In

_{0} spaces is T_{0}.
* Every product of T_{1} spaces is T_{1}.
* Every product of

Tychonoff's theorem
In mathematics, Tychonoff's theorem states that the product of any collection of compact topological spaces is compact with respect to the product topology. The theorem is named after Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov (whose surname sometimes is trans ...

on compact sets is a more complex and subtle example of a statement that requires the axiom of choice and is equivalent to it in its most general formulation, and shows why the product topology may be considered the more useful topology to put on a Cartesian product.

topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing ...

and related areas of mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics ...

, a product space is the Cartesian product
In mathematics, specifically set theory, the Cartesian product of two sets ''A'' and ''B'', denoted ''A''×''B'', is the set of all ordered pairs where ''a'' is in ''A'' and ''b'' is in ''B''. In terms of set-builder notation, that is
: A\ti ...

of a family of topological space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called points ...

s equipped with a natural topology
In any domain of mathematics, a space has a natural topology if there is a topology on the space which is "best adapted" to its study within the domain in question. In many cases this imprecise definition means little more than the assertion that ...

called the product topology. This topology differs from another, perhaps more natural-seeming, topology called the box topology, which can also be given to a product space and which agrees with the product topology when the product is over only finitely many spaces. However, the product topology is "correct" in that it makes the product space a categorical product
In category theory, the product of two (or more) objects in a category is a notion designed to capture the essence behind constructions in other areas of mathematics such as the Cartesian product of sets, the direct product of groups or ring ...

of its factors, whereas the box topology is too fine
Fine may refer to:
Characters
* Sylvia Fine (''The Nanny''), Fran's mother on ''The Nanny''
* Officer Fine, a character in ''Tales from the Crypt'', played by Vincent Spano
Legal terms
* Fine (penalty), money to be paid as punishment for an offe ...

; in that sense the product topology is the natural topology on the Cartesian product.
Definition

Throughout, $I$ will be some non-emptyindex set
In mathematics, an index set is a set whose members label (or index) members of another set. For instance, if the elements of a set may be ''indexed'' or ''labeled'' by means of the elements of a set , then is an index set. The indexing consists ...

and for every index $i\; \backslash in\; I,$ let $X\_i$ be a topological space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called points ...

.
Denote the Cartesian product
In mathematics, specifically set theory, the Cartesian product of two sets ''A'' and ''B'', denoted ''A''×''B'', is the set of all ordered pairs where ''a'' is in ''A'' and ''b'' is in ''B''. In terms of set-builder notation, that is
: A\ti ...

of the sets $X\_i$ by
$$X\; :=\; \backslash prod\; X\_\; :=\; \backslash prod\_\; X\_i$$
and for every index $i\; \backslash in\; I,$ denote the $i$-th by
$$\backslash begin\; p\_i\; :\backslash ;\&\&\; \backslash prod\_\; X\_j\; \&\&\backslash ;\backslash to\backslash ;\; \&\; X\_i\; \backslash \backslash ;\; href="/html/ALL/l/.3ex.html"\; ;"title=".3ex">.3ex$$
The , sometimes called the , on $\backslash prod\_\; X\_i$ is defined to be the coarsest topology
In topology and related areas of mathematics, the set of all possible topologies on a given set forms a partially ordered set. This order relation can be used for comparison of the topologies.
Definition
A topology on a set may be defined as t ...

(that is, the topology with the fewest open sets) for which all the projections $p\_i\; :\; \backslash prod\; X\_\; \backslash to\; X\_i$ are continuous
Continuity or continuous may refer to:
Mathematics
* Continuity (mathematics), the opposing concept to discreteness; common examples include
** Continuous probability distribution or random variable in probability and statistics
** Continuous ...

. The Cartesian product $X\; :=\; \backslash prod\_\; X\_i$ endowed with the product topology is called the .
The open sets in the product topology are arbitrary unions (finite or infinite) of sets of the form $\backslash prod\_\; U\_i,$ where each $U\_i$ is open in $X\_i$ and $U\_i\; \backslash neq\; X\_i$ for only finitely many $i.$ In particular, for a finite product (in particular, for the product of two topological spaces), the set of all Cartesian products between one basis element from each $X\_i$ gives a basis for the product topology of $\backslash prod\_\; X\_i.$ That is, for a finite product, the set of all $\backslash prod\_\; U\_i,$ where $U\_i$ is an element of the (chosen) basis of $X\_i,$ is a basis for the product topology of $\backslash prod\_\; X\_i.$
The product topology on $\backslash prod\_\; X\_i$ is the topology generated by sets of the form $p\_i^\backslash left(U\_i\backslash right),$ where $i\; \backslash in\; I$ and $U\_i$ is an open subset of $X\_i.$ In other words, the sets
$$\backslash left\backslash $$
form a subbase
In topology, a subbase (or subbasis, prebase, prebasis) for a topological space X with topology T is a subcollection B of T that generates T, in the sense that T is the smallest topology containing B. A slightly different definition is used by so ...

for the topology on $X.$ A subset of $X$ is open if and only if it is a (possibly infinite) union
Union commonly refers to:
* Trade union, an organization of workers
* Union (set theory), in mathematics, a fundamental operation on sets
Union may also refer to:
Arts and entertainment
Music
* Union (band), an American rock group
** ''Un ...

of intersections of finitely many sets of the form $p\_i^\backslash left(U\_i\backslash right).$ The $p\_i^\backslash left(U\_i\backslash right)$ are sometimes called open cylinder In mathematics, the cylinder sets form a basis of the product topology on a product of sets; they are also a generating family of the cylinder σ-algebra.
General definition
Given a collection S of sets, consider the Cartesian product X = \prod_ ...

s, and their intersections are cylinder sets.
The product topology is also called the because a sequence
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order matters. Like a set, it contains members (also called ''elements'', or ''terms''). The number of elements (possibly infinite) is calle ...

(or more generally, a net
Net or net may refer to:
Mathematics and physics
* Net (mathematics), a filter-like topological generalization of a sequence
* Net, a linear system of divisors of dimension 2
* Net (polyhedron), an arrangement of polygons that can be folded up ...

) in $\backslash prod\_\; X\_i$ converges if and only if all its projections to the spaces $X\_i$ converge.
Explicitly, a sequence $s\_\; =\; \backslash left(s\_n\backslash right)\_^$ (respectively, a net $s\_\; =\; \backslash left(s\_a\backslash right)\_$) converges to a given point $x\; \backslash in\; \backslash prod\_\; X\_i$ if and only if $p\_i\backslash left(s\_\backslash right)\; \backslash to\; p\_i(x)$ in $X\_i$ for every index $i\; \backslash in\; I,$ where $p\_i\backslash left(s\_\backslash right)\; :=\; p\_i\; \backslash circ\; s\_$ denotes $\backslash left(p\_i\backslash left(s\_n\backslash right)\backslash right)\_^$ (respectively, denotes $\backslash left(p\_i\backslash left(s\_a\backslash right)\backslash right)\_$).
In particular, if $X\_i\; =\; \backslash R$ is used for all $i$ then the Cartesian product is the space $\backslash prod\_\; \backslash R\; =\; \backslash R^I$ of all real
Real may refer to:
Currencies
* Brazilian real (R$)
* Central American Republic real
* Mexican real
* Portuguese real
* Spanish real
* Spanish colonial real
Music Albums
* ''Real'' (L'Arc-en-Ciel album) (2000)
* ''Real'' (Bright album) (2010) ...

-valued function
Function or functionality may refer to:
Computing
* Function key, a type of key on computer keyboards
* Function model, a structured representation of processes in a system
* Function object or functor or functionoid, a concept of object-oriente ...

s on $I,$ and convergence in the product topology is the same as pointwise convergence
In mathematics, pointwise convergence is one of various senses in which a sequence of functions can converge to a particular function. It is weaker than uniform convergence, to which it is often compared.
Definition
Suppose that X is a set and ...

of functions.
Examples

If the real line $\backslash R$ is endowed with itsstandard topology
In mathematics, the real coordinate space of dimension , denoted ( ) or is the set of the -tuples of real numbers, that is the set of all sequences of real numbers. With component-wise addition and scalar multiplication, it is a real vector ...

then the product topology on the product of $n$ copies of $\backslash R$ is equal to the ordinary Euclidean topology
In mathematics, and especially general topology, the Euclidean topology is the natural topology induced on n-dimensional Euclidean space \R^n by the Euclidean distance, Euclidean metric.
Definition
The Euclidean norm on \R^n is the non-negative f ...

on $\backslash R^n.$ (Because $n$ is finite, this is also equivalent to the box topology on $\backslash R^n.$)
The Cantor set is homeomorphic to the product of countably many
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural number ...

copies of the discrete space $\backslash $ and the space of irrational number
In mathematics, the irrational numbers (from in- prefix assimilated to ir- (negative prefix, privative) + rational) are all the real numbers that are not rational numbers. That is, irrational numbers cannot be expressed as the ratio of two inte ...

s is homeomorphic to the product of countably many copies of the natural number
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country").
Numbers used for counting are called ''Cardinal n ...

s, where again each copy carries the discrete topology.
Several additional examples are given in the article on the initial topology
In general topology and related areas of mathematics, the initial topology (or induced topology or weak topology or limit topology or projective topology) on a set X, with respect to a family of functions on X, is the coarsest topology on ''X'' tha ...

.
Properties

The set of Cartesian products between the open sets of the topologies of each $X\_i$ forms a basis for what is called the box topology on $X.$ In general, the box topology is finer than the product topology, but for finite products they coincide. The product space $X,$ together with the canonical projections, can be characterized by the followinguniversal property
In mathematics, more specifically in category theory, a universal property is a property that characterizes up to an isomorphism the result of some constructions. Thus, universal properties can be used for defining some objects independently fr ...

: if $Y$ is a topological space, and for every $i\; \backslash in\; I,$ $f\_i\; :\; Y\; \backslash to\; X\_i$ is a continuous map, then there exists continuous map $f\; :\; Y\; \backslash to\; X$ such that for each $i\; \backslash in\; I$ the following diagram commutes.
This shows that the product space is a product
Product may refer to:
Business
* Product (business), an item that serves as a solution to a specific consumer problem.
* Product (project management), a deliverable or set of deliverables that contribute to a business solution
Mathematics
* Produ ...

in the category of topological spaces. It follows from the above universal property that a map $f\; :\; Y\; \backslash to\; X$ is continuous if and only if
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, "if and only if" (shortened as "iff") is a biconditional logical connective between statements, where either both statements are true or both are false.
The connective is b ...

$f\_i\; =\; p\_i\; \backslash circ\; f$ is continuous for all $i\; \backslash in\; I.$ In many cases it is easier to check that the component functions $f\_i$ are continuous. Checking whether a map $X\; \backslash to\; Y$ is continuous is usually more difficult; one tries to use the fact that the $p\_i$ are continuous in some way.
In addition to being continuous, the canonical projections $p\_i\; :\; X\; \backslash to\; X\_i$ are open map
In mathematics, more specifically in topology, an open map is a function between two topological spaces that maps open sets to open sets.
That is, a function f : X \to Y is open if for any open set U in X, the image f(U) is open in Y.
Likewise, a ...

s. This means that any open subset of the product space remains open when projected down to the $X\_i.$ The converse is not true: if $W$ is a subspace of the product space whose projections down to all the $X\_i$ are open, then $W$ need not be open in $X$ (consider for instance $W\; =\; \backslash R^2\; \backslash setminus\; (0,\; 1)^2.$) The canonical projections are not generally closed map
In mathematics, more specifically in topology, an open map is a function between two topological spaces that maps open sets to open sets.
That is, a function f : X \to Y is open if for any open set U in X, the image f(U) is open in Y.
Likewise, ...

s (consider for example the closed set $\backslash left\backslash ,$ whose projections onto both axes are $\backslash R\; \backslash setminus\; \backslash $).
Suppose $\backslash prod\_\; S\_i$ is a product of arbitrary subsets, where $S\_i\; \backslash subseteq\; X\_i$ for every $i\; \backslash in\; I.$ If all $S\_i$ are then $\backslash prod\_\; S\_i$ is a closed subset of the product space $X$ if and only if every $S\_i$ is a closed subset of $X\_i.$ More generally, the closure of the product $\backslash prod\_\; S\_i$ of arbitrary subsets in the product space $X$ is equal to the product of the closures:
$$\backslash operatorname\_X\; \backslash left(\backslash prod\_\; S\_i\backslash right)\; =\; \backslash prod\_\; \backslash left(\backslash operatorname\_\; S\_i\backslash right).$$
Any product of Hausdorff space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space ( , ), separated space or T2 space is a topological space where, for any two distinct points, there exist neighbourhoods of each which are disjoint from each other. Of the m ...

s is again a Hausdorff space.
Tychonoff's theorem
In mathematics, Tychonoff's theorem states that the product of any collection of compact topological spaces is compact with respect to the product topology. The theorem is named after Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov (whose surname sometimes is trans ...

, which is equivalent to the axiom of choice
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that ''a Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty''. Informally put, the axiom of choice says that given any collection ...

, states that any product of compact space
In mathematics, specifically general topology, compactness is a property that seeks to generalize the notion of a closed and bounded subset of Euclidean space by making precise the idea of a space having no "punctures" or "missing endpoints", i ...

s is a compact space. A specialization of Tychonoff's theorem
In mathematics, Tychonoff's theorem states that the product of any collection of compact topological spaces is compact with respect to the product topology. The theorem is named after Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov (whose surname sometimes is trans ...

that requires only the ultrafilter lemma (and not the full strength of the axiom of choice) states that any product of compact Hausdorff spaces is a compact space.
If $z\; =\; \backslash left(z\_i\backslash right)\_\; \backslash in\; X$ is fixed then the set
$$\backslash left\backslash $$
is a dense subset
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subset ''A'' of a topological space ''X'' is said to be dense in ''X'' if every point of ''X'' either belongs to ''A'' or else is arbitrarily "close" to a member of ''A'' — for instance, the ra ...

of the product space $X$.
Relation to other topological notions

Separation * Every product of THausdorff space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space ( , ), separated space or T2 space is a topological space where, for any two distinct points, there exist neighbourhoods of each which are disjoint from each other. Of the m ...

s is Hausdorff.
* Every product of regular space
In topology and related fields of mathematics, a topological space ''X'' is called a regular space if every closed subset ''C'' of ''X'' and a point ''p'' not contained in ''C'' admit non-overlapping open neighborhoods. Thus ''p'' and ''C'' ca ...

s is regular.
* Every product of Tychonoff space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, Tychonoff spaces and completely regular spaces are kinds of topological spaces. These conditions are examples of separation axioms. A Tychonoff space refers to any completely regular space that is ...

s is Tychonoff.
* A product of normal space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a normal space is a topological space ''X'' that satisfies Axiom T4: every two disjoint closed sets of ''X'' have disjoint open neighborhoods. A normal Hausdorff space is also called a T4 space. T ...

s be normal.
Compactness
* Every product of compact spaces is compact (Tychonoff's theorem
In mathematics, Tychonoff's theorem states that the product of any collection of compact topological spaces is compact with respect to the product topology. The theorem is named after Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov (whose surname sometimes is trans ...

).
* A product of locally compact space In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space is called locally compact if, roughly speaking, each small portion of the space looks like a small portion of a compact space. More precisely, it is a topological space in which ev ...

s be locally compact. However, an arbitrary product of locally compact spaces where all but finitely many are compact locally compact (This condition is sufficient and necessary).
Connectedness
* Every product of connected
Connected may refer to:
Film and television
* ''Connected'' (2008 film), a Hong Kong remake of the American movie ''Cellular''
* '' Connected: An Autoblogography About Love, Death & Technology'', a 2011 documentary film
* ''Connected'' (2015 TV ...

(resp. path-connected) spaces is connected (resp. path-connected).
* Every product of hereditarily disconnected spaces is hereditarily disconnected.
Metric spaces
* Countable products of metric space
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general settin ...

s are metrizable space
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a metrizable space is a topological space that is homeomorphic to a metric space. That is, a topological space (X, \mathcal) is said to be metrizable if there is a metric d : X \times X \to , \infty) s ...

s.
Axiom of choice

One of many ways to express theaxiom of choice
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that ''a Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty''. Informally put, the axiom of choice says that given any collection ...

is to say that it is equivalent to the statement that the Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty. The proof that this is equivalent to the statement of the axiom in terms of choice functions is immediate: one needs only to pick an element from each set to find a representative in the product. Conversely, a representative of the product is a set which contains exactly one element from each component.
The axiom of choice occurs again in the study of (topological) product spaces; for example, See also

* * * - Sometimes called the projective limit topology * * * * *Notes

References

* * {{cite book, last=Willard , first=Stephen , title=General Topology , year=1970 , publisher=Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. , location=Reading, Mass. , isbn=0486434796 , url=http://store.doverpublications.com/0486434796.html , access-date=13 February 2013 General topology Operations on structures