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment ( David Nutt
David Nutt
et al. 2007).[55]

Psychoactive drugs are often associated with addiction or drug dependence. Dependence can be divided into two types: psychological dependence, by which a user experiences negative psychological or emotional withdrawal symptoms (e.g., depression) and physical dependence, by which a user must use a drug to avoid physically uncomfortable or even medically harmful physical withdrawal symptoms.[56] Drugs that are both rewarding and reinforcing are addictive; these properties of a drug are mediated through activation of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, particularly the nucleus accumbens. Not all addictive drugs are associated with physical dependence, e.g., amphetamine, and not all drugs that produce physical dependence are addictive drugs, e.g., caffeine. Many professionals, self-help groups, and businesses specialize in drug rehabilitation, with varying degrees of success, and many parents attempt to influence the actions and choices of their children regarding psychoactives.[57] Common forms of rehabilitation include psychotherapy, support groups and pharmacotherapy, which uses psychoactive substances to reduce cravings and physiological withdrawal symptoms while a user is going through detox. Methadone, itself an opioid and a psychoactive substance, is a common treatment for heroin addiction, as is another opioid, buprenorphine. Recent research on addiction has shown some promise in using psychedelics such as ibogaine to treat and even cure drug addictions, although this has yet to become a widely accepted practice.[58][59] Legality[edit]

Historical image of legal heroin bottle

Main article: Prohibition
Prohibition
of drugs The legality of psychoactive drugs has been controversial through most of recent history; the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
and Prohibition
Prohibition
are two historical examples of legal controversy surrounding psychoactive drugs. However, in recent years, the most influential document regarding the legality of psychoactive drugs is the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, an international treaty signed in 1961 as an Act of the United Nations. Signed by 73 nations including the United States, the USSR, India, and the United Kingdom, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs established Schedules for the legality of each drug and laid out an international agreement to fight addiction to recreational drugs by combatting the sale, trafficking, and use of scheduled drugs.[60] All countries that signed the treaty passed laws to implement these rules within their borders. However, some countries that signed the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, such as the Netherlands, are more lenient with their enforcement of these laws.[61] In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) has authority over all drugs, including psychoactive drugs. The FDA regulates which psychoactive drugs are over the counter and which are only available with a prescription.[62] However, certain psychoactive drugs, like alcohol, tobacco, and drugs listed in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs are subject to criminal laws. The Controlled Substances Act
Controlled Substances Act
of 1970 regulates the recreational drugs outlined in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.[63] Alcohol
Alcohol
is regulated by state governments, but the federal National Minimum Drinking Age Act penalizes states for not following a national drinking age.[64] Tobacco
Tobacco
is also regulated by all fifty state governments.[65] Most people accept such restrictions and prohibitions of certain drugs, especially the "hard" drugs, which are illegal in most countries.[66][67][68] In the medical context, psychoactive drugs as a treatment for illness is widespread and generally accepted. Little controversy exists concerning over the counter psychoactive medications in antiemetics and antitussives. Psychoactive drugs are commonly prescribed to patients with psychiatric disorders. However, certain critics believe that certain prescription psychoactives, such as antidepressants and stimulants, are overprescribed and threaten patients' judgement and autonomy.[69][70] See also[edit]

Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Pharmacology
portal

► Psychoactive drugs

Contact high Counterculture of the 1960s Demand reduction Designer drug Drug Drug
Drug
addiction Drug
Drug
rehabilitation Hard and soft drugs Neuropsychopharmacology Poly drug use Project MKULTRA Psychedelic plants Psychoactive fish Recreational drug use Responsible drug use Self-medication

References[edit]

Notes

^ "CHAPTER 1 Alcohol
Alcohol
and Other Drugs". ISBN 0-7245-3361-3 https://web.archive.org/web/20150328060739/http://www.nt.gov.au/health/healthdev/health_promotion/bushbook/volume2/chap1/sect1.htm. Archived from the original on 2015-03-28.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "Will Your Retirement Home Have A Liquor License?". Forbes. 26 December 2013.  ^ Nelson, Max (2005). The Barbarian's Beverage: A History of Beer
Beer
in Ancient Europe. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 0-415-31121-7. Retrieved 21 September 2010.  ^ Merlin, M.D (2003). "Archaeological Evidence for the Tradition of Psychoactive Plant Use in the Old World". Economic Botany. 57 (3): 295–323. doi:10.1663/0013-0001(2003)057[0295:AEFTTO]2.0.CO;2.  ^ Early Holocene coca chewing in northern Peru Volume: 84 Number: 326 Page: 939–953 ^ " Coca
Coca
leaves first chewed 8,000 years ago, says research". BBC News. December 2, 2010.  ^ Siegel, Ronald K (2005). Intoxication: The Universal Drive for Mind-Altering Substances. Park Street Press, Rochester, Vermont. ISBN 1-59477-069-7.  ^ Weil, Andrew (2004). The Natural Mind: A Revolutionary Approach to the Drug
Drug
Problem (Revised edition). Houghton Mifflin. p. 15. ISBN 0-618-46513-8.  ^ The Hashish
Hashish
Eater (1857) pg. 181 ^ Samorini, Giorgio (2002). Animals And Psychedelics: The Natural World & The Instinct To Alter Consciousness. Park Street Press. ISBN 0-89281-986-3.  ^ Albert, David Bruce, Jr. (1993). "Event Horizons of the Psyche". Retrieved February 2, 2006. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20080913235116/http://www.leap.cc/cms/index.php?name=Content&pid=5. Archived from the original on 2008-09-13. Retrieved 2013-05-30.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "5 Years After: Portugal's Drug
Drug
Decriminalization Policy Shows Positive Results". Scientific American. Retrieved 2013-05-30.  ^ Lovett, Richard (24 September 2005). "Coffee: The demon drink?" (fee required). New Scientist (2518). Retrieved 2007-11-19.  ^ Bersani FS, Corazza O, Simonato P, Mylokosta A, Levari E, Lovaste R, Schifano F; Corazza; Simonato; Mylokosta; Levari; Lovaste; Schifano (2013). "Drops of madness? Recreational misuse of tropicamide collyrium; early warning alerts from Russia and Italy". General Hospital Psychiatry. 35 (5): 571–3. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.04.013. PMID 23706777. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Medline Plus. Anesthesia. Accessed on July 16, 2007. ^ Li X, Pearce RA; Pearce (2000). "Effects of halothane on GABA(A) receptor kinetics: evidence for slowed agonist unbinding". The Journal of Neuroscience. 20 (3): 899–907. PMID 10648694.  ^ Harrison NL, Simmonds MA; Simmonds (1985). "Quantitative studies on some antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate in slices of rat cerebral cortex". British Journal of Pharmacology. 84 (2): 381–91. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1985.tb12922.x. PMC 1987274 . PMID 2858237.  ^ Quiding H, Lundqvist G, Boréus LO, Bondesson U, Ohrvik J; Lundqvist; Boréus; Bondesson; Ohrvik (1993). " Analgesic
Analgesic
effect and plasma concentrations of codeine and morphine after two dose levels of codeine following oral surgery". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 44 (4): 319–23. doi:10.1007/BF00316466. PMID 8513842. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene (2009). "Psychotropic medication use for challenging behaviors in persons with intellectual disabilities: An overview". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 30 (3): 572–86. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2008.08.007. PMID 18845418.  ^ Schatzberg AF (2000). "New indications for antidepressants". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 61 (11): 9–17. PMID 10926050.  ^ Swift RM (2016). " Pharmacotherapy of Substance Use, Craving, and Acute Abstinence Syndromes". In Sher KJ. The Oxford Handbook of Substance Use and Substance Use Disorders. Oxford University Press. pp. 601–603, 606. ISBN 9780199381708.  ^ Hirschfeld, Robert M. A. (2001). "Clinical importance of long-term antidepressant treatment". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 179 (42): S4–8. doi:10.1192/bjp.179.42.s4. PMID 11532820.  ^ Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence by the World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 July 2007. ^ Anderson TL (1998). " Drug
Drug
identity change processes, race, and gender. III. Macrolevel opportunity concepts". Substance Use & Misuse. 33 (14): 2721–35. doi:10.3109/10826089809059347. PMID 9869440.  ^ Bertol E, Fineschi V, Karch SB, Mari F, Riezzo I; Fineschi; Karch; Mari; Riezzo (2004). "Nymphaea cults in ancient Egypt and the New World: a lesson in empirical pharmacology". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 97 (2): 84–5. doi:10.1258/jrsm.97.2.84. PMC 1079300 . PMID 14749409. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Hayry M (2004). "Prescribing cannabis: freedom, autonomy, and values". Journal of Medical Ethics. 30 (4): 333–6. doi:10.1136/jme.2002.001347. PMC 1733898 . PMID 15289511.  ^ Barnett, Randy E. "The Presumption of Liberty
Liberty
and the Public Interest: Medical Marijuana
Marijuana
and Fundamental Rights" Archived 2007-07-11 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 4 July 2007. ^ El-Seedi HR, De Smet PA, Beck O, Possnert G, Bruhn JG; De Smet; Beck; Possnert; Bruhn (2005). "Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 101 (1–3): 238–42. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.022. PMID 15990261. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Vetulani J (2001). " Drug
Drug
addiction. Part I. Psychoactive substances in the past and presence". Polish Journal of Pharmacology. 53 (3): 201–14. PMID 11785921.  ^ Bullis RK (1990). "Swallowing the scroll: legal implications of the recent Supreme Court peyote cases". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 22 (3): 325–32. doi:10.1080/02791072.1990.10472556. PMID 2286866.  ^ Jason Leopold; Jeffrey Kaye (2011-07-11). "EXCLUSIVE: DoD Report Reveals Some Detainees Interrogated While Drugged, Others "Chemically Restrained"". Truthout. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Truthout
Truthout
obtained a copy of the report – "Investigation of Allegations of the Use of Mind-Altering Drugs to Facilitate Interrogations of Detainees" – prepared by the DoD's deputy inspector general for intelligence in September 2009, under a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request we filed nearly two years ago.  ^ Robert Beckhusen (2012-07-11). "U.S. Injected Gitmo Detainees With 'Mind Altering' Drugs". Wired magazine. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2012-07-14. That's according to a recently declassified report (.pdf) from the Pentagon's inspector general, obtained by Truthout's Jeffrey Kaye and Jason Leopold
Jason Leopold
after a Freedom of Information Act Request. In it, the inspector general concludes that "certain detainees, diagnosed as having serious mental health conditions being treated with psychoactive medications on a continuing basis, were interrogated." The report does not conclude, though, that anti-psychotic drugs were used specifically for interrogation purposes.  ^ Haroon Rashid (2003-05-23). "Pakistani relives Guantanamo ordeal". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2009-01-09. Mr Shah alleged that the Americans had given him injections and tablets prior to interrogations. "They used to tell me I was mad," the 23-year-old told the BBC in his native village in Dir district near the Afghan border. I was given injections at least four or five times as well as different tablets. I don't know what they were meant for."  ^ Meek, James (2003-12-03). "People the law forgot". London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2012-07-14. The biggest damage is to my brain. My physical and mental state isn't right. I'm a changed person. I don't laugh or enjoy myself much.  ^ ACM 34205, afcca.law.af.mil ^ United States
United States
Food and Drug
Drug
Administration. CDER Data Standards Manual. Retrieved on May 15, 2007. ^ The Psychedelic Experience. New York: University Books. 1964 ^ Ratsch, Christian (May 5, 2005). The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants. Park Street Press. p. 944. ISBN 0-89281-978-2.  ^ Seligma, Martin E.P. (1984). "4". Abnormal Psychology. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-94459-X.  ^ "University of Texas, Addiction
Addiction
Science Research and Education Center". Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2007.  ^ Lüscher C, Ungless MA; Ungless (2006). "The mechanistic classification of addictive drugs". PLoS Medicine. 3 (11): e437. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437. PMC 1635740 . PMID 17105338.  ^ Ford, Marsha. Clinical Toxicology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2001. Chapter 36 – Caffeine
Caffeine
and Related Nonprescription Sympathomimetics. ISBN 0-7216-5485-1[page needed] ^ Kanazawa, Kazuki; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki (2000). "High Content of Dopamine, a Strong Antioxidant, in Cavendish Banana". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 48 (3): 844–8. doi:10.1021/jf9909860. PMID 10725161.  ^ http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v10n09.shtml[full citation needed] ^ Di Carlo, Giulia; Borrelli, Francesca; Ernst, Edzard; Izzo, Angelo A. (2001). "St John's wort: Prozac from the plant kingdom". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 22 (6): 292–7. doi:10.1016/S0165-6147(00)01716-8. PMID 11395157.  ^ "Inhibitors of the Enzymic Hydrolysis of Endocannabinoids". Tocris.com. Retrieved 2013-11-23.  ^ Glick, Stanley D; Maisonneuve, Isabelle M (1998). "Mechanisms of Antiaddictive Actions of Ibogainea". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 844: 214–26. Bibcode:1998NYASA.844..214G. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb08237.x. PMID 9668680.  ^ Herraiz, Tomas; Chaparro, Carolina (2006). "Human monoamine oxidase enzyme inhibition by coffee and β-carbolines norharman and harman isolated from coffee". Life Sciences. 78 (8): 795–802. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.05.074. PMID 16139309.  ^ Dhingra, Dinesh; Kumar, Vaibhav (2008). "Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of garlic extract in mice". Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 40 (4): 175–9. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.43165. PMC 2792615 . PMID 20040952.  ^ Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 364–375. ISBN 9780071481274.  ^ Nestler EJ (December 2013). "Cellular basis of memory for addiction". Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 15 (4): 431–443. PMC 3898681 . PMID 24459410. Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB
ΔFosB
induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an animal's sensitivity to drug as well as natural rewards and promotes drug self-administration, presumably through a process of positive reinforcement ... Another ΔFosB
ΔFosB
target is cFos: as ΔFosB
ΔFosB
accumulates with repeated drug exposure it represses c-Fos and contributes to the molecular switch whereby ΔFosB
ΔFosB
is selectively induced in the chronic drug-treated state.41. ... Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, despite a range of genetic risks for addiction across the population, exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic loading into an addict.  ^ "Glossary of Terms". Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Department of Neuroscience. Retrieved 9 February 2015.  ^ Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain
Brain
Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J. Med. 374 (4): 363–371. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1511480. PMID 26816013. Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) referring to recurrent use of alcohol or other drugs that causes clinically and functionally significant impairment, such as health problems, disability, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. Depending on the level of severity, this disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Addiction: A term used to indicate the most severe, chronic stage of substance-use disorder, in which there is a substantial loss of self-control, as indicated by compulsive drug taking despite the desire to stop taking the drug. In the DSM-5, the term addiction is synonymous with the classification of severe substance-use disorder.  ^ Nutt, D.; King, L. A.; Saulsbury, W.; Blakemore, C. (2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse". The Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–1053. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4. PMID 17382831.  ^ Johnson, B (2003). "Psychological Addiction, Physical Addiction, Addictive Character, and Addictive Personality Disorder: A Nosology of Addictive Disorders". Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis. 11 (1): 135–60. OCLC 208052223.  ^ Hops, Hyman; Tildesley, Elizabeth; Lichtenstein, Edward; Ary, Dennis; Sherman, Linda (2009). "Parent-Adolescent Problem-Solving Interactions and Drug
Drug
Use". The American Journal of Drug
Drug
and Alcohol Abuse. 16 (3–4): 239. doi:10.3109/00952999009001586. PMID 2288323.  ^ " Psychedelics
Psychedelics
Could Treat Addiction
Addiction
Says Vancouver Official". Retrieved March 26, 2007.  ^ " Ibogaine
Ibogaine
research to treat alcohol and drug addiction". Retrieved March 26, 2007.  ^ United Nations
United Nations
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. Retrieved on June 20, 2007. ^ MacCoun, R; Reuter, P (1997). "Interpreting Dutch Cannabis Policy: Reasoning by Analogy in the Legalization Debate". Science. 278 (5335): 47–52. doi:10.1126/science.278.5335.47. PMID 9311925.  ^ History of the Food and Drug
Drug
Administration. Retrieved at FDA's website on June 23, 2007. ^ United States
United States
Controlled Substances Act
Controlled Substances Act
of 1970. Retrieved from the DEA's website on June 20, 2007. ^ Title 23 of the United States
United States
Code, Highways. Retrieved on June 20, 2007. ^ Taxadmin.org. State Excise Tax Rates on Cigarettes. Retrieved on June 20, 2007. ^ "What's your poison?". Caffeine. Retrieved July 12, 2006.  ^ Griffiths, RR (1995). Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress (4th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 2002. ISBN 0-7817-0166-X.  ^ Edwards, Griffith (2005). Matters of Substance: Drugs—and Why Everyone's a User. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 352. ISBN 0-312-33883-X.  ^ Dworkin, Ronald. Artificial Happiness. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2006. pp.2–6. ISBN 0-7867-1933-8 ^ Manninen, B A (2006). "Medicating the mind: A Kantian analysis of overprescribing psychoactive drugs". Journal of Medical Ethics. 32 (2): 100–5. doi:10.1136/jme.2005.013540. PMC 2563334 . PMID 16446415. 

External links[edit]

Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence by the WHO

v t e

Pharmacology: major drug groups

Gastrointestinal tract/ metabolism (A)

stomach acid

Antacids H2 antagonists Proton pump inhibitors

Antiemetics Laxatives Antidiarrhoeals/Antipropulsives Anti-obesity drugs Anti-diabetics Vitamins Dietary minerals

Blood
Blood
and blood forming organs (B)

Antithrombotics

Antiplatelets Anticoagulants Thrombolytics/fibrinolytics

Antihemorrhagics

Platelets Coagulants Antifibrinolytics

Cardiovascular system (C)

cardiac therapy/antianginals

Cardiac glycosides Antiarrhythmics Cardiac stimulants

Antihypertensives Diuretics Vasodilators Beta blockers Calcium channel blockers renin–angiotensin system

ACE inhibitors Angiotensin II receptor antagonists Renin inhibitors

Antihyperlipidemics

Statins Fibrates Bile acid sequestrants

Skin (D)

Emollients Cicatrizants Antipruritics Antipsoriatics Medicated dressings

Genitourinary system (G)

Hormonal contraception Fertility agents SERMs Sex hormones

Endocrine system (H)

Hypothalamic–pituitary hormones Corticosteroids

Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids

Sex hormones Thyroid hormones/Antithyroid agents

Infections and infestations (J, P, QI)

Antimicrobials: Antibacterials (Antimycobacterials) Antifungals Antivirals Antiparasitics

Antiprotozoals Anthelmintics Ectoparasiticides

IVIG Vaccines

Malignant disease (L01–L02)

Anticancer agents

Antimetabolites Alkylating Spindle poisons Antineoplastic Topoisomerase inhibitors

Immune disease (L03–L04)

Immunomodulators

Immunostimulants Immunosuppressants

Muscles, bones, and joints (M)

Anabolic steroids Anti-inflammatories

NSAIDs

Antirheumatics Corticosteroids Muscle
Muscle
relaxants Bisphosphonates

Brain
Brain
and nervous system (N)

Analgesics Anesthetics

General Local

Anorectics Anti-ADHD agents Antiaddictives Anticonvulsants Antidementia agents Antidepressants Antimigraine
Antimigraine
agents Antiparkinson
Antiparkinson
agents Antipsychotics Anxiolytics Depressants Entactogens Entheogens Euphoriants Hallucinogens

Psychedelics Dissociatives Deliriants

Hypnotics/Sedatives Mood Stabilizers Neuroprotectives Nootropics Neurotoxins Orexigenics Serenics Stimulants Wakefulness-promoting agents

Respiratory system (R)

Decongestants Bronchodilators Cough medicines H1 antagonists

Sensory organs (S)

Ophthalmologicals Otologicals

Other ATC (V)

Antidotes Contrast media Radiopharmaceuticals Dressings Senotherapeutics

v t e

Recreational drug use

Major recreational drugs

Depressants

Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Carbamates Ethanol
Ethanol
(alcohol)

Alcoholic drinks Beer Wine

Gabapentinoids GHB Inhalants

Medical

Nitrous oxide

Hazardous solvents

contact adhesives Gasoline nail polish remover Paint thinner

Other

Freon

Kava Nonbenzodiazepines Quinazolinones

Opioids

Buprenorphine

Suboxone Subutex

Codeine Desomorphine

Krokodil

Dextropropoxyphene

Darvocet Darvon

Fentanyl Diamorphine

Heroin

Hydrocodone Hydromorphone

Dilaudid

Methadone Mitragyna speciosa

Kratom

Morphine

Opium

Oxycodone

/paracetamol

Tramadol

Stimulants

Amphetamine Arecoline

Areca

Betel Caffeine

Coffee Energy drinks Tea

Cathinone

Khat

Cocaine

Coca Crack

Ephedrine

Ephedra

MDPV Mephedrone Methamphetamine Methylone Methylphenidate Modafinil Nicotine

Tobacco

Theobromine

Cocoa Chocolate

Entactogens

2C series 6-APB

Benzofury

AMT MDA MDMA

Ecstasy

Hallucinogens

Psychedelics

Bufotenin

Psychoactive toads Vilca Yopo

DMT

Ayahuasca

LSA LSD-25 Mescaline

Peruvian torch Peyote San Pedro

Psilocybin
Psilocybin
/ Psilocin

Psilocybin
Psilocybin
mushrooms

Dissociatives

DXM Glaucine Inhalants

Nitrous oxide alkyl nitrites poppers amyl nitrite

Ketamine MXE Muscimol

Amanita muscaria

PCP Salvinorin A

Salvia divinorum

Deliriants

Atropine
Atropine
and Scopolamine

Atropa belladonna Datura Hyoscyamus niger Mandragora officinarum

Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine

Cannabinoids

JWH-018 THC

Cannabis Hashish Hash oil Marijuana

Oneirogens

Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis

Club drugs

Cocaine Quaaludes MDMA
MDMA
(Ecstasy) Nitrous oxide Poppers

Drug
Drug
culture

Cannabis culture

420 Cannabis cultivation Cannabis smoking Head shop Legal history of cannabis in the United States Legality of cannabis Marijuana
Marijuana
Policy Project Medical cannabis NORML Cannabis and religion Stoner film

Coffee
Coffee
culture

Coffee
Coffee
break Coffeehouse Latte art Tea
Tea
house

Drinking culture

Bartending Beer
Beer
culture Beer
Beer
festival Binge drinking Diethyl ether Drinking games Drinking song Happy hour Hip flask Nightclub Pub Pub
Pub
crawl Sommelier Sports bar Tailgate party Wine
Wine
bar Wine
Wine
tasting

Psychedelia

Psychonautics Art Drug Era Experience Literature Music Microdosing Therapy

Smoking
Smoking
culture

Cigarette card Fashion cigarettes Cloud-chasing Loosie Smokeasy Smoking
Smoking
fetishism Tobacco
Tobacco
smoking

Other

Club drug Counterculture of the 1960s Dance party Drug
Drug
paraphernalia Drug
Drug
tourism Entheogen Hippie Nootropic Party and play Poly drug use Rave Religion and drugs Self-medication Sex and drugs Whoonga

Drug production and trade

Drug production

Coca
Coca
production in Colombia Drug
Drug
precursors Opium
Opium
production in Afghanistan Rolling meth lab

Drug
Drug
trade

Illegal drug trade

Colombia

Darknet market Drug
Drug
distribution

Beer
Beer
shop Cannabis shop Liquor store Liquor license

Issues with drug use

Abuse Date rape drug Impaired driving Drug
Drug
harmfulness

Effects of cannabis

Addiction Dependence

Prevention Opioid
Opioid
replacement therapy Rehabilitation Responsible use

Drug-related crime Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Long-term effects of cannabis Neurotoxicity Overdose Passive smoking

of tobacco or other substances

Legality of drug use

International

1961 Narcotic Drugs 1971 Psychotropic Substances 1988 Drug
Drug
Trafficking Council of the European Union decisions on designer drugs

State level

Drug
Drug
policy

Decriminalization Prohibition Supply reduction

Policy reform

Demand reduction Drug
Drug
Policy Alliance Harm reduction Law Enforcement Action Partnership Liberalization

Latin America

Students for Sensible Drug
Drug
Policy Transform Drug
Drug
Policy Foundation

Drug
Drug
policy by country

Australia Canada Germany India Netherlands Portugal Slovakia Soviet Union Sweden Switzerland United States

Just Say No Office of National Drug
Drug
Control Policy School district drug policies California Colorado Maryland Virginia

Other

Arguments for and against drug prohibition Capital punishment for drug trafficking Cognitive liberty Designer drug Drug
Drug
court Drug
Drug
possession Drug
Drug
test Narc Politics of drug abuse War on Drugs

Mexican Drug
Drug
War Plan Colombia Philippine Drug
Drug
War

Zero tolerance

Lists of countries by...

Alcohol
Alcohol
legality

Alcohol
Alcohol
consumption

Anabolic steroid
Anabolic steroid
legality Cannabis legality

Annual use Lifetime use

Cigarette consumption Cocaine
Cocaine
legality

Cocaine
Cocaine
use

Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
legality Opiates use Psilocybin
Psilocybin
mushrooms legality Salvia legality

v t e

Hypnotics/sedatives (N05C)

GABAA

Alcohols

2M2B Chloralodol Ethanol
Ethanol
(alcohol) Ethchlorvynol Methylpentynol Trichloroethanol

Barbiturates

Allobarbital Amobarbital Aprobarbital Barbital Butabarbital Butobarbital Cyclobarbital Ethallobarbital Heptabarb Hexobarbital Mephobarbital Methohexital Narcobarbital Pentobarbital Phenallymal Phenobarbital Propylbarbital Proxibarbal Reposal Secobarbital Talbutal Thiamylal Thiopental Thiotetrabarbital Vinbarbital Vinylbital

Benzodiazepines

Brotizolam Cinolazepam Climazolam Doxefazepam Estazolam Flunitrazepam Flurazepam Flutoprazepam Lorazepam Loprazolam Lormetazepam Midazolam Nimetazepam Nitrazepam Phenazepam Quazepam Temazepam Triazolam

Carbamates

Carisoprodol Emylcamate Ethinamate Hexapropymate Meprobamate Methocarbamol Phenprobamate Procymate Tybamate

Imidazoles

Etomidate Metomidate Propoxate

Monoureides

Acecarbromal Apronal
Apronal
(apronalide) Bromisoval Capuride Carbromal Ectylurea

Neuroactive steroids

Acebrochol Allopregnanolone Alphadolone Alphaxolone Eltanolone Hydroxydione Minaxolone Progesterone

Nonbenzodiazepines

Eszopiclone Indiplon Lirequinil Necopidem Pazinaclone Saripidem Suproclone Suriclone Zaleplon Zolpidem Zopiclone

Phenols

Propofol

Piperidinediones

Glutethimide Methyprylon Pyrithyldione Piperidione

Quinazolinones

Afloqualone Cloroqualone Diproqualone Etaqualone Mebroqualone Mecloqualone Methaqualone Methylmethaqualone Nitromethaqualone

Others

Acetophenone Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate Bromide compounds

Lithium bromide Potassium bromide Sodium bromide

Centalun Chloral betaine Chloral hydrate Chloralose Clomethiazole Dichloralphenazone Gaboxadol Kavalactones Loreclezole Paraldehyde Petrichloral Sulfonylalkanes

Sulfonmethane
Sulfonmethane
(sulfonal) Tetronal Trional

Triclofos Sesquiterpene

Isovaleramide Isovaleric acid Valerenic acid

GABAB

1,4-Butanediol 4-Fluorophenibut Aceburic acid Baclofen GABOB GHB (sodium oxybate) GBL GVL Phenibut Tolibut

H1

Antihistamines

Captodiame Cyproheptadine Diphenhydramine Doxylamine Hydroxyzine Methapyrilene Perlapine Pheniramine Promethazine Propiomazine

Antidepressants

Serotonin
Serotonin
antagonists and reuptake inhibitors

Etoperidone Nefazodone Trazodone

Tricyclic antidepressants

Amitriptyline Doxepin Trimipramine, etc.

Tetracyclic antidepressants

Mianserin Mirtazapine, etc.

Antipsychotics

Typical antipsychotics

Chlorpromazine Thioridazine, etc.

Atypical antipsychotics

Olanzapine Quetiapine Risperidone, etc.

α2-Adrenergic

Clonidine Detomidine Dexmedetomidine Lofexidine Medetomidine Romifidine Tizanidine Xylazine

5-HT2A

Antidepressants

Trazodone Tricyclic antidepressants

Amitriptyline Doxepin Trimipramine, etc.

Tetracyclic antidepressants

Mianserin Mirtazapine, etc.

Antipsychotics

Typical antipsychotics

Chlorpromazine Thioridazine, etc.

Atypical antipsychotics

Olanzapine Quetiapine Risperidone, etc.

Others

Niaprazine

Melatonin

Agomelatine Melatonin Ramelteon Tasimelteon

Orexin

Almorexant Filorexant Suvorexant

α2δ VDCC

Gabapentin Gabapentin
Gabapentin
enacarbil Mirogabalin Phenibut Pregabalin

Others

Cannabidiol

Cannabis

Chlorophenylalkyldiols

Fenpentadiol Metaglycodol Phenaglycodol

Diethylpropanediol Evoxine Fenadiazole Guaifenesin-related muscle relaxants

Chlorphenesin Mephenesin Mephenoxalone Metaxalone Methocarbamol

Opioids (e.g., morphine) Passion flower Scopolamine Trazodone UMB68 Valnoctamide

v t e

Hallucinogens

Psychedelics (5-HT2A agonists)

Benzofurans

2C-B-FLY 2CBFly-NBOMe 5-MeO-BFE 5-MeO-DiBF Bromo-DragonFLY F-2 F-22 TFMFly

Lyserg‐ amides

1P-ETH-LAD 1P-LSD 2-Butyllysergamide 3-Pentyllysergamide AL-LAD ALD-52 BU-LAD Diallyllysergamide Dimethyllysergamide Ergometrine ETH-LAD IP-LAD LAE-32 LPD-824 LSA LSD LSD-Pip LSH LSM-775 LSZ Methylergometrine Methylisopropyllysergamide Methysergide MLD-41 PARGY-LAD PRO-LAD

Phenethyl‐ amines

2C-x

2C-B 2C-B-AN 2C-Bn 2C-Bu 2C-C 2C-CN 2C-CP 2C-D 2C-E 2C-EF 2C-F 2C-G 2C-G-1 2C-G-2 2C-G-3 2C-G-4 2C-G-5 2C-G-6 2C-G-N 2C-H 2C-I 2C-iP 2C-N 2C-NH2 2C-O 2C-O-4 2C-P 2C-Ph 2C-SE 2C-T 2C-T-2 2C-T-3 2C-T-4 2C-T-5 2C-T-6 2C-T-7 2C-T-8 2C-T-9 2C-T-10 2C-T-11 2C-T-12 2C-T-13 2C-T-14 2C-T-15 2C-T-16 2C-T-17 2C-T-18 2C-T-19 2C-T-20 2C-T-21 2C-T-22 2C-T-22.5 2C-T-23 2C-T-24 2C-T-25 2C-T-27 2C-T-28 2C-T-30 2C-T-31 2C-T-32 2C-T-33 2C-TFE 2C-TFM 2C-YN 2C-V

25x-NBx

25x-NB3OMe

25B-NB3OMe 25C-NB3OMe 25D-NB3OMe 25E-NB3OMe 25H-NB3OMe 25I-NB3OMe 25N-NB3OMe 25P-NB3OMe 25T2-NB3OMe 25T4-NB3OMe 25T7-NB3OMe 25TFM-NB3OMe

25x-NB4OMe

25B-NB4OMe 25C-NB4OMe 25D-NB4OMe 25E-NB4OMe 25H-NB4OMe 25I-NB4OMe 25N-NB4OMe 25P-NB4OMe 25T2-NB4OMe 25T4-NB4OMe 25T7-NB4OMe 25TFM-NB4OMe

25x-NBF

25B-NBF 25C-NBF 25D-NBF 25E-NBF 25H-NBF 25I-NBF 25P-NBF 25T2-NBF 25T7-NBF 25TFM-NBF

25x-NBMD

25B-NBMD 25C-NBMD 25D-NBMD 25E-NBMD 25F-NBMD 25H-NBMD 25I-NBMD 25P-NBMD 25T2-NBMD 25T7-NBMD 25TFM-NBMD

25x-NBOH

25B-NBOH 25C-NBOH 25CN-NBOH 25D-NBOH 25E-NBOH 25F-NBOH 25H-NBOH 25I-NBOH 25P-NBOH 25T2-NBOH 25T7-NBOH 25TFM-NBOH

25x-NBOMe

25B-NBOMe 25C-NBOMe 25CN-NBOMe 25D-NBOMe 25E-NBOMe 25F-NBOMe 25G-NBOMe 25H-NBOMe 25I-NBOMe 25iP-NBOMe 25N-NBOMe 25P-NBOMe 25T2-NBOMe 25T4-NBOMe 25T7-NBOMe 25TFM-NBOMe

Atypical structures

25I-NB34MD 2CBCB-NBOMe 2CBFly-NBOMe NBOMe-mescaline

3C-x

3C-AL 3C-BZ 3C-DFE 3C-E 3C-P

4C-x

4C-B 4C-D 4C-T-2

DOx

DOT DOB DOC DOEF DOET DOF DOI DOiPR DOM DON DOPR DOTFM MEM

HOT-x

HOT-2 HOT-7 HOT-17

MDxx

DMMDA DMMDA-2 Lophophine MDA MMDA MMDA-2 MMDA-3a MMDMA

Mescaline
Mescaline
(subst.)

2-Bromomescaline 3-TE 4-TE 3-TM 4-TM Allylescaline Asymbescaline Buscaline Cyclopropylmescaline Difluoromescaline Difluoroescaline Escaline Fluoroproscaline Isobuscaline Isoproscaline Jimscaline Mescaline Metaescaline Methallylescaline Proscaline Thioproscaline Trifluoroescaline Trifluoromescaline

TMAs

TMA TMA-2 TMA-3 TMA-4 TMA-5 TMA-6

Others

2C-B-BUTTERFLY 2C-B-DragonFLY 2CB-5-hemifly 2-TOM 5-TOET 5-TOM 2CB-Ind 2CD-5EtO BOB BOD βk-2C-B βk-2C-I DESOXY DMCPA DMBMPP DOB-FLY Fenfluramine Ganesha Macromerine MMA TCB-2 TOMSO

Piperazines

BZP pFPP

Tryptamines

alpha-alkyltryptamines

4,5-DHP-α-MT 5-MeO-α-ET 5-MeO-α-MT α-ET α-MT

x-DALT

(Daltocin) 4-HO-DALT (Daltacetin) 4-AcO-DALT 5-MeO-DALT DALT

x-DET

(Ethacetin) 4-AcO-DET (Ethocin) 4-HO-DET 5-MeO-DET (T-9) DET (Ethocybin) 4-PO-DET

x-DiPT

1-Me-5-MeO-DiPT (Ipracetin) 4-AcO-DiPT (Iprocin) 4-HO-DiPT (Foxy Methoxy) 5-MeO-DiPT DiPT

x-DMT

4,5-DHP-DMT 2,N,N-TMT 4-AcO-DMT 4-HO-5-MeO-DMT 4,N,N-TMT 4-Propionyloxy-DMT 5,6-diBr-DMT 5-AcO-DMT 5-Bromo-DMT 5-MeO-2,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-4,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-α,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-DMT 5-N,N-TMT 7,N,N-TMT α,N,N-TMT (Bufotenin) 5-HO-DMT DMT Norbaeocystin (Psilocin) 4-HO-DMT (Psilocybin) 4-PO-DMT

x-DPT

(Depracetin) 4-AcO-DPT (Deprocin) 4-HO-DPT 5-MeO-DPT (The Light) DPT

Ibogaine-related

18-MAC 18-MC Coronaridine Ibogaine Ibogamine ME-18-MC Noribogaine Tabernanthine Voacangine

x-MET

(Metocin) 4-HO-MET (Metocetin) 4-AcO-MET 5-MeO-MET MET

x-MiPT

(Mipracetin) 4-AcO-MiPT (Miprocin) 4-HO-MiPT 5-Me-MiPT (Moxy) 5-MeO-MiPT MiPT

Others

4-HO-DBT 4-HO-EPT 4-HO-McPT (Lucigenol) 4-HO-MPMI (Meprocin) 4-HO-MPT 5-MeO-EiPT 5-MeO-MALT 5-MeO-MPMI Aeruginascin Baeocystin DBT DCPT EiPT EPT MPT PiPT

Others

5-MeO-DiBF AL-38022A ALPHA Dimemebfe Efavirenz Lorcaserin M-ALPHA RH-34 Also empathogens in general (e. g.: 5-APB, 5-MAPB, 6-APB
6-APB
and other substituted benzofurans, MDAI, MDMA).

Dissociatives (NMDAR antagonists)

Arylcyclo‐ hexylamines

Ketamine-related

2-Fluorodeschloroketamine Arketamine
Arketamine
((R)-ketamine) Deschloroketamine Ethketamine
Ethketamine
(N-Ethylnorketamine) Esketamine
Esketamine
((S)-ketamine) Ketamine Methoxetamine Methoxmetamine Methoxyketamine Norketamine Tiletamine

PCP-related

3'-HO-PCP 3'-MeO-PCE 3'-MeO-PCMo 3'-MeO-PCP BDPC Dieticyclidine
Dieticyclidine
(PCDE) Eticyclidine
Eticyclidine
(PCE) Methoxydine
Methoxydine
(4'-MeO-PCP) PCPr Phencyclidine
Phencyclidine
(PCP) Rolicyclidine
Rolicyclidine
(PCPy) Tenocyclidine
Tenocyclidine
(TCP)

Others

BTCP Gacyclidine PRE-084

Diarylethylamines

Diphenidine Ephenidine Fluorolintane Methoxphenidine

Morphinans

Dextrallorphan Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan

Others

2-EMSB 2-MDP 8A-PDHQ Aptiganel Budipine Delucemine Dexoxadrol Dizocilpine Etoxadrol Herkinorin Ibogaine Midafotel NEFA Neramexane Nitrous oxide Noribogaine Perzinfotel RB-64 Remacemide Salvinorin A Selfotel Xenon

Deliriants (mAChR antagonists)

Atropine Benactyzine Benzatropine Benzydamine Biperiden BRN-1484501 Brompheniramine BZ CAR-226,086 CAR-301,060 CAR-302,196 CAR-302,282 CAR-302,368 CAR-302,537 CAR-302,668 Chloropyramine Chlorphenamine Clemastine CS-27349 Cyclizine Cyproheptadine Dicycloverine Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine Ditran Doxylamine EA-3167 EA-3443 EA-3580 EA-3834 Elemicin Flavoxate Hyoscyamine JB-318 JB-336 Meclozine Mepyramine Myristicin Orphenadrine Oxybutynin Pheniramine Phenyltoloxamine Procyclidine Promethazine Scopolamine Tolterodine Trihexyphenidyl Tripelennamine Triprolidine WIN-2299

Others

Cannabinoids (CB1 agonists)

Natural

THC
THC
(Dronabinol) THCV

Synthetic

AM-x

AM-087 AM-251 AM-279 AM-281 AM-356 AM-374 AM-381 AM-404 AM-411 AM-630 AM-661 AM-678 AM-679 AM-694 AM-735 AM-855 AM-881 AM-883 AM-905 AM-906 AM-919 AM-926 AM-938 AM-1116 AM-1172 AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-1241 AM-1248 AM-1710 AM-1714 AM-1902 AM-2201 AM-2212 AM-2213 AM-2232 AM-2233 AM-2389 AM-3102 AM-4030 AM-4054 AM-4056 AM-4113 AM-6545

CP x

CP 47,497 CP 55,244 CP 55,940 (±)-CP 55,940 (+)-CP 55,940 (-)-CP 55,940

HU-x

HU-210 HU-211 HU-239 HU-243 HU-308 HU-320 HU-331 HU-336 HU-345

JWH-x

JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-019 JWH-030 JWH-047 JWH-048 JWH-051 JWH-057 JWH-073 JWH-081 JWH-098 JWH-116 JWH-120 JWH-122 JWH-133 JWH-139 JWH-147 JWH-148 JWH-149 JWH-149 JWH-161 JWH-164 JWH-166 JWH-167 JWH-171 JWH-175 JWH-176 JWH-181 JWH-182 JWH-184 JWH-185 JWH-192 JWH-193 JWH-193 JWH-194 JWH-195 JWH-196 JWH-197 JWH-198 JWH-199 JWH-200 JWH-203 JWH-205 JWH-210 JWH-210 JWH-213 JWH-220 JWH-229 JWH-234 JWH-249 JWH-250 JWH-251 JWH-253 JWH-258 JWH-300 JWH-302 JWH-307 JWH-336 JWH-350 JWH-359 JWH-387 JWH-398 JWH-424

Misc. designer cannabinoids

4-HTMPIPO 5F-AB-FUPPYCA 5F-AB-PINACA 5F-ADB 5F-ADB-PINACA 5F-ADBICA 5F-AMB 5F-APINACA 5F-CUMYL-PINACA 5F-NNE1 5F-PB-22 5F-SDB-006 A-796,260 A-836,339 AB-001 AB-005 AB-CHFUPYCA AB-CHMINACA AB-FUBINACA AB-PINACA ADAMANTYL-THPINACA ADB-CHMINACA ADB-FUBINACA ADB-PINACA ADBICA ADSB-FUB-187 AMB-FUBINACA APICA APINACA APP-FUBINACA CB-13 CUMYL-PICA CUMYL-PINACA CUMYL-THPINACA DMHP EAM-2201 FAB-144 FDU-PB-22 FUB-144 FUB-APINACA FUB-JWH-018 FUB-PB-22 FUBIMINA JTE 7-31 JTE-907 Levonantradol MDMB-CHMICA MDMB-CHMINACA MDMB-FUBINACA MEPIRAPIM MAM-2201 MDA-19 MN-18 MN-25 NESS-0327 NESS-040C5 Nabilone Nabitan NM-2201 NNE1 Org 28611 Parahexyl PTI-1 PTI-2 PX-1 PX-2 PX-3 QUCHIC QUPIC RCS-4 RCS-8 SDB-005 SDB-006 STS-135 THC-O-acetate THC-O-phosphate THJ-018 THJ-2201 UR-144 WIN 55,212-2 XLR-11

D2 agonists

Apomorphine Aporphine Bromocriptine Cabergoline Lisuride Memantine Nuciferine Pergolide Phenethylamine Piribedil Pramipexole Ropinirole Rotigotine Salvinorin A Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, methamphetamine), and precursors (levodopa).

GABAA enhancers

CI-966 Eszopiclone Ibotenic acid Muscimol
Muscimol
(Amanita muscaria) Zaleplon Zolpidem Zopiclone

Inhalants (Mixed MOA)

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

Butane Gasoline Kerosene Propane

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Toluene

Ethers

Diethyl ether Enflurane

Haloalkanes

Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform

κOR agonists

2-EMSB Alazocine Bremazocine Butorphan Butorphanol Cyclazocine Cyclorphan Cyprenorphine Diprenorphine Enadoline Herkinorin Heroin HZ-2 Ibogaine Ketazocine Levallorphan Levomethorphan Levorphanol LPK-26 Metazocine Morphine Nalbuphine Nalmefene Nalorphine Noribogaine Oxilorphan Pentazocine Phenazocine Proxorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan Salvinorin A Spiradoline Tifluadom U-50488 U-69,593 Xorphanol

Others

Glaucine Isoaminile Noscapine Pukateine

v t e

Stimulants

Adamantanes

Adapromine Amantadine Bromantane Memantine Rimantadine

Adenosine
Adenosine
antagonists

8-Chlorotheophylline 8-Cyclopentyltheophylline 8-Phenyltheophylline Aminophylline Caffeine CGS-15943 Dimethazan Paraxanthine SCH-58261 Theobromine Theophylline

Alkylamines

Cyclopentamine Cypenamine Cyprodenate Heptaminol Isometheptene Levopropylhexedrine Methylhexaneamine Octodrine Propylhexedrine Tuaminoheptane

Ampakines

CX-516 CX-546 CX-614 CX-691 CX-717 IDRA-21 LY-404,187 LY-503,430 Nooglutyl Org 26576 PEPA S-18986 Sunifiram Unifiram

Arylcyclohexylamines

Benocyclidine Dieticyclidine Esketamine Eticyclidine Gacyclidine Ketamine Phencyclamine Phencyclidine Rolicyclidine Tenocyclidine Tiletamine

Benzazepines

6-Br-APB SKF-77434 SKF-81297 SKF-82958

Cholinergics

A-84,543 A-366,833 ABT-202 ABT-418 AR-R17779 Altinicline Anabasine Arecoline Bradanicline Cotinine Cytisine Dianicline Epibatidine Epiboxidine GTS-21 Ispronicline Nicotine PHA-543,613 PNU-120,596 PNU-282,987 Pozanicline Rivanicline Sazetidine A SIB-1553A SSR-180,711 TC-1698 TC-1827 TC-2216 Tebanicline UB-165 Varenicline WAY-317,538

Convulsants

Anatoxin-a Bicuculline DMCM Flurothyl Gabazine Pentetrazol Picrotoxin Strychnine Thujone

Eugeroics

Adrafinil Armodafinil CRL-40,940 CRL-40,941 Fluorenol JZ-IV-10 Modafinil

Oxazolines

4-Methylaminorex Aminorex Clominorex Cyclazodone Fenozolone Fluminorex Pemoline Thozalinone

Phenethylamines

1-(4-Methylphenyl)-2-aminobutane 1-Methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane 2-Fuoroamphetamine 2-Fuoromethamphetamine 2-OH-PEA 2-Phenyl-3-aminobutane 2,3-MDA 3-Fuoroamphetamine 3-Fluoroethamphetamine 3-Fluoromethcathinone 3-Methoxyamphetamine 3-Methylamphetamine 3,4-DMMC 4-BMC 4-CMC 4-Ethylamphetamine 4-Fluoroamphetamine 4-Fluoromethamphetamine 4-MA 4-Methylbuphedrone 4-Methylcathinone 4-MMA 4-Methylpentedrone 4-MTA 6-FNE AL-1095 Alfetamine a-Ethylphenethylamine Amfecloral Amfepentorex Amfepramone Amidephrine 2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene 2-Aminoindane 5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole 2-Aminotetralin Acridorex Amphetamine
Amphetamine
(Dextroamphetamine, Levoamphetamine) Amphetaminil Arbutamine β-Methylphenethylamine β-Phenylmethamphetamine Benfluorex Benzedrone Benzphetamine BDB BOH 3-Benzhydrylmorpholine BPAP Buphedrone Bupropion Butylone Camfetamine Cathine Cathinone Chlorphentermine Cilobamine Cinnamedrine Clenbuterol Clobenzorex Cloforex Clortermine Cypenamine D-Deprenyl Denopamine Dimethoxyamphetamine Dimethylamphetamine Dimethylcathinone Dobutamine DOPA (Dextrodopa, Levodopa) Dopamine Dopexamine Droxidopa EBDB Ephedrine Epinephrine Epinine Etafedrine Ethcathinone Ethylnorepinephrine Ethylone Etilamfetamine Etilefrine Famprofazone Fencamfamin Fencamine Fenethylline Fenfluramine
Fenfluramine
(Dexfenfluramine, Levofenfluramine) Fenproporex Feprosidnine Flephedrone Fludorex Formetorex Furfenorex Gepefrine Hexapradol Hexedrone HMMA Hordenine 4-Hydroxyamphetamine 5-Iodo-2-aminoindane Ibopamine IMP Indanylamphetamine Iofetamine Isoetarine Isoethcathinone Isoprenaline L-Deprenyl (Selegiline) Lefetamine Lisdexamfetamine Lophophine MBDB MDA (tenamfetamine) MDBU MDEA MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine) MDMPEA MDOH MDPR MDPEA Mefenorex Mephedrone Mephentermine Metanephrine Metaraminol Mesocarb Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
(Dextromethamphetamine, Levomethamphetamine) Methoxamine Methoxyphenamine MMA Methcathinone Methedrone Methoxyphenamine Methylenedioxycathinone Methylone Mexedrone MMDA MMDMA MMMA Morforex N,alpha-Diethylphenylethylamine N-Ethylbuphedrone N-Ethylhexedrone N,N-Dimethylphenethylamine Naphthylamphetamine Nisoxetine Norepinephrine Norfenefrine Norfenfluramine Normetanephrine L-Norpseudoephedrine Octopamine (drug) Orciprenaline Ortetamine Oxifentorex Oxilofrine PBA PCA PCMA PHA Pentorex Pentedrone Pentylone Phenatine Phenpromethamine Phentermine Phenylalanine Phenylephrine Phenylpropanolamine Pholedrine PIA PMA PMEA PMMA PPAP Phthalimidopropiophenone Prenylamine Propylamphetamine Pseudoephedrine Ropinirole Salbutamol
Salbutamol
(Levosalbutamol) Sibutramine Solriamfetol Synephrine Theodrenaline Tiflorex Tranylcypromine Tyramine Tyrosine Xylopropamine Zylofuramine

Phenylmorpholines

3-Fluorophenmetrazine Fenbutrazate Fenmetramide G-130 Manifaxine Morazone Morforex Oxaflozane PD-128,907 Phendimetrazine Phenmetrazine 2-Phenyl-3,6-dimethylmorpholine Pseudophenmetrazine Radafaxine

Piperazines

2C-B-BZP 3C-PEP BZP CM156 DBL-583 GBR-12783 GBR-12935 GBR-13069 GBR-13098 GBR-13119 MeOPP MBZP oMPP Vanoxerine

Piperidines

1-Benzyl-4-(2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl)piperidine 2-Benzylpiperidine 2-Methyl-3-phenylpiperidine 3,4-Dichloromethylphenidate 4-Benzylpiperidine 4-Fluoromethylphenidate 4-Methylmethylphenidate Desoxypipradrol Difemetorex Diphenylpyraline Ethylnaphthidate Ethylphenidate Methylnaphthidate Isopropylphenidate Methylphenidate
Methylphenidate
(Dexmethylphenidate) Nocaine Phacetoperane Pipradrol Propylphenidate SCH-5472

Pyrrolidines

2-Diphenylmethylpyrrolidine 5-DBFPV α-PPP α-PBP α-PHP α-PVP α-PVT Diphenylprolinol DMPVP FPOP FPVP MDPPP MDPBP MPBP MPHP MPPP MOPVP MOPPP Indapyrophenidone MDPV Naphyrone PEP Picilorex Prolintane Pyrovalerone

Racetams

Oxiracetam Phenylpiracetam Phenylpiracetam
Phenylpiracetam
hydrazide

Tropanes

4-fluorotropacocaine 4'-Fluorococaine Altropane
Altropane
(IACFT) Brasofensine CFT (WIN 35,428) β-CIT (RTI-55) Cocaethylene Cocaine Dichloropane
Dichloropane
(RTI-111) Difluoropine FE-β-CPPIT FP-β-CPPIT Ioflupane (123I) Norcocaine PIT PTT RTI-31 RTI-32 RTI-51 RTI-112 RTI-113 RTI-120 RTI-121
RTI-121
(IPCIT) RTI-126 RTI-150 RTI-177 RTI-229 RTI-336 RTI-354 RTI-371 RTI-386 Salicylmethylecgonine Tesofensine Troparil
Troparil
(β-CPT, WIN 35,065-2) Tropoxane WF-23 WF-33

Tryptamines

4-HO-αMT 4-Methyl-αET 4-Methyl-αMT 5-Chloro-αMT 5-Fluoro-αMT 5-MeO-αET 5-MeO-αMT 5-MeO-DIPT 6-Fluoro-αMT 7-Methyl-αET αET αMT

Others

2-MDP 3,3-Diphenylcyclobutanamine Amfonelic acid Amineptine Amiphenazole Atipamezole Atomoxetine Bemegride Benzydamine BTQ BTS 74,398 Centanafadine Ciclazindol Clofenciclan Cropropamide Crotetamide D-161 Desipramine Diclofensine Dimethocaine Efaroxan Etamivan Fenisorex Fenpentadiol Gamfexine Gilutensin GSK1360707F GYKI-52895 Hexacyclonate Idazoxan Indanorex Indatraline JNJ-7925476 Lazabemide Leptacline Lomevactone LR-5182 Mazindol Meclofenoxate Medifoxamine Mefexamide Methamnetamine Methastyridone Methiopropamine Naphthylaminopropane Nefopam Nikethamide Nomifensine O-2172 Oxaprotiline PNU-99,194 PRC200-SS Rasagiline Rauwolscine Rubidium chloride Setazindol Tametraline Tandamine Thiopropamine Thiothinone Trazium UH-232 Yohimbine

ATC code: N06B

Authority control

.