Ontario (/ɒnˈtɛərioʊ/ ( listen);
French: [ɔ̃taʁjo]) is one of the 13 provinces and territories
Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's
most populous province accounting for nearly 40 percent of the
country's population, and is the second-largest province in total
Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of
Northwest Territories and
Nunavut are included. It is home to
the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous
city, Toronto, which is also Ontario's provincial capital.
Ontario is bordered by the province of
Manitoba to the west, Hudson
James Bay to the north, and
Quebec to the east and northeast,
and to the south by the U.S. states of (from west to east) Minnesota,
Pennsylvania and New York. Almost all of Ontario's
2,700 km (1,678 mi) border with the United States follows
inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along
the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River
drainage system. These are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake
Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake
St. Clair, the
Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake
Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to
Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario. There is only
about 1 km (0.6 mi) of land border made up of portages
Height of Land Portage
Height of Land Portage on the
Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into two regions, Northern
Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontario's
population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger,
northern part of
Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and
3.1 Territorial evolution
3.2 European contact
3.3 Upper Canada
6 Government, law and politics
6.3 Urban areas
7.1 Higher education
8.1 Songs and slogans
8.2 Notable residents
8.3 Professional sports
9.4 Air travel
10 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
The province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived
from Ontarí:io, a Huron (Wyandot) word meaning "great lake", or
possibly skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian
Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes.
Main article: Geography of Ontario
Census divisions of Ontario
Census divisions of Ontario and Geography of Canada
See also: List of parks and protected areas of Ontario
Algonquin Provincial Park, Cache Lake in the autumn of 2006.
The province consists of three main geographical regions:
The thinly populated
Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central
portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although
this area mostly does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals
and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield
forests, studded with lakes and rivers.
Northern Ontario is subdivided
into two sub-regions:
Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario.
The virtually unpopulated
Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and
northeast, mainly swampy and sparsely forested.
Southern Ontario which is further sub-divided into four regions;
Central Ontario (although not actually the province's geographic
centre), Eastern Ontario,
Golden Horseshoe and Southwestern Ontario
(parts of which were formerly referred to as Western Ontario).
Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there
are large areas of uplands, particularly within the Canadian Shield
which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and also
Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south. The highest
Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres (2,274 ft) above sea level
in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over
500 m (1,640 ft) are surpassed near Collingwood, above the
Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the
Madawaska River in Renfrew County.
Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of
the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence
Valley in the south is part of the Eastern
Great Lakes lowland forests
ecoregion where the forest has now been largely replaced by
agriculture, industrial and urban development. A well-known geographic
feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment. The Saint
Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the
Atlantic Ocean as
far inland as
Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario
occupies roughly 87 percent of the surface area of the province;
Southern Ontario contains 94 percent of the population.
Point Pelee is a peninsula of
Lake Erie in southwestern
Windsor and Detroit, Michigan) that is the southernmost extent of
Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in
Lake Erie extend
slightly farther. All are south of 42°N – slightly farther
south than the northern border of California.
Geography of Ontario
Geography of Ontario § Climate
Köppen climate types of Ontario
Sandbanks Provincial Park
Sandbanks Provincial Park on Lake Ontario.
The climate of
Ontario varies by season and location. It is
affected by three air sources: cold, dry, arctic air from the north
(dominant factor during the winter months, and for a longer part of
the year in far northern Ontario); Pacific polar air crossing in from
the western Canadian Prairies/US Northern Plains; and warm, moist air
from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. The effects of
these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend mainly
on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent,
terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is
classified as humid continental.
Ontario has three main climatic
Great Lakes greatly influence the climatic region of
southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored
from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of
the lakes. This gives some parts of southern
winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of
Southwestern Ontario (generally south of a line from Sarnia-Toronto)
have a moderate humid continental climate (Köppen climate
classification Dfa), similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states
Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States. The
region has warm to hot, humid summers and cold winters. Annual
precipitation ranges from 750–1,000 mm (30–39 in) and is
well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the
lee of the Great Lakes, making for abundant snow in some areas. In
December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was hit by more
than a metre of snow within 48 hours. The next climatic region is
Eastern Ontario which has a moderate humid continental
climate (Köppen Dfb). This region has warm and sometimes hot summers
with colder, longer winters, ample snowfall (even in regions not
directly in the snowbelts) and annual precipitation similar to the
rest of Southern Ontario.
Niagara Escarpment on the Bruce Peninsula.
In the northeastern parts of Ontario, extending far as south as
Kirkland Lake, the cold waters of
Hudson Bay depress summer
temperatures, making it cooler than other locations at similar
latitudes. The same is true on the northern shore of Lake Superior,
which cools hot humid air from the south, leading to cooler summer
temperatures. Along the eastern shores of
Lake Superior and Lake
Huron winter temperatures are slightly moderated but come with
frequent heavy lake-effect snow squalls that increase seasonal
snowfall totals upwards of 3 m (10 ft) in some places. These
regions have higher annual precipitation in some case over 100 cm
(39 in). The northernmost parts of Ontario – primarily
north of 50°N – have a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) with
long, severely cold winters and short, cool to warm summers with
dramatic temperature changes possible in all seasons. With no major
mountain ranges blocking sinking
Arctic air masses, temperatures of
−40 °C (−40 °F) are not uncommon; snowfall remains on
the ground for sometimes over half the year. Snowfall accumulation can
be high in some areas. Precipitation is generally less than
70 cm (28 in) and peaks in the summer months in the form of
showers or thunderstorms.
Severe thunderstorms peak in summer. London, situated in Southern
(Southwestern) Ontario, has the most lightning strikes per year in
Canada, averaging 34 days of thunderstorm activity per year. In a
Ontario averages 11 confirmed tornado touchdowns.
However, over the last 4 years,[when?] it has had upwards of 20
tornado touchdowns per year, with the highest frequency occurring in
the Windsor-Essex – Chatham Kent area, though few are very
destructive (the majority between F0 to F2 on the Fujita scale).
Ontario had a record 29 tornadoes in both 2006 and 2009. Tropical
depression remnants occasionally bring heavy rains and winds in the
south, but are rarely deadly. A notable exception was Hurricane Hazel
Southern Ontario centred on Toronto, in October 1954.
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations
Windsor (Windsor International Airport)
Niagara Falls (NPCSH)
Toronto (The Annex)
Midland (Water Pollution Control Plant)
Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport)
Sudbury (Sudbury Airport)
Emo (Emo Radbourne)
Thunder Bay (
Thunder Bay International Airport)
History of Ontario
History of Ontario and Upper Canada
Evolution of the borders of Ontario.
View full resolution for time-lapsed evolution
Land was not legally subdivided into administrative units until a
treaty had been concluded with the Aboriginal people ceding the land.
In 1788, while part of the Province of Quebec, southern
divided into four districts: Hesse, Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, and
In 1792, the four districts were renamed: Hesse became the Western
District, Lunenburg became the Eastern District, Mecklenburg became
the Midland District, and Nassau became the Home District. Counties
were created within the districts.
By 1798, there were eight districts: Eastern, Home, Johnstown, London,
Midland, Newcastle, Niagara, and Western.
By 1826, there were eleven districts: Bathurst, Eastern, Gore, Home,
Johnstown, London, Midland, Newcastle, Niagara, Ottawa, and Western.
By 1838, there were twenty districts: Bathurst, Brock, Colbourne,
Dalhousie, Eastern, Gore, Home, Huron, Johnstown, London, Midland,
Newcastle, Niagara, Ottawa, Prince Edward, Simcoe, Talbot, Victoria,
Wellington, and Western.
In 1849, the districts of southern
Ontario were abolished by the
Province of Canada, and county governments took over certain municipal
responsibilities. The Province of
Canada also began creating districts
in sparsely populated
Northern Ontario with the establishment of
Algoma District and
Nipissing District in 1858.
The borders of Ontario, its new name in 1867, were provisionally
expanded north and west. When the Province of
Canada was formed, its
borders were not entirely clear, and
Ontario claimed eventually to
reach all the way to the
Rocky Mountains and
Arctic Ocean. With
Canada's acquisition of Rupert's Land,
Ontario was interested in
clearly defining its borders, especially since some of the new areas
in which it was interested were rapidly growing. After the federal
Ontario to pay for construction in the new disputed
area, the province asked for an elaboration on its limits, and its
boundary was moved north to the 51st parallel north.
The northern and western boundaries of
Ontario were in dispute after
Canadian Confederation. Ontario's right to
Northwestern Ontario was
determined by the
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884 and
confirmed by the
Ontario Boundary) Act, 1889 of the Parliament
of the United Kingdom. By 1899, there were seven northern districts:
Algoma, Manitoulin, Muskoka, Nipissing, Parry Sound, Rainy River, and
Thunder Bay. Four more northern districts were created between 1907
and 1912: Cochrane, Kenora, Sudbury and Timiskaming.
United Empire Loyalists
United Empire Loyalists in downtown Hamilton on Main Street
Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the region was inhabited by
Cree and Algonquin) in the northern/western
Iroquois and Wyandot (Huron) tribes more in the
south/east. During the 17th century, the Algonquians and Hurons
Beaver Wars against the Iroquois. The French explorer
Étienne Brûlé explored part of the area in 1610–12. The
Henry Hudson sailed into
Hudson Bay in 1611 and
claimed the area for England.
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain reached
Lake Huron in 1615, and French
missionaries began to establish posts along the Great Lakes. French
settlement was hampered by their hostilities with the Iroquois, who
allied themselves with the British. From 1634 to 1640, Hurons were
devastated by European infectious diseases, such as measles and
smallpox, to which they had no immunity. By 1700, the
Ontario and the Mississaugas of the Ojibwa had settled
the north shore of Lake Ontario.
The British established trading posts on
Hudson Bay in the late 17th
century and began a struggle for domination of Ontario. The 1763
Treaty of Paris ended the
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War by awarding nearly all of
France's North American possessions (New France) to Britain. The
region was annexed to
Quebec in 1774. The first European
settlements were in 1782–1784 when 5,000 American loyalists entered
what is now
Ontario following the American Revolution. The Kingdom
of Great Britain granted them 200 acres (81 ha) land and other
items with which to rebuild their lives. The British also set up
Ontario for the Mohawks who had fought for the British
and had lost their land in New York state. Other
resettled in 1784 at the Six Nations reserve at the west end of Lake
The population of
Canada west of the St. Lawrence-
confluence substantially increased during this period, a fact
recognized by the Constitutional Act of 1791, which split
the Canadas: Upper
Canada southwest of the St. Lawrence-
confluence, and Lower
Canada east of it.
John Graves Simcoe
John Graves Simcoe was
appointed Upper Canada's first Lieutenant governor in 1793.
Main article: Upper Canada
American troops in the
War of 1812
War of 1812 invaded Upper
Canada across the
Niagara River and the
Detroit River, but were defeated and pushed back
by the British, Canadian fencibles and militias, and First Nations
warriors. However, eventually the Americans gained control of Lake
Erie and Lake Ontario. During the
Battle of York
Battle of York in 1813, American
troops occupied the Town of York. The Americans looted the town and
burned the Parliament Buildings during the brief occupation.
After the War of 1812, relative stability allowed for increasing
numbers of immigrants to arrive from
Europe rather than from the
United States. As was the case in the previous decades, this
immigration shift was encouraged by the colonial leaders. Despite
affordable and often free land, many arriving newcomers, mostly from
Britain and Ireland, found frontier life with the harsh climate
difficult, and some of those with the means eventually returned home
or went south. However, population growth far exceeded emigration in
the decades that followed. It was a mostly agrarian-based society, but
canal projects and a new network of plank roads spurred greater trade
within the colony and with the United States, thereby improving
previously damaged relations over time.
Ontario in 1718,
Guillaume de L'Isle
Guillaume de L'Isle map, approximate province
Meanwhile, Ontario's numerous waterways aided travel and
transportation into the interior and supplied water power for
development. As the population increased, so did the industries and
transportation networks, which in turn led to further development. By
the end of the century,
Ontario vied with
Quebec as the nation's
leader in terms of growth in population, industry, arts and
Unrest in the colony began to chafe against the aristocratic Family
Compact who governed while benefiting economically from the region's
resources, and who did not allow elected bodies power. This resentment
spurred republican ideals and sowed the seeds for early Canadian
nationalism. Accordingly, rebellion in favour of responsible
government rose in both regions;
Louis-Joseph Papineau led the Lower
Canada Rebellion and
William Lyon Mackenzie
William Lyon Mackenzie led the Upper Canada
Main article: Province of Canada
Although both rebellions were put down in short order, the British
government sent Lord Durham to investigate the causes of the unrest.
He recommended that self-government be granted and that Lower and
Canada be re-joined in an attempt to assimilate the French
Canadians. Accordingly, the two colonies were merged into the Province
Canada by the Act of Union 1840, with the capital at Kingston, and
Canada becoming known as
Canada West. Parliamentary
self-government was granted in 1848. There were heavy waves of
immigration in the 1840s, and the population of
Canada West more than
doubled by 1851 over the previous decade. As a result, for the first
time the English-speaking population of
Canada West surpassed the
French-speaking population of
Canada East, tilting the representative
balance of power.
An economic boom in the 1850s coincided with railway expansion across
the province, further increasing the economic strength of Central
Canada. With the repeal of the
Corn Laws and a reciprocity agreement
in place with United States, various industries such as timber,
mining, farming and alcohol distilling benefited tremendously.
A political stalemate between the French- and English-speaking
legislators, as well as fear of aggression from the United States
during and immediately after the American Civil War, led the political
elite to hold a series of conferences in the 1860s to effect a broader
federal union of all British North American colonies. The British
North America Act took effect on July 1, 1867, establishing the
Dominion of Canada, initially with four provinces: Nova Scotia, New
Quebec and Ontario. The Province of
Canada was divided into
Quebec so that each linguistic group would have its own
Ontario were required by section 93 of the
British North America
British North America Act to safeguard existing educational rights and
privileges of Protestant and the Catholic minority. Thus, separate
Catholic schools and school boards were permitted in Ontario. However,
neither province had a constitutional requirement to protect its
French- or English-speaking minority.
Toronto was formally established
as Ontario's provincial capital.
Downtown London at night.
V-E Day in
Ottawa in 1945
Toronto, the capital of Ontario
Once constituted as a province,
Ontario proceeded to assert its
economic and legislative power. In 1872, the lawyer Oliver Mowat
Premier of Ontario
Premier of Ontario and remained as premier until 1896. He
fought for provincial rights, weakening the power of the federal
government in provincial matters, usually through well-argued appeals
to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. His battles with the
federal government greatly decentralized Canada, giving the provinces
far more power than
John A. Macdonald
John A. Macdonald had intended. He consolidated
and expanded Ontario's educational and provincial institutions,
created districts in Northern Ontario, and fought to ensure that those
Northwestern Ontario not historically part of Upper Canada
(the vast areas north and west of the Lake Superior-Hudson Bay
watershed, known as the District of Keewatin) would become part of
Ontario, a victory embodied in the
Ontario Boundary) Act,
1889. He also presided over the emergence of the province into the
economic powerhouse of Canada. Mowat was the creator of what is often
called Empire Ontario.
Beginning with Sir John A. Macdonald's
National Policy (1879) and the
construction of the
Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway (1875–1885) through
Northern Ontario and the
Canadian Prairies to British Columbia,
Ontario manufacturing and industry flourished. However, population
increase slowed after a large recession hit the province in 1893, thus
slowing growth drastically but for only a few years. Many newly
arrived immigrants and others moved west along the railway to the
Prairie Provinces and British Columbia, sparsely settling Northern
Mineral exploitation accelerated in the late 19th century, leading to
the rise of important mining centres in the northeast, such as
Sudbury, Cobalt and Timmins. The province harnessed its water power to
generate hydro-electric power and created the state-controlled
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, later
Ontario Hydro. The
availability of cheap electric power further facilitated the
development of industry. The
Ford Motor Company of
established in 1904.
Canada was formed in 1918. The
motor vehicle industry became the most lucrative industry for the
Ontario economy during the 20th century.
In July 1912, the Conservative government of Sir
James Whitney issued
Regulation 17 which severely limited the availability of
French-language schooling to the province's French-speaking minority.
Canadians reacted with outrage, journalist Henri Bourassa
denouncing the "Prussians of Ontario". The regulation was eventually
repealed in 1927.
Influenced by events in the United States, the government of Sir
William Hearst introduced prohibition of alcoholic drinks in 1916 with
the passing of the
Ontario Temperance Act. However, residents could
distill and retain their own personal supply, and liquor producers
could continue distillation and export for sale, allowing this already
sizeable industry to strengthen further.
Ontario became a hotbed for
the illegal smuggling of liquor and the biggest supplier into the
United States, which was under complete prohibition. Prohibition in
Ontario came to an end in 1927 with the establishment of the Liquor
Control Board of
Ontario under the government of Howard Ferguson. The
sale and consumption of liquor, wine, and beer are still controlled by
some of the most extreme laws in North America to ensure that strict
community standards and revenue generation from the alcohol retail
monopoly are upheld. In April 2007,
Ontario Member of Provincial
Kim Craitor suggested that local brewers should be able to
sell their beer in local corner stores; however, the motion was
quickly rejected by Premier Dalton McGuinty.
World War II
World War II period was one of exceptional prosperity and
Ontario has been the recipients of most immigration to Canada,
largely immigrants from war-torn
Europe in the 1950s and 1960s and
following changes in federal immigration law, a massive influx of
non-Europeans since the 1970s. From a largely ethnically British
Ontario has rapidly become culturally very diverse.
The nationalist movement in Quebec, particularly after the election of
Parti Québécois in 1976, contributed to driving many businesses
and English-speaking people out of
Quebec to Ontario, and as a result
Montreal as the largest city and economic centre of
Canada. Depressed economic conditions in the Maritime
Provinces have also resulted in de-population of those provinces in
the 20th century, with heavy migration into Ontario.
Ontario's official language is English. Numerous French language
services are available under the
French Language Services Act
French Language Services Act of 1990
in designated areas where sizeable francophone populations exist.
Population density of Ontario
Main article: Demographics of Ontario
Source: Statistics Canada
In the 2011 census,
Ontario had a population of 12,851,821 living in
4,887,508 of its 5,308,785 total dwellings, a 5.7 percent change from
its 2006 population of 12,160,282. With a land area of
908,607.67 km2 (350,815.38 sq mi), it had a population
density of 14.1/km2 (36.6/sq mi) in 2011. In 2013, Statistics
Canada estimated the province's population to be 13,537,994.
The percentages given below add to more than 100 percent because of
dual responses (e.g., "French and Canadian" response generates an
entry both in the category "French Canadian" and in the category
The majority of Ontarians are of English or other European descent
including large Scottish, Irish and Italian communities. Slightly less
than 5 percent of the population of
Ontario is Franco-Ontarian, that
is those whose native tongue is French, although those with French
ancestry account for 11 percent of the population. In relation to
natural increase or inter-provincial migration, immigration is a huge
population growth force in Ontario, as it has been over the last two
centuries. More recent sources of immigrants with large or growing
Ontario include South Asians, Caribbeans, Latin
Americans, Europeans, Asians, and Africans. Most populations have
settled in the larger urban centres.
In 2011, 25.9 percent of the population consisted of visible
minorities and 2.4 percent of the population was Aboriginal, mostly of
First Nations and Métis descent. There was also a small number of
Inuit people in the province. The number of Aboriginal people and
visible minorities has been increasing at a faster rate than the
general population of Ontario.
In 2011, the largest religious denominations in
Ontario were the Roman
Catholic Church (with 31.4% of the population), the United Church of
Canada (7.5%), and the Anglican Church (6.1%). 23.1% of Ontarians had
no religious affiliation, making it the second-largest religious
grouping in the province after Roman Catholics.
The major religious groups in
Ontario in 2011 were:
No religious affiliation
See also: Franco-Ontarian
The principal language of
Ontario is English, the province's de facto
official language, which is spoken natively by about 70% of the
province's population, according to the 2011 census. There is also a
French-speaking population concentrated in the northeastern, eastern,
and extreme Southern parts of the province, where under the French
Language Services Act, provincial government services are required to
be available in French if at least 10% of a designated area's
population report French as their native language. Roughly 4% of
Ontarians speak French as their mother tongue, and 11% are
bilingual, speaking both English and French, according to the 2011
census. Other languages spoken by residents include Arabic,
Bengali, Cantonese, Dutch, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Italian,
Korean, Mandarin, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian,
Somali, Spanish, Tagalog, Tamil, Urdu and Vietnamese.
Main article: Economy of Ontario
Ship in Hamilton Harbour. The manufacturing sector is a major employer
Ontario is Canada's leading manufacturing province, accounting for 52%
of the total national manufacturing shipments in 2004. Ontario's
largest trading partner is the American state of Michigan. As of
April 2012[update], Moody's bond-rating agency rated
at AA2/stable, while S&P rated it AA-. Dominion Bond
Rating Service rated it AA(low) in January 2013. Long known as a
bastion of Canadian manufacturing and financial solvency, Ontario's
public debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to be 37.2% in fiscal year
2019–2020, compared to 26% in 2007–2008.
Ontario's rivers make it rich in hydroelectric energy. In 2009,
Ontario Power Generation
Ontario Power Generation generated 70 percent of the electricity of
the province, of which 51 percent is nuclear, 39% is hydroelectric and
10% is fossil-fuel derived. By 2025, nuclear power is projected to
supply 42%, while fossil-fuel-derived generation is projected to
decrease slightly over the next 20 years. Much of the newer power
generation coming online in the last few years is natural gas or
combined-cycle natural gas plants. OPG is not, however, responsible
for the transmission of power, which is under the control of Hydro
One. Despite its diverse range of power options, problems related to
increasing consumption, lack of energy efficiency and aging nuclear
Ontario has been forced in recent years to purchase power
from its neighbours
Michigan to supplement its power needs
during peak consumption periods. Ontario's basic domestic rate in 2010
was 11.17 cents per kWH; by contrast. Quebec's was 6.81. In
December 2013, the government projected a 42 percent hike by 2018, and
68 percent by 2033. Industrial rates are projected to rise by 33%
by 2018, and 55% in 2033.
An abundance of natural resources, excellent transportation links to
the American heartland and the inland
Great Lakes making ocean access
possible via container ships, have all contributed to making
manufacturing the principal industry of the province, found mainly in
Golden Horseshoe region, which is the largest industrialized area
in Canada, the southern end of the region being part of the North
American Rust Belt. Important products include motor vehicles, iron,
steel, food, electrical appliances, machinery, chemicals, and paper.
Michigan in car production, assembling
2.696 million vehicles in 2004.
Chrysler plants in
Windsor and Bramalea, two GM plants in
Oshawa and one in Ingersoll, a
Honda assembly plant in Alliston,
Ford plants in Oakville and St.
Toyota assembly plants in Cambridge and Woodstock. However,
as a result of steeply declining sales, in 2005, General Motors
announced massive layoffs at production facilities across North
America including two large GM plants in
Oshawa and a drive train
St. Catharines resulting in 8,000 job losses in Ontario
alone. In 2006,
Ford Motor Company announced between 25,000 and 30,000
layoffs phased until 2012;
Ontario was spared the worst, but job
losses were announced for the St Thomas facility and the Windsor
Casting plant. However, these losses will be offset by Ford's recent
announcement of a hybrid vehicle facility slated to begin production
in 2007 at its Oakville plant and GM's re-introduction of the Camaro
which will be produced in Oshawa. On December 4, 2008
the grand opening of the RAV4 plant in Woodstock, and
has plans to add an engine plant at its facility in Alliston. Despite
these new plants coming online,
Ontario has not yet fully recovered
following massive layoffs caused by the global recession; its
unemployment rate was 7.3% in May 2013, compared to 8.7 percent in
January 2010 and approximately 6% in 2007. In September 2013, the
Ontario government committed CAD$70.9 million to the
in Oakville, while the federal government committed CAD$71.1mn, to
secure 2,800 jobs. The province has lost 300,000 manufacturing
jobs in the decade from 2003, and the Bank of
Canada noted that "while
the energy and mining industries have benefitted from these movements,
the pressure on the manufacturing sector has intensified, since many
firms in this sector were already dealing with growing competition
from low-cost economies such as China."
Ontario's steel industry once centred on Hamilton. Hamilton harbour,
which can be seen as one drives the
QEW Skyway bridge, is an
industrial wasteland; US Steel-owned
Stelco announced in the autumn of
2013 that it would close in 2014, with the loss of 875 jobs. The move
flummoxed a union representative, who seemed puzzled why a plant with
capacity of 2 million tons per annum would be shut while Canada
imported 8 million tons of steel the year before. Algoma
Steel maintains a plant in Sault Ste Marie.
View of Toronto's Financial District
Toronto, the capital of Ontario, is the centre of Canada's financial
services and banking industry. Neighbouring cities are home to product
distribution, IT centres, and various manufacturing industries.
Canada's Federal Government is the largest single employer in the
National Capital Region, which centres on the border cities of
Ottawa and Quebec's Gatineau.
Parliament Hill in Ottawa, home of the federal government. Canada's
Federal Government is the largest single employer in the National
The information technology sector is important, particularly in the
Silicon Valley North
Silicon Valley North section of Ottawa, as well as the Waterloo
Region, where the world headquarters of
Research in Motion
Research in Motion (the
developers of the
BlackBerry smartphone) is located.
provided more than 19 percent of the local jobs and employed more than
13% of the entire local population before it supplied
9,500 layoffs in 2013.
ATS Automation Tooling Systems of
Cambridge make their homes in the area too. Mike Lazaridis, one of the
founders of RIM, founded in 1999 the Perimeter Institute, then in 2002
the Institute for Quantum Computing, then in 2013 Quantum Valley
Investments, to plow a portion of the benefits of RIM back into
research and development.
In 2014, the section of Highway 401 between
Toronto and Waterloo
became the world's second-largest innovation corridor after
California's Silicon Valley, employing nearly 280,000 tech workers
from around the world and containing over 60% of Canada's high tech
Hamilton is the largest steel manufacturing city in
closely by Sault Ste. Marie, and
Sarnia is the centre for
Construction employed more than 6.5% of the
province's work force in June 2011.
Mining and the forest products industry, notably pulp and paper, are
vital to the economy of Northern Ontario. There has been controversy
over the Ring of Fire mineral deposit, and whether the province can
afford to spend CAD$2.25 billion on a road from the Trans-Canada
Kenora to the deposit, currently valued at CAD$60
Tourism contributes heavily to the economy of Central Ontario, peaking
during the summer months owing to the abundance of fresh water
recreation and wilderness found there in reasonable proximity to the
major urban centres. At other times of the year, hunting, skiing and
snowmobiling are popular. This region has some of the most vibrant
fall colour displays anywhere on the continent, and tours directed at
overseas visitors are organized to see them. Tourism also plays a key
role in border cities with large casinos, among them Windsor,
Sarnia and Niagara Falls, the latter of which attracts
millions of US and other international visitors.
Fruit from the Niagara region for distribution, ca. 1914
Eaton Farm in Eatonville provided poultry, vegetables, dairy and meat
Eaton's department stores until the early 1950s.
The Canadian Jewish Farm School in
Georgetown, Ontario was established
in 1927 and served as a training school for Polish war orphans brought
Canada after the First World War.
Once the dominant industry, agriculture occupies a small percentage of
the population. However, much of the land in southern
Ontario is given
over to agriculture. As the following table shows, while the number of
individual farms has steadily decreased and their overall size has
shrunk at a lower rate, greater mechanization has supported increased
supply to satisfy the ever-increasing demands of a growing population
base; this has also meant a gradual increase in the total amount of
land used for growing crops.
Number of Farms
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Agriculture.
Common types of farms reported in the 2001 census include those for
cattle, small grains and dairy. The fruit- and grape-growing industry
is primarily on the
Niagara Peninsula and along Lake Erie, where
tobacco farms are also situated. Market vegetables grow in the rich
soils of the
Holland Marsh near Newmarket. The area near Windsor is
also very fertile. The Heinz plant in Leamington was taken over in
these autumn of 2013 by
Warren Buffett and a Brazilian partner,
following which it put 740 people out of work. Government
subsidies followed shortly; Premier
Kathleen Wynne offered CAD$200,000
to cushion the blow, and promised that another processed-food operator
would soon be found. On December 10, 2013,
layoffs for more than 509 workers at a cereal manufacture plant in
Kellogg's plans to relocate jobs to Thailand.
The area defined as the
Corn Belt covers much of the southwestern area
of the province, extending as far north as close to Goderich, but corn
and soy are grown throughout the southern portion of the province.
Apple orchards are a common sight along the southern shore of
Nottawasaga Bay (part of Georgian Bay) near Collingwood and along the
northern shore of
Lake Ontario near Cobourg.
centred in Norfolk County, has decreased, allowing an increase in
alternative crops such as hazelnuts and ginseng. The
of Massey Ferguson, once one of the largest farm-implement
manufacturers in the world, indicate the importance agriculture
once had to the Canadian economy.
Southern Ontario's limited supply of agricultural land is going out of
production at an increasing rate.
Urban sprawl and farmland severances
contribute to the loss of thousands of acres of productive
agricultural land in
Ontario each year. Over 2,000 farms and 150,000
acres (61,000 ha) of farmland in the GTA alone were lost to
production in the two decades between 1976 and 1996. This loss
represented approximately 18%". of Ontario's Class 1 farmland being
converted to urban purposes. In addition, increasing rural severances
provide ever-greater interference with agricultural production.
See also: Energy policy of Canada, Renewable energy in Canada, and
Bruce Nuclear Generating Station
Bruce Nuclear Generating Station on
Lake Huron is the
largest nuclear power plant in the world.
The Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009 (GEA), takes a
two-pronged approach to commercializing renewable energy:
bringing more renewable energy sources to the province
adopting more energy-efficiency measures to help conserve energy
The bill envisaged appointing a Renewable Energy Facilitator to
provide "one-window" assistance and support to project developers to
facilitate project approvals.
The approvals process for transmission projects would also be
streamlined and (for the first time in Ontario) the bill would enact
standards for renewable energy projects. Homeowners would have access
to incentives to develop small-scale renewables such as low- or
no-interest loans to finance the capital cost of renewable energy
generating facilities like solar panels.
Ontario is home to Niagara Falls, which supplies a large amount of
electricity to the province. The Bruce Nuclear Generating Station, the
largest nuclear power plant in the world, is also in
Ontario and uses
CANDU reactors to generate electricity for the province.
Government, law and politics
Monarchy in Ontario
Monarchy in Ontario and Executive Council of
Ontario Legislature at Queen's Park in Toronto.
The previous wordmark of the Government of Ontario, which was in use
from the late-1960s until 2007 (apart from the lettering used here).
British North America
British North America Act 1867 section 69 stipulated "There shall
be a Legislature for
Ontario consisting of the Lieutenant Governor and
of One House, styled the Legislative Assembly of Ontario." The
assembly has 107 seats representing ridings elected in a
first-past-the-post system across the province.
The legislative buildings at Queen's Park are the seat of government.
Following the Westminster system, the leader of the party holding the
most seats in the assembly is known as the "Premier and President of
the Council" (Executive Council Act R.S.O. 1990). The Premier chooses
the cabinet or Executive Council whose members are deemed ministers of
Although the Legislative Assembly Act (R.S.O. 1990) refers to "members
of the assembly", the legislators are now commonly called MPPs
(Members of the Provincial Parliament) in English and députés de
l'Assemblée législative in French, but they have also been called
MLAs (Members of the Legislative Assembly), and both are acceptable.
The title of Prime Minister of Ontario, correct in French (le Premier
ministre), is permissible in English but now generally avoided in
favour of the title "Premier" to avoid confusion with the Prime
Minister of Canada.
Ontario has grown, from its roots in Upper Canada, into a modern
jurisdiction. The old titles of the chief law officers, the
Attorney-General and the Solicitor-General, remain in use. They both
are responsible to the Legislature. The Attorney-General drafts the
laws and is responsible for criminal prosecutions and the
administration of justice, while the Solicitor-General is responsible
for law enforcement and the police services of the province.
Main article: Politics of Ontario
Ontario has numerous political parties which run for election. The
three main parties are the centre-left
Ontario Liberal Party, the
centre-right Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario, and the social
Ontario New Democratic Party
Ontario New Democratic Party (NDP). Each of the three
parties has received a majority mandate during a provincial election
Ontario is led by the majority government of Premier Kathleen Wynne, a
Liberal. Since gaining power under former Premier
Dalton McGuinty in
Ontario Liberals have been re-elected three times: in the
2007, the 2011, and 2014 general elections.
In the 2011 federal election in
Ontario the Conservatives were elected
in 73 ridings, the NDP in 22, and the Liberals in 11. The Green Party
did not win a seat in Ontario, but
Bruce Hyer (MP for Thunder
Bay—Superior North) crossed the floor from the NDP and sat as a
Green Party member from 2013 until the dissolution of Parliament for
the 2015 federal election.
See also: Golden Horseshoe, National Capital Region (Canada), and
Statistics Canada's measure of a "metro area", the Census Metropolitan
Area (CMA), roughly bundles together population figures from the core
municipality with those from "commuter" municipalities.
CMA (largest other included municipalities in brackets)
Toronto CMA (Mississauga, Brampton)
Ottawa CMA (Gatineau, Clarence-Rockland)
Hamilton CMA (Burlington, Grimsby)
Kitchener CMA (Cambridge, Waterloo)
London CMA (St. Thomas, Strathroy-Caradoc)
St. Catharines CMA (Niagara Falls, Welland)
Oshawa CMA (Whitby, Clarington)
Windsor CMA (Lakeshore, LaSalle)
Barrie CMA (Innisfil, Springwater)
Sudbury CMA (Whitefish Lake, Wanapitei Reserve)
Quebec (including Gatineau) are included in the
The population of the
Ottawa CMA, in both provinces, is shown.
Ten largest municipalities by population
Main article: Education in Ontario
In Canada, education falls under provincial jurisdiction. Publicly
funded elementary and secondary schools are administered by the
Ontario Ministry of Education, while colleges and universities are
administered by the
Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and
Universities. The Minister of Education is Mitzie Hunter, and the
Minister of Training, Colleges and Universities is Reza Moridi.
Higher education in Ontario
List of colleges in Ontario and List of universities in
Higher education in Ontario
Higher education in Ontario includes postsecondary education and
skills training regulated by the Ministry of Training, Colleges, and
Universities and provided by universities, colleges of applied arts
and technology, and private career colleges. The minister is Reza
Moridi. The ministry administers laws covering 22 public
universities, 24 public colleges (21 Colleges of Applied Arts and
Technology (CAATs) and three Institutes of Technology and Advanced
Learning (ITALs)), 17 privately funded religious universities,
and over 500 private career colleges.
The Canadian constitution
provides each province with the responsibility for higher education
and there is no corresponding national federal ministry of higher
Canadian federalism the division of
responsibilities and taxing powers between the
Ontario and Canadian
governments creates the need for co-operation to fund and deliver
higher education to students. Each higher education system aims to
improve participation, access, and mobility for students. There are
two central organizations that assist with the process of applying to
Ontario universities and colleges: the
Application Centre and
Ontario College Application Service. While
application services are centralized, admission and selection
processes vary and are the purview of each institution independently.
Admission to many
Ontario postsecondary institutions can be highly
competitive. Upon admission, students may get involved with regional
student representation with the Canadian Federation of Students, the
Canadian Alliance of Student Associations, the
Student Alliance, or through the
College Student Alliance in Ontario.
Songs and slogans
In 1973 the first slogan to appear on licence plates in
"Keep It Beautiful". This was replaced by "Yours to Discover" in
1982, apparently inspired by a tourism slogan, "Discover Ontario",
dating back to 1927. Plates with the French equivalent, "Tant à
découvrir", were made available to the public beginning in May
2008. (From 1988 to 1990, "
Ontario Incredible" gave "Yours
to Discover" a brief respite.)
In 2007, a new song replaced "A Place to Stand" after four decades.
"There's No Place Like This" is featured in television advertising,
Ontario artists including Molly Johnson, Brian Byrne,
Keshia Chanté, as well as
Tomi Swick and Arkells.
Main article: List of people from Ontario
The province has professional sports teams in baseball, basketball,
Canadian football, ice hockey, lacrosse, rugby and soccer.
Tim Hortons Field
Kitchener Memorial Auditorium
Niagara River Lions
Raymond Chabot Grant Thornton Park
TD Place Stadium
TD Place Stadium
Canadian Tire Centre
NBA G League
Toronto Blue Jays
Toronto FC II
Ontario Soccer Centre
Toronto Maple Leafs
Transportation routes in
Ontario evolved from early waterway travel
First Nations paths followed by European explorers.
two major east-west routes, both starting from
Montreal in the
neighbouring province of Quebec. The northerly route, which was a
major fur trade route, travels west from
Montreal along the Ottawa
River, then continues northwestward towards Manitoba. Major cities on
or near the route include Ottawa, North Bay, Sudbury, Sault Ste.
Marie, and Thunder Bay. The southerly route, which was driven by
growth in settlements originated by the
United Empire Loyalists
United Empire Loyalists and
later other European immigrants, travels southwest from
the St. Lawrence River, Lake Ontario, and
Lake Erie before entering
the United States in Michigan. Major cities on or near the route
include Kingston, Belleville, Peterborough, Oshawa, Toronto,
Mississauga, Kitchener-Waterloo, Hamilton, London, Sarnia, and
Windsor. This route was also heavily used by immigrants to the
Midwestern US particularly in the late 19th century.
Main article: Roads in Ontario
400-Series Highways make up the primary vehicular network in the south
of province, and they connect to numerous border crossings with the
US, the busiest being the
Detroit–Windsor Tunnel and Ambassador
Bridge and the
Blue Water Bridge
Blue Water Bridge (via Highway 402). Some of the
primary highways along the southern route are Highway 401, Highway
417, and Highway 400, while other provincial highways and
regional roads inter-connect the remainder of the province.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway, which extends across most of the southern
portion of the province and connects to the Atlantic Ocean, is the
primary water transportation route for cargo, particularly iron ore
and grain. In the past, the
Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River were
also a major passenger transportation route, but over the past half
century passenger travel has been reduced to ferry services and
Via Rail operates the inter-regional passenger train service on the
Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, along with The Canadian, a
transcontinental rail service from
Southern Ontario to Vancouver, and
the Sudbury–White River train. Additionally,
Amtrak rail connects
Ontario with key New York cities including Buffalo, Albany, and New
Ontario Northland provides rail service to destinations as
far north as
Moosonee near James Bay, connecting them with the south.
Freight rail is dominated by the founding cross-country Canadian
National Railway and CP Rail companies, which during the 1990s sold
many short rail lines from their vast network to private companies
operating mostly in the south.
Regional commuter rail is limited to the provincially owned GO
Transit, and serves a train-bus network spanning the Golden Horseshoe
Toronto Transit Commission operates the province's only subway and
streetcar system, one of the busiest in North America. OC Transpo
operates, in addition to bus service, Ontario's only light rail
transit line, the
O-Train in Ottawa.
A light-rail metro called the
Confederation Line is under construction
in Ottawa. It will have 13 stations on 12.5 km (7.8 mi) and
part of it will run under the city's Downtown and feature three
underground stations. In addition, the Ion light rail and bus rapid
transit system is under construction in the province's Waterloo
Ontario Northland freight train crossing the
Missinaibi River at
Mattice-Val Côté in Northern Ontario
Important airports in the province include
International Airport, which is the busiest airport in Canada,
handling over 41 million passengers in 2015. Ottawa
Macdonald–Cartier International Airport is Ontario's second largest
airport. Toronto/Pearson and Ottawa/Macdonald-Cartier form two of the
three points in Canada's busiest set of air routes (the third point
being Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport).
Ontario cities have regional airports, many of which have
scheduled commuter flights from Air
Canada Jazz or smaller airlines
and charter companies – flights from the mid-size cities such
as Thunder Bay, Sault Ste. Marie, Sudbury, North Bay, Timmins,
Windsor, London, and Kingston feed directly into larger airports in
Toronto and Ottawa.
Bearskin Airlines also runs flights along the
northerly east-west route, connecting Ottawa, North Bay, Sudbury,
Sault Ste. Marie, Kitchener and
Thunder Bay directly.
Isolated towns and settlements in the northern areas of the province
rely partly or entirely on air service for travel, goods, and even
ambulance services (MEDIVAC), since much of the far northern area of
the province cannot be reached by road or rail.
Highway 401 is the busiest highway in North America and among the
busiest highways in the world.
GO Transit commuter train.
Canada is the largest airline operating in Ontario. Its largest
hub is at Pearson International Airport in Mississauga.
A light rail
O-Train crossing the Rideau River on the Trillium Line.
Eastern Ontario portal
Outline of Ontario
Index of Ontario-related articles
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Ontario is located in the geographic eastern half of Canada, but it
has historically and politically been considered to be part of Central
Canada (along with Manitoba).
Ontario is the largest province in the country by population".
Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on June 10, 2008.
Retrieved January 5, 2007.
^ Finance, Government of Ontario, Ministry of. "
Ontario Fact Sheet May
2016". Fin.gov.on.ca. Archived from the original on June 13, 2016.
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^ "Population of census metropolitan areas (2001 Census boundaries)".
Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on July 24, 2005.
Retrieved January 5, 2007.
^ Canada/United States International Boundary Commission (2006). "St.
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Conference, p. 21. Durham University. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
^ Mithun, Marianne (2000). The Languages of Native North America.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 312.
Canada // Ontario". Study Canada. pp. Last
Paragraph–second–last sentence. Archived from the original on July
6, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011. The name "Ontario" is generally
thought to be derived from the
Iroquois word Skanadario, meaning
^ "Lakes and Rivers".
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Archived
from the original on March 23, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
^ a b c d "The
Canada Country Study: Climate Impacts and Adaptation:
Ontario Region Executive Summary". Environment Canada. Archived from
the original on March 23, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
^ a b c d e Baldwin, David; Desloges, Joseph; Band, Lawrence.
"Physical Geography of Ontario" (PDF). UBC Press. Archived from the
original (PDF) on December 17, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2013.
^ a b "Natural Processes in the Great Lakes". US Environmental
Protection Agency. Archived from the original on February 2, 2013.
Retrieved March 25, 2013.
^ "Snowstorm shuts down London, Ont". CBC News. December 8, 2010.
Archived from the original on March 8, 2014.
^ "Windsor A, Ontario". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010.
Environment Canada. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014.
Retrieved April 12, 2014.
Niagara Falls NPCSH". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010.
Environment Canada. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014.
Retrieved April 12, 2014.
^ "1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals". Environment Canada.
February 13, 2014. Climate ID: 6158350. Archived from the original on
April 3, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
^ "Midland Water Pollution Control Plant". Canadian Climate Normals
1981–2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on May 17,
2017. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
Ottawa Macdonald Cartier Int'l A, Ontario". Canadian Climate
Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on
May 9, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
^ "Sudbury A, Ontario". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010.
Environment Canada. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014.
Retrieved April 12, 2014.
^ "Emo Radbourne". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment
Canada. Archived from the original on June 4, 2016. Retrieved May 9,
Thunder Bay A" (CSV). Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010.
Environment Canada. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
Kenora Airport". Canadian Climate Normal's 1981–2010. Environment
Canada. 2011. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved
April 9, 2014.
Moosonee UA". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment
Canada. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved April
^ Mills, David (1877). Report on the Boundaries of the Province of
Ontario. Toronto: Hunter, Rose & Co. p. 347. Archived from
the original on November 7, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
^ "Early Districts and Counties 1788–1899". Archives of Ontario.
September 5, 2006. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010.
Retrieved November 29, 2006.
^ "About Ontario; History: Government of Ontario". Archived from the
original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
^ "Digital History". Web.archive.org. June 26, 2004. Archived from the
original on June 26, 2004. Retrieved June 7, 2016. CS1 maint:
Unfit url (link)
^ "Étienne Brûlé's article on Encyclopædia Britannica".
Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on December 7,
2008. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
^ a b "About Ontario; History; French and British Struggle for
Domination". Government of Ontario. Archived from the original on
September 5, 2007. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 3, 2009.
Retrieved September 26, 2009.
Quebec Act of 1774". Solon.org. Archived from the original on
February 7, 2007. Retrieved January 15, 2007.
^ "The Encyclopædia britannica; a dictionary of arts, sciences,
literature and general information". Archive.org. Retrieved June 7,
^ "The Constitutional Act of 1791". Archived from the original on
August 29, 2007. Retrieved January 15, 2007.
^ "ARCHIVED – People – Virtual Vault – Library and Archives
Canada". Collectionscanada.ca. Archived from the original on March 21,
2016. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
^ "Canada's total population estimates, 2013" (PDF). Statistics
Canada. September 26, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 3, 2013.
Retrieved December 26, 2013.
^ "National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011". Statistics Canada.
May 8, 2013. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013.
Retrieved May 29, 2013.
^ "The Legal Context of Canada's Official Languages". Site for
Language Management in Canada, University of Ottawa. Archived from the
original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
^ a b "The evolution of English–French bilingualism in
1961 to 2011". www.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on
September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "2011 Census of Canada:
Topic-based tabulations". 12.ststcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original
on July 4, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
^ Government of Ontario. "
Ontario Facts: Overview". Archived from the
original on January 29, 2007. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
^ "Moody's downgrades
Ontario credit rating". April 26, 2012. Archived
from the original on April 6, 2014.
^ "S&P downgrades Ontario's credit outlook".
Toronto Star. April
25, 2012. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017.
^ "Credit agency praises
Ontario but holds back on rating boost".
metronews.ca. January 14, 2013. Archived from the original on December
^ "Canadian Federal and Provincial Fiscal Tables" (PDF). Economic
Special Reports. Royal Bank of Canada. September 26,
2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved
February 4, 2018.
Ontario is rich in hydroelectricity, especially areas near the
Ontario Facts. Archived from the original on February
18, 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
Ontario Power Generation: Power Generation". Opg.com. Archived from
the original on February 26, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
^ a b c "
Ontario projects steady rise in electricity costs for next 20
years". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on May 4,
^ "Accueil – Consultations prébudgétaires 2016–2017" (PDF).
Consultations prébudgétaires 2016–2017 – Ministère des Finances
du Québec. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 29,
^ "Toyota's opening a new chapter in Woodstock's industrial history".
Woodstocksentinelreview.com. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 7, 2011.
Retrieved July 18, 2011.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 6, 2011.
Retrieved July 18, 2011.
Ontario invest $142M in Oakville
Ford plant". Torontosun.com.
Archived from the original on July 13, 2016. Retrieved June 7,
^ David Crane (February 20, 2012). "
Ontario has to learn to live with
high dollar". thestar.com. Archived from the original on October 10,
^ "Fergus plant closing shows Ontario's decline".
November 24, 2013. Archived from the original on October 10,
Steel ends an era in Hamilton". The Globe and Mail. Archived
from the original on May 16, 2017.
^ "Federal government employment, wages and salaries, by census
metropolitan area – (Employment)", 2006–2010 Archived October 25,
2011, at the Wayback Machine., Statistics Canada
^ "Labour force characteristics, unadjusted, by census metropolitan
area (3 month moving average) – (Ottawa-
Gatineau (Ont.-Que.), Ottawa
Quebec part)", 2010/2011 Archived November 7, 2011, at the Wayback
Machine., Statistics Canada
^ Joseph Brean (December 7, 2013). "The quantum computing revolution:
Mike Lazaridis is betting on tech that hasn't
been invented … yet". National Post. Archived from the original on
December 8, 2013.
Ontario is the
Silicon Valley of the North". The Globe and
Mail. Archived from the original on November 10, 2014.
^ "Employment by major industry groups, seasonally adjusted, by
province (monthly) – (Ontario)", June 2011, Statistics Canada
^ "Cliffs' pullout forces
Ontario action in Ring of Fire mining area".
The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016.
^ "Ontario". Ministry of Economic Development and Trade. Archived from
the original on October 24, 2006. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
^ "History of Eatonville". Maple Tree. Archived from the original on
March 23, 2016.
^ "Ida Siegel with Edmund Scheuer at the Canadian Jewish Farm School,
Ontario Jewish Archives. Archived from the original on
July 14, 2014.
^ "Total farm area, land tenure and land in crops, by province:
Ontario". Census of Agriculture, 1986 to 2006. Statistics Canada.
October 31, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
^ "Heinz closes Leamington plant, 740 people out of work". cbc.ca.
November 15, 2013. Archived from the original on November 24,
^ "Wynne offers $200K to help Leamington in wake of Heinz closure".
Toronto. Archived from the original on November 25, 2013.
^ a b "
Ontario plant closing a casualty of changing tastes".
The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on February 20,
^ a b "
Ontario Unveils Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009".
Renewableenergyworld.com. Archived from the original on November 13,
2013. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and
territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2006
and 2001 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada. November 5, 2008.
Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved April 1,
^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and
territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001
censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population.
March 13, 2007. Archived from the original on September 12, 2007.
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^ a b Ministry of Transportation (Ontario) (August 6, 2002). "Ontario
government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway 401".
Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved December
^ a b Brian Gray (April 10, 2004). "GTA Economy Dinged by Every Crash
on the 401 – North America's Busiest Freeway".
transcribed at Urban Planet. Retrieved March 18, 2007. The
'phenomenal' number of vehicles on Hwy. 401 as it cuts through Toronto
makes it the busiest freeway in the world...
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towers". Statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on December 18,
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Main article: Bibliography of Ontario
Beckett, Harry (2001). Ontario. Weigl.
White, Randall (1985). Ontario, 1610–1985 : a political and
economic history. Dundurn Press. ISBN 0-919670-98-9.
Montigny, Edgar-André; Chambers, Anne Lorene (2000).
Confederation : a reader. University of
Celebrating One Thousand Years of Ontario's History: Proceedings of
the Celebrating One Thousand Years of Ontario's History Symposium,
April 14, 15 and 16, 2000.
Ontario Historical Society, 2000. 343 pp.
Baskerville, Peter A. Sites of Power: A Concise History of Ontario.
Oxford U. Press., 2005. 296 pp. (first edition was Ontario: Image,
Identity and Power, 2002). online review
Chambers, Lori, and Edgar-Andre Montigny, eds.
Confederation: A Reader (2000), articles by scholars
Winfield, Mark S. Blue-Green Province: The Environment and the
Economy of Ontario
Economy of Ontario (University of
British Columbia Press;
2012) 296 pages; environmental policies since 1945
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