Pride is an inwardly directed emotion that carries two antithetical
meanings. With a negative connotation pride refers to a foolishly
and irrationally corrupt sense of one's personal value, status or
accomplishments, used synonymously with hubris. With a positive
connotation, pride refers to a humble and content sense of attachment
toward one's own or another's choices and actions, or toward a whole
group of people, and is a product of praise, independent
self-reflection, and a fulfilled feeling of belonging.
In Judaism, pride is called the root of all evil. In Christianity,
pride is the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins, the
father of all sins.
Philosophers and social psychologists have noted that pride is a
complex secondary emotion which requires the development of a sense of
self and the mastery of relevant conceptual distinctions (e.g. that
pride is distinct from happiness and joy) through language-based
interaction with others. Some social psychologists identify the
nonverbal expression of pride as a means of sending a functional,
automatically perceived signal of high social status. In contrast,
pride could also be defined as a lowly disagreement with the truth.
One definition of pride in the former sense comes from St. Augustine:
"the love of one's own excellence". A similar definition comes from
Meher Baba: "
Pride is the specific feeling through which egoism
Pride is sometimes viewed as corrupt or as a vice, sometimes as proper
or as a virtue. While some philosophers such as
Aristotle (and George
Bernard Shaw) consider pride (but not hubris) a profound virtue, some
world religions consider pride's fraudulent form a sin, such as is
expressed in Proverbs 11:2 of the Hebrew Bible. When viewed as a
virtue, pride in one's abilities is known as virtuous pride, greatness
of soul or magnanimity, but when viewed as a vice it is often known to
be self-idolatry, sadistic contempt, vanity or vainglory.
also manifest itself as a high opinion of one's nation (national
pride) and ethnicity (ethnic pride).
2 Philosophical views
2.1 Ancient Greek philosophy
3 Psychological views
3.1 As an emotion
3.2 Positive outcomes
3.3 In economic psychology
Sin and self-acceptance
Hubris and group pride
8 See also
Proud comes from late
Old English prut, probably from
Old French prud
"brave, valiant" (11th century) (which became preux in French), from
Latin term prodis "useful", which is compared with the Latin
prodesse "be of use". The sense of "having a high opinion of
oneself", not in French, may reflect the Anglo-Saxons' opinion of the
Norman knights who called themselves "proud".
Ancient Greek philosophy
Aristotle identified pride (megalopsuchia, variously translated as
proper pride, greatness of soul and magnanimity) as the crown of
the virtues, distinguishing it from vanity, temperance, and humility,
Now the man is thought to be proud who thinks himself worthy of great
things, being worthy of them; for he who does so beyond his deserts is
a fool, but no virtuous man is foolish or silly. The proud man, then,
is the man we have described. For he who is worthy of little and
thinks himself worthy of little is temperate, but not proud; for pride
implies greatness, as beauty implies a goodsized body, and little
people may be neat and well-proportioned but cannot be beautiful.
He concludes then that
Pride, then, seems to be a sort of crown of the virtues; for it makes
them more powerful, and it is not found without them. Therefore it is
hard to be truly proud; for it is impossible without nobility and
goodness of character.
Aristotle defined the vice of hubris as follows:
to cause shame to the victim, not in order that anything may happen to
you, nor because anything has happened to you, but merely for your own
Hubris is not the requital of past injuries; this is
revenge. As for the pleasure in hubris, its cause is this: naive men
think that by ill-treating others they make their own superiority the
Thus, although pride and hubris are often deemed the same thing, for
Aristotle and many philosophers hubris is altogether an entirely
different thing from pride.
As an emotion
In psychological terms, positive pride is "a pleasant, sometimes
exhilarating, emotion that results from a positive
self-evaluation". It was added by Tracy et al. to the University
of California, Davis, Set of
Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE) in 2009, as
one of three "self-conscious" emotions known to have recognizable
expressions (along with embarrassment and shame).
The term "fiero" was coined by Italian psychologist Isabella Poggi to
describe the pride experienced and expressed in the moments following
a personal triumph over adversity. Facial expressions and
gestures that demonstrate pride can involve a lifting of the chin,
smiles, or arms on hips to demonstrate victory. Individuals may
implicitly grant status to others based solely on their expressions of
pride, even in cases in which they wish to avoid doing so. Indeed,
some studies show that the nonverbal expression of pride conveys a
message that is automatically perceived by others about a person's
high social status in a group.
Behaviorally, pride can also be expressed by adopting an expanded
posture in which the head is tilted back and the arms extended out
from the body. This postural display is innate as it is shown in
congenitally blind individuals who have lacked the opportunity to see
it in others.
A common understanding of pride is that it results from self-directed
satisfaction with meeting the personal goals; for example, Weiner et
al. have posited that positive performance outcomes elicit pride in an
individual when the event is appraised as having been caused by him
alone. Moreover, Oveis et al. conceptualize pride as a display of the
strong self that promotes feelings of similarity to strong others, as
well as differentiation from weak others. Seen in this light, pride
can be conceptualized as a hierarchy-enhancing emotion, as its
experience and display helps rid negotiations of conflict. Pride
involves exhilarated pleasure and a feeling of accomplishment. It is
related to "more positive behaviors and outcomes in the area where the
individual is proud" (Weiner, 1985).
Pride is generally associated
with positive social behaviors such as helping others and outward
promotion. Along with hope, it is also often described as an emotion
that facilitates performance attainment, as it can help trigger and
sustain focused and appetitive effort to prepare for upcoming
evaluative events. It may also help enhance the quality and
flexibility of the effort expended (Fredrickson, 2001). According to
Bagozzi et al., pride can have the positive benefits of enhancing
creativity, productivity, and altruism. For instance, it has been
found that in terms of school achievement, pride is associated with a
higher GPA in low neighborhood socioeconomic environments, whereas in
more advantaged neighborhoods, pride is associated with a lower
In economic psychology
In the field of economic psychology, pride is conceptualized in a
spectrum ranging from "proper pride", associated with genuine
achievements, and "false pride", which can be maladaptive or even
pathological. Lea et al. have examined the role of pride in various
economic situations and claim that in all cases pride is involved
because economic decisions are not taken in isolation from one
another, but are linked together by the selfhood of the people who
take them. Understood in this way, pride is an emotional state
that works to ensure that people take financial decisions that are in
their long-term interests, even when in the short term they would
Sin and self-acceptance
Self-esteem § Contingent vs. non-contingent
Pride, from the Seven Deadly Sins by
Jacob Matham c. 1592
Exaggerated self-esteem is called "pride". Classical Christian
theology views pride as being the result of high self-esteem, and thus
high self-esteem was viewed as the primary human problem, but
beginning in the 20th century, "humanistic psychology" diagnosed the
primary human problem as low self-esteem stemming from a lack of
belief in one's "true worth".
Carl Rogers observed that most people
"regard themselves as worthless and unlovable." Thus, they lack
Terry Cooper conceptualized in 2003 excessive pride (along with low
self-esteem) as an important paradigm in describing the human
condition. He examines and compares the Augustinian-Niebuhrian
conviction that pride is primary, the feminist concept of pride as
being absent in the experience of women, the humanistic psychology
position that pride does not adequately account for anyone's
experience, and the humanistic psychology idea that if pride emerges,
it is always a false front designed to protect an undervalued
He considers that the work of certain neo-Freudian psychoanalysts,
namely Karen Horney, offers promise in dealing with what he calls a
"deadlock between the overvalued and undervalued self" (Cooper,
112–3). Cooper refers to their work in describing the connection
between religious and psychological pride as well as sin to describe
how a neurotic pride system underlies an appearance of self-contempt
and low self-esteem:
The "idealized self," the "tyranny of the should," the "pride system"
and the nature of self-hate all point toward the intertwined
relationship between neurotic pride and self-contempt. Understanding
how a neurotic pride system underlies an appearance of self-contempt
and low self-esteem. (Cooper, 112–3).
Thus, hubris, which is an exaggerated form of self-esteem, is
sometimes actually a lie used to cover the lack of self-esteem the
committer of pride feels deeply down.
In the King James Bible, et al., those people exhibiting excess pride
are labeled with somewhat archaic "Haughty".
Hubris and group pride
Main article: Hubris
See also: Group narcissism
Hubris itself is associated with more intra-individual negative
outcomes and is commonly related to expressions of aggression and
hostility (Tangney, 1999). As one might expect,
Hubris is not
necessarily associated with high self-esteem but with highly
fluctuating or variable self-esteem. Excessive feelings of hubris have
a tendency to create conflict and sometimes terminating close
relationships, which has led it to be understood as one of the few
emotions with no clear positive or adaptive functions (Rhodwalt, et
Several studies by UC Davis psychologist Cynthia Picket about group
pride, have shown that groups that boast, gloat or denigrate others
tend to become a group with low social status or to be vulnerable to
threats from other groups. Suggesting that "hubristic, pompous
displays of group pride might actually be a sign of group insecurity
as opposed to a sign of strength," she states that those that express
pride by being filled with humility whilst focusing on members'
efforts and hard work tend to achieve high social standing in both the
adult public and personal eyes.
The Father and Mother by
Boardman Robinson depicting War as the
Greed and Pride.
Main article: Nationalism
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April
In Germany, "national pride" ("Nationalstolz") is often associated
with the former Nazi regime. Strong displays of national pride are
therefore considered poor taste by many Germans. There is an ongoing
public debate about the issue of German patriotism. The World Cup in
2006, held in Germany, saw a wave of patriotism sweep the country in a
manner not seen for many years. Although many were hesitant to show
such blatant support as the hanging of the national flag from windows,
as the team progressed through the tournament, so too did the level of
support across the nation. By the time the semi-final against
Italy came around, the level of national pride and unity was at its
highest throughout the tournament, and the hosting of the World Cup is
seen to have been a great success for
Germany as a nation. After the
World Cup, however, the subject of patriotism became again as
difficult as it had been before.
The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a
worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss
the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate.
(May 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Main article: Asian pride
Asian pride in modern slang refers mostly to those of East Asian
descent, though it can include anyone of Asian descent. Asian pride
was originally fragmented, as Asian nations have had long conflicts
with each other, examples are the old Japanese and Chinese religious
beliefs of their individual superiority.
Asian pride emerged
prominently during European colonialism. At one time, Europeans
controlled 85% of the world's land through colonialism, resulting in
anti-Western feelings among Asian nations. Today, some Asians
still look upon European involvement in their affairs with
suspicion. In contrast, Asian empires are prominent and are
proudly remembered by adherents to Asian Pride.
There is an emerging discourse of Chinese pride which unfolds complex
histories and maps of privileges and empowerments. In a deeper sense,
it is a strategic positioning, aligned with approaches such as "Asia
as method", to invite more diverse resistances in language,
culture, and practices, in challenging colonial, imperial dominations,
and being critical of Eurocentric epistemologies. In more specific
cases, it examines the Sinophone circulations of power relations
connecting the transnational to the local, for example, a particular
set of Chinese-Canadian relations between China's increasing
industrial materiality and output in which pride becomes an
expansionist reach and mobilization of capital, Canada's active
interests in tapping into Asian and Chinese labours, markets, and
industrial productions, and the intersected cultural politics of
'Chinese-ness' in an East Pacific British Columbia city where
'Chinese' has been tagged as a majority-minority.
Main article: Black pride
Black pride is a slogan used primarily in the
United States to raise
awareness for a black racial identity. The slogan has been used by
African Americans of sub-Saharan African origin to denote a feeling of
self-confidence, self-respect, celebrating one's heritage, and being
proud of one's personal worth.
Main article: White pride
White pride is a slogan used primarily in the
United States for a
white race identity. This is traditionally closely aligned with white
supremacy, white separatism, and other extreme manifestations of white
Gay pride refers to a worldwide movement and philosophy asserting that
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals should be
proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity.
advocates work for equal "rights and benefits" for LGBT
people. The movement has three main premises: that people
should be proud of their sexual preference and gender identity, that
sexual diversity is a gift, and that sexual orientation and gender
identity are inherent and cannot be intentionally altered.
The word pride is used in this case an antonym for shame.
this sense is an affirmation of one's self and the community as a
whole. The modern "gay pride" movement began after the Stonewall riots
of the late 1960s. In June 1970, the first pride parade in the United
States commemorated the one-year anniversary of the Stonewall
riots—the nearly week-long uprising between New York City youth and
police officers following a raid of Stonewall Inn.
Main article: Vanity
Detail of "Pride" in
The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things
The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things by
In conventional parlance, vanity sometimes is used in a positive sense
to refer to a rational concern for one's personal appearance,
attractiveness and dress and is thus not the same as pride. However,
it also refers to an excessive or irrational belief in one's own
abilities or attractiveness in the eyes of others and may in so far be
compared to pride. The term
Vanity originates from the
vanitas meaning emptiness, untruthfulness, futility, foolishness and
empty pride. Here empty pride means a fake pride, in the sense of
vainglory, unjustified by one's own achievements and actions, but
sought by pretense and appeals to superficial characteristics.
In many religions, vanity is considered a form of self-idolatry, in
which one rejects
God for the sake of one's own image, and thereby
becomes divorced from the graces of God. The stories of
Narcissus (who gave us the term narcissism), and others, attend to a
pernicious aspect of vanity. In Western art, vanity was often
symbolized by a peacock, and in Biblical terms, by the Whore of
Babylon. During the Renaissance, vanity was invariably represented as
a naked woman, sometimes seated or reclining on a couch. She attends
to her hair with comb and mirror. The mirror is sometimes held by a
demon or a putto. Other symbols of vanity include jewels, gold coins,
a purse, and often by the figure of death himself.
"All Is Vanity" by C. Allan Gilbert, evoking the inevitable decay of
life and beauty toward death
Often we find an inscription on a scroll that reads Omnia Vanitas
("All is Vanity"), a quote from the
Latin translation of the Book of
Ecclesiastes. Although that phrase, itself depicted in a type of
still life, vanitas, originally referred not to obsession with one's
appearance, but to the ultimate fruitlessness of man's efforts in this
world, the phrase summarizes the complete preoccupation of the subject
of the picture.
"The artist invites us to pay lip-service to condemning her", writes
Edwin Mullins, "while offering us full permission to drool over her.
She admires herself in the glass, while we treat the picture that
purports to incriminate her as another kind of glass—a
window—through which we peer and secretly desire her." The theme
of the recumbent woman often merged artistically with the
non-allegorical one of a reclining Venus.
In his table of the seven deadly sins,
Hieronymus Bosch depicts a
bourgeois woman admiring herself in a mirror held up by a devil.
Behind her is an open jewelry box. A painting attributed to Nicolas
Tournier, which hangs in the Ashmolean Museum, is An Allegory of
Justice and Vanity. A young woman holds a balance, symbolizing
justice; she does not look at the mirror or the skull on the table
before her. Vermeer's famous painting
Girl with a Pearl Earring
Girl with a Pearl Earring is
sometimes believed to depict the sin of vanity, as the young girl has
adorned herself before a glass without further positive allegorical
attributes. All is Vanity, by
Charles Allan Gilbert
Charles Allan Gilbert (1873–1929),
carries on this theme. An optical illusion, the painting depicts what
appears to be a large grinning skull. Upon closer examination, it
reveals itself to be a young woman gazing at her reflection in the
mirror. Such artistic works served to warn viewers of the ephemeral
nature of youthful beauty, as well as the brevity of human life and
the inevitability of death.
The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things
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Mono no aware
Seven deadly sins
Persons who categorized
and described the sins
Pope Gregory I
In art and culture
The Seven Deadly Sins (1585 play)
The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things
The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things (painting)
The Seven Deadly Sins (1933 ballet)
The Seven Deadly Sins (1952 film)
The Seven Deadly Sins (1962 film)
The Muppet Show: Sex and Violence (1975)
Seven (1995 film)
Fullmetal Alchemist (manga series)
The Seven Deadly Sins (manga series)
The Seven Deadly Sins of Modern Times
The Seven Deadly Sins of Modern Times (painting)
House of Anubis: The Re-Awakening (2013)
Evillious Chronicles (song and book series)
Seven Heavenly Virtues
Seven Social Sins
Christian views on sin
Christian views on the Old Covenant
The Seven Virtues in Christian ethics
Great Commandment; "All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two
commandments." – Matthew 22:35-40
Republic, Book IV
Augustine of Hippo
Sources: Paul the Apostle
1 Corinthians 13
Seven deadly sins
Source: Prudentius, Psychomachia
People: Evagrius Ponticus
Pope Gregory I
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