Preveza (Greek: Πρέβεζα, pronounced [ˈpreveza]) is a town
in the region of Epirus, northwestern Greece, located at the mouth of
the Ambracian Gulf. It is the capital of the regional unit of Preveza,
which is part of the region of Epirus. The Aktio-
Tunnel, the first and so far only undersea tunnel in Greece, was
completed in 2002 and connects
Preveza to Aktio in western Acarnania
in the region of Aetolia-Acarnania. The ruins of the ancient city of
Nicopolis lie 7 kilometres (4 miles) north of the city.
1 Origin of the name
3.2 Medieval period
3.3 First Ottoman Period
3.4 Venetian intervention
3.5 1797: Year of French Revolutionary rule, Ali Pasha's conquest and
3.6 Second Ottoman Period
3.7 Annexation to Greece
3.8 Second World War
3.9 Modern period
4 Notable sights
5 Notable natives and residents
7 Historical population statistics
8 International relations
8.1 Twin towns – sister cities
10 See also
13 External links
Origin of the name
Despite the three different views, which have been put forward by the
academic society on the origin of the name "Preveza", the most
accepted view is that
Preveza means Passage, and that the word reached
this form from the Slavic, through the Albanian language.
The first view suggests that the name "Preveza" originates from the
Slavic word prěvozъ, which means passage. This view is adopted
mainly by: Max Vasmer, Diogenis Chariton, Fyodor Uspensky, Ioannis
Demaratos, Peter Soustal & Johannes Koder, Alexios G. Savvides,
Elias Vasilas, Nikos D. Karabelas, Demosthenis A. Donos, and
The second view suggests that the name originates from the old
Albanian word prevëzë -za, which means paggage, transition, crossing
over. This view is adopted mainly by: Petros Fourikis, Konstantinos
Amantos, Max Vasmer, Peter Soustal & Johannes Koder, Alexis G.K.
Savvides, Nikos D. Karableas, Demosthenis A. Donos, and others.
The third view suggests that the word originates from the Italian word
prevesione, which means provision, supply. This view was mainly
adopted by Panagiotis Aravantinos.
The present municipality
Preveza was formed at the 2011 local
government reform by the merger of the following 3 former
municipalities, that became municipal units (constituent communities
Louros (Ano Rachi, Kotsanopoulo, Louros, Neo Sfinoto, Oropos,
Revmatia, Skiadas, Stefani, Trikastro, Vrysoula)
Preveza (Flampoura, Michalitsi, Mytikas, Nicopolis, Preveza)
Zalongo (Cheimadio, Ekklissies, Kamarina, Kanali, Kryopigi, Myrsini,
Nea Sampsounta, Nea Sinopi, Riza, Vrachos)
The municipality has an area of 380.541 km2, the municipal unit
The Battle of Actium, by
Laureys a Castro
Laureys a Castro (1672), Oil Paint in
National Maritime Museum of Greenwich, London (Director's Office)
Battle of Preveza
Battle of Preveza (1538) by Ohannes Umed Behzad, painted in 1866.
In antiquity, the south-southwestern part of
Epirus was inhabited by
the Greek tribe of Cassopeans, part of a larger tribe, the
Thesprotians. Their capital city was
Cassope (today, near the
village of Kamarina). At the southernmost part of Epirus, king Pyrrhus
founded, in 290 BC, the town of Berenikea or Berenike, named after his
mother-in-law Berenice I of Egypt., Today, it is believed that
Berenikea lies on the hills near the village of Michalitsi, following
the excavations by Sotirios Dakaris in 1965. The Ionian Sea, near
Berenikea, was the site of the naval Battle of Actium, on 2 September
31 BC, in which Octavian's forces defeated those of
Mark Antony and
Cleopatra of Egypt. The ancient city of Nicopolis
(Νικόπολις, "Victory City") was built, nearby, by
commemorate his victory. The city is believed to have, at its
peak, a population of 150,000. In AD 90,
Epictetus arrived at
Nicopolis, after been banished by the Roman emperor Domitian, and
established a school of philosophy. One of his students, Arrian,
became a famous historian and recorded all of his works.[citation
The city was first attested in the
Chronicle of the Morea
Chronicle of the Morea (1292).
However, Hammond places the foundation of
Preveza much later, at the
end of the 14th century, possibly by Albanians. After 1204, it
came under the Despotate of Epirus. It then came under Venetian rule
until captured by the Ottomans.
First Ottoman Period
The Ottomans refounded
Preveza probably in 1477, with a subsequent
strengthening of the fortifications in 1495. The naval Battle of
Preveza was fought off the shores of
Preveza on 29 September 1538,
where the Ottoman fleet of
Hayreddin Barbarossa defeated a united
Christian fleet under the Genoese captain Andrea Doria. This day is a
Turkish Navy National Holiday, and some of today Turkish submarines
See also: Stato da Màr
Venetian map of Preveza, 1687
Preveza and other Venetian possessions of the Ionian Sea.
Preveza was hotly contested in several Ottoman-Venetian Wars. In
September 1684, at the early part of the Morean War, the Venetians,
aided by Greek irregulars, crossed from the island of
Maura) and captured
Preveza as well as Vonitsa, which gave them
Acarnania - an important morale booster towards the main
campaign in the Morea. However, at the end of the war in 1699
Preveza was handed back to Ottoman rule. Venice captured
in 1717, during its next war with the Ottomans and was this time able
to hold on to the town and fort it - a meager achievement in a war
which otherwise went very badly for the Republic. Venetian rule would
persist until the very end of the
Venetian Republic itself in 1797.
During this period, in 1779, the Orthodox missionary Kosmas visited
Preveza where it is said he founded a Greek school, which would be the
only school of the city during the 18th century. At the end of the
Preveza became a transit center of trade with western
Europe (particularly France), which resulted in the increase of its
population to approximately 10,000–12,000.
1797: Year of French Revolutionary rule, Ali Pasha's conquest and
The Venetian clock tower of the city.
French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars (specifically related to French
Egypt and Syria)
12 October 1798
Environs of Preveza, near the ruins of Nicopolis
Decisive Ottoman victory (
Preveza was captured by Ottomans)
Preveza Greek Civil Guard
Ottoman Pashalik of Yanina
Commanders and leaders
General La Salchette
Captain Christakis commanded the Souliote warriors
Ali Pasha Tepelena
280 French Grenadiers
Preveza Civil Guards
60 Souliote warriors
Casualties and losses
Heavily decimated in battle and in the massacre which followed
Following the Treaty of Campo Formio, where
Napoleon Bonaparte decreed
the final dissolution of the Venetian Republic,
Preveza – like other
Venetian possessions in
Albania – was ceded to
Revolutionary France. 280 French grenadiers arrived in
the commands of General La Salchette. The people of
the French troops, and formed a pro-French civic militia.[citation
needed] Around this same time the poet
Rigas Feraios was combining
support for the ideas of the
French Revolution with calls for a Greek
uprising against Ottoman rule. He was intercepted and killed by the
Ottoman authorities when en route to meet Napoleon and directly ask
for his help for the Greek cause.
Napoleon Bonaparte, however, focused his attention in another
direction, launching the French Campaign in
Egypt and Syria, placing
France at war with the
Ottoman Empire and giving little thought to the
fate of the small
Preveza garrison exposed on the edge of Ottoman
territory. In October 1798, the local Ottoman governor Ali Pasha
Tepelena – having great ambitions to make himself a semi-independent
ruler – attacked
Preveza with an overwhelming force. In the Battle
Nicopolis on 12 October
1798 the 7,000 Ottoman troops of Ali Pasha
and his son Mukhtar completely overwhelmed the 280 French grenadiers
and their local allies, the 200
Preveza Civil Guards and 60 Souliote
warriors under Captain Christakis. Over the next two days, 13–14
October 1798, a major massacre of the French troops and the local
Greek population which defended the city took place in
Port Salaora, on the Ambracian Gulf, starting before Ali Pasha entered
Preveza on 13 October but also continuing in his presence. On 14
October, Ali Pasha called on those citizens of
Preveza who had escaped
Acarnanian Mountains to return to the city, and declared that
they would be in no danger. However, upon their return, 170 of them
were executed by the sword at the Salaora Port Customs. Many
prisoners who survived the massacre died from the hardships on the
road to Ioannina. In the grand return and reception held for his
victorious troops, which Ali Pasha organized at Ioannina, surviving
French and rebel prisoners were given the unpleasant role of walking
at the head of the procession, holding the cut and salted heads of
their companions, under the shouts and jeers of Ioannina's pro-Ottoman
residents. From Ioannina, nine captured French grenadiers, and two
officers were sent chained to
Istanbul for questioning. One of them,
Captain Louis-Auguste Camus de Richemont, was later released, possibly
mediated by the mother of Napoleon Bonaparte, Maria Letizia Bonaparte,
and eventually became a general. Some popularly circulating tales, of
doubtful historical authenticity, link this incident with the origins
of the Spoonmaker's Diamond, one of the most closely guarded treasures
of Istanbul's Topkapı Palace.
"Lieutenant Richemont shakes down an Albanian horseman, during the
battle of Nicopolis, in October 1798" by Felician Myrbach
Preveza would remain under Ottoman rule for more than a
century, this event – both the short period of Greek militias active
in the city and the shock of the massacre that followed – and the
influence of the ideas of the
French Revolution had a part in the
Greek nationalism towards the Greek War of
Independence, which broke out three decades later.
Second Ottoman Period
1892 decree signed by the Ottoman Sultan
Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II which
documents possession of a state farm in
Preveza passing to the
1798 to 1820,
Preveza was under the rule of the semi-independent
Ali Pasha Tepelena. Following his death in 1822 at Ioannina, Preveza
was more directly controlled from Istanbul.
Preveza became the seat of
a province (the Sanjak of Preveze) in 1863, until the year 1912 when
the city joined Greece. In 1835, educational activity in the city
revived with the foundation of a new Greek school, the Theophaneios,
named after its sponsor, Anastassios Theophanis. In the following
decades, this school became a centre of education in the surrounding
area and in 1851 it also hosted a female and a secondary school.
According to the
Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin in 1878, parts of southern Epirus,
including Preveza, were to be ceded by the
Ottoman Empire to the
Kingdom of Greece. Under this context, five meetings were held in
Preveza, between Greek and Ottoman representatives, but all of them
failed to reach an agreement. Even before negotiations started,
the Ottoman side used a number of Albanian national figures for
delaying purposes and appointed Abedin bey Dino, member of the League
of Prizren and representative of the Albanian national movement, as
Ottoman foreign minister. Moreover,
Abedin Dino managed to gather
various Albanian personalities in Preveza, from all over
Epirus, who believed that the Ottomans will provide full support
to the Albanian movement and were against annexation of
Greece. They also organized a meeting there in January
1879 and on February 28, 1879, signed a petition with a threat to
take arms to prevent an annexation of
Preveza to Greece. As a
result of the unrest created, led by Abdyl Frashëri, another Albanian
national figure, the local Ottoman governor was recalled. Abedin
Dino was also recalled from Preveza, while the recently arrived
Albanians left the city and returned to their homelands.
The discussions between the two sides continued latter in
Constantinople, but the Ottoman side disagreed with the proposed
border by using as an excuse the unrest created by Albanian
representatives. In March 1881, the Ottoman side proposed the
Thessaly and Arta regions, a proposal that ignored the
Albanian positions, and was finally accepted by Greece, although most
Epirus was still outside Greece. On the other hand, the Greek
organisation, Epirote Society, founded at 1906 by members of the
Panagiotis Danglis and Spyros Spyromilios, aimed at
the annexation of the region to Greece by supplying local Greeks
From 1881 to 1912 the main sectors of the local economy witnessed
dramatic decline and the port of the city lost most of its former
commercial significance. However, education was still flourishing with
two schools operating: one boys' and one girls' school. The school
system of the city was primarily financed by Anastasios Theofanis,
notable member of the diaspora.
Annexation to Greece
Greek armed forces in
Preveza during the
Balkan Wars at the castle of
The city of
Preveza remained under Ottoman control until finally taken
Greek Army on 21 October 1912, during the First Balkan War. The
city was liberated after the Battle of Nicopolis, by the Greek forces
under Colonel Papagiotis Spiliadis. A garrison of the 8th Infantry
Division was stationed in the city by December. Later on in the same
war, on 8 February 1913, the inhabitants of
Preveza were involved in
the first instance in world history of a pilot being shot down in
combat. The Russian pilot N. de Sackoff, flying for the Greeks, had
his biplane hit by ground fire following a bomb run on the walls of
Bizani near Ioannina. He came down near Preveza, and with the
help of local townspeople repaired his plane and resumed his flight
back to base. In the following months there arrived in
famous Swiss photographer Frederic Boissonnas, and a lot of
photographs from this period are available today.
Preveza along with
the rest of southern
Epirus formally became part of
Greece via the
Treaty of London in 1913.
Balkan Wars the harbor of
Preveza became a significant
regional commercial center in western Greece. Moreover, local labor
unions were created during the Interwar period.
Second World War
Along with the rest of Greece,
Preveza was occupied by Fascist Italy
Nazi Germany (1943–1944) during World War II.
After the departure of the
Wehrmacht from Preveza, in September 1944,
an episode of the
Greek Civil War
Greek Civil War known as the
Battle of Preveza
Battle of Preveza took
place, lasting for 16 days, between armed partisans of the right-wing
EDES and the left-wing EAM-ELAS. The fights stopped after the
Convention of Cazerta between Great Britain and the two main Greek
EDES and ELAS.
View of the promenade.
Preveza is a commercial harbour and tourist hub, with a marina,
4 Museums, two cinemas, an open theatre, a music Hall (OASIS), many
clubs, taverns and cafes, benefiting from its proximity to the nearby
Aktion National Airport
Aktion National Airport and the nearby island of Lefkada, a major
tourist destination. There are in the city University of Financial
(TEI) and Commercial Navy Academy. The Aktio-
Preveza Immersed Tunnel,
opened on 2002, is an important work of infrastructure for what has
traditionally been a remote and underdeveloped region, and links
Actium (Greek: Άκτιο, Aktio) on the southern shore of
the Ambracian Gulf, greatly shortening the distance of the trip to
Acheron River canyon.
The ancient Cassope.
The Roman Odeon of Nicopolis
Mosaic from the
Roman villa of Manius Antoninus, Nicopolis.
Nicopolis area (Walls, Basilica of Alkisson, Basilica of
Domitius, Roman Odeon, Nympheum, Roman Baths, Cemetery, Theatre,
Augustus Monument, Roman Stadium, Roman Villa of Manius Antoninus
Cassope (400 BC), 25 km (16 mi) from Preveza
Ancient Trikastron citadel (700 – 300BC), 30 km (19 mi)
Ancient Berenikea, Michalitsi village hills (270 BC).
State Archaeological Museum of Nikopolis
St. Charalampos Church (1715–1793)
St. Varnavas Church
St. Abassos Church
Forest of Lekatsas, in Myrsini village
Fortress of Laskara, Ali Pasha period (1810)
Fortress of Pantokrator, Ali Pasha period (1810)
Fortress of St. Andreas, Venetian (1701–1717) and Ottoman period
Fortress of St. George (1718)
Fortress of Reniassa (or Fortress of Despo) in Riza (1280)
St. Elias prophet church (1780)
Preveza Undersea Tunnel, 2002
Kostas Karyotakis' statue and last residence
Madonna Church of Foreigners (Panagia ton Xenon) (1780)
Monolithi beach and Monolithi forest
National Bank of
Greece building (1931)
Odysseus Androutsos' marble statue
Ottoman baths of Ali Pasha Tepelena
Seytan Pazar, traditional street
St. Thomas Port, Preveza
Margarona traditional boatyard
Venetian clock tower of Preveza
Notable natives and residents
Odysseas Androutsos, a hero of the Greek War of Independence.
Evaggelos Avdikos, sociologist, professor of University of Larissa.
Abedin Dino, founding member of the
League of Prizren
League of Prizren and leading
figure of the Albanian National Awakening.
Ali Dino (1890–1938), famous Albanian cartoonist and member of the
Rasih Dino (1865–1928), diplomat and signatory of
Albania to the
Treaty of London.
Shahin Dino, deputy of the sanjak of
Preveza in the Ottoman Parliament
and later Minister of Interior of Albania.
Theodoros Grivas (1797–1862), hero of the Greek War of Independence.
Jannis Kallinikos, scholar and intellectual.
Ioannis Kefalas (1794-1876), benefactor.
Nikolaos Konemenos (1837–1906), scholar.
Nikos D. Karabelas, writer and president of the foundation "Actia
Nicopolis" in Preveza.
Kleareti Malamou-Dipla (1898–1977), poet and writer.
Athina Papayianni, athlete.
Kostas Provatas (1906–2001), popular painter from Nikopolis.
Anastasios Theofanous (d. 1814), merchant and benefactor, founder of
Theofanios School of Preveza.
Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos (1897–1989),
Hellenic Army chief and
Athanasia Tsoumeleka, athlete and Olympic Games Gold winner, in Fast
Alexios Vlahopoulos, hero of the Greek War of Independence.
Konstantinos Vlachopoulos, hero of the Greek War of Independence.
Preveza is linked by road to
Igoumenitsa and other coastal settlements
through the E55 national road, and is also linked with other cities in
Epirus such as
Ioannina and Arta. The Aktio-
Preveza Undersea Tunnel
Preveza by road to Aetolia-
Acarnania in Central Greece. Preveza
also has a small commercial and passenger port and is served by the
nearby Aktion National Airport, which also serves the island of
Historical population statistics
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece
Twin towns – sister cities
Preveza is a founding member of the Douzelage, a unique town twinning
association of 24 towns across the European Union. This active town
twinning began in 1991 and there are regular events, such as a produce
market from each of the other countries and festivals.
Discussions regarding membership are also in hand with three further
towns (Agros in Cyprus,
Škofja Loka in
Spain – 1991
Germany – 1991
Italy – 1991
Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland – 1991
France – 1991
Denmark – 1991
Belgium – 1991
Netherlands – 1991
Luxembourg – 1991
Portugal – 1991
United Kingdom – 1991
Finland – 1997
Sweden – 1998
Austria – 1999
Poland – 2004
Hungary – 2004
Latvia – 2004
Czech Republic – 2004
Estonia – 2004
Slovakia – 2007
Lithuania – 2008
Malta – 2009
Romania – 2010
The castle of St. Andrew
Building of the National Bank of Greece.
The port with the town hall, Epiphany Holiday.
The house of painter Yiannis Moralis
Roe caviar of Preveza.
The Naval Battle of
Actium (31 BC)
Nicopolis (31 BC)
Battle of Preveza
Battle of Preveza (1538 AC)
The Battle of Nicopolis-
The Combat of Preveza, Greek Civil War, 1944
Preveza Undersea Tunnel, 2003
Assembly of Preveza (1879 AC)
Archaeological Museum of Nikopolis 2009
List of settlements in the
Preveza regional unit
^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011.
ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical
^ It was only Panagiotis Aravantinos, an Epirotan scholar, who, in
1857, suggested the Italian origin of the name. Most later researchers
accepted the view of Max Vasmer, Peter Soustal and Johannes Koder on
the Slavic origin of the name, which arrived to its present form
through the Albanian language, see Max Vasmer, Die Slaven in
Griechenland, Berlin, 1941, p. 64, sv. Preveza.
^ Ioannis F. Demaratos, Great Greek Encyclopaedia of Pyrsos, (in
Greek), Athens, 1932, vol. 20, pp. 654-659, sv. Πρέβεζα.
Max Vasmer, Die Slaven in Griechenland, Berlin, 1941, p. 64, sv.
Preveza and the origin of the word, (in Greek),
newspaper Βήμα Πρεβέζης, issue 594/28.6.1954, p. 1, and
issue 595/5.7.1954, pp. 1 & 2.
Reproduced in his: Άπαντα, (in Greek), Preveza, 2012, pp. 47-52.
Peter Soustal & Johannes Koder, Nikopolis und Kephallēnia,
Vienna, 1981, (Tabula Imperii Byzantini 3), p. 242.
Alexis G. K. Savvides, The Turkish conquest of
Preveza through the
Short Chronicles, in the: Proceedings of the 1st International
Symposium on the History of Preveza, (in Greek), Preveza, 1993, pp.
Nikos D. Karabelas, The conquest of "Preveza" by Mehmet II, (in
Greek), Ioannina, 2015, p. 105, subnote 7.
Demosthenis A. Donos, Reflections on the historiography of Preveza,
(in Greek), Chronicles of Preveza, vol. 49-50, pp. 383-430.
^ Petros Fourikis, Preveza. Position - Foundation - Name, Yearbook of
the Society for Byzantine Studies, (in Greek), Athens, 1924, pp.
Max Vasmer, Die Slaven in Griechenland, Berlin, 1941, p. 64, sv.
^ Panagiotis Aravantinos, Chronography of Epirus, (in Greek), Athens,
1857, vol. 2, p. 133, sv. Πρέβεζα.
^ Kallikratis law
Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average
elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of
^ Theodora Kontogianni, Kassopi. A brief guide of the archaeological
site, Greek Ministry of Culture, Ioannina, 2006.
^ Plutarch: Life of King Pyrrhus, Kaktos editions, Athens
^ Green, Peter (1993). Alexander to Actium: the historical evolution
of the Hellenistic age. Hellenistic culture and society. University of
California Press. p. 123. ISBN 0-520-08349-0.
^ Plutarch: Life of Marc Antony, vol.III
^ Konstantinos Zachos: Ancient Nicopolis, The Greek Ministry of
^ Isager Jacob. Foundation and destruction, Nikopolis and Northwestern
Greece. Danish Institute at Athens, 2001, ISBN 978-87-7288-734-0,
^ Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey (1967). Epirus: The Geography, The
Ancient Remains, The History and the Topography of
Epirus and Adjacent
Areas. Oxford University Press. p. 46. Retrieved
^ Isager Jacob: "Foundation and destruction, Nikopolis and
Northwestern Greece". Danish Institute at Athens, 2001,
ISBN 978-87-7288-734-0, p. 60.
^ Finlay, p. 209
^ Sakellariou M.V.:"Epirus, 4,000 years of Greek history and
civilisation", Ekdotikē Athēnōn, 1997, ISBN 978-960-213-371-2,
^ Mikropoulos A. Tassos:Elevating and Safeguarding Culture Using Tools
of the Information Society: Dusty traces of the Muslim culture.
Earthlab. ISBN 978-960-233-187-3, p. 313-315.
^ Fleming Katherine Elizabeth: The Muslim Bonaparte: Diplomacy and
Orientalism in Ali Pasha's Greece. Princeton University Press, 1999.
ISBN 978-0-691-00194-4, p. 99
^ Nikos Karabelas: "Foreign travellers in Preveza", Newspaper
Kathimerini, 28 January 2001
^ Sakellariou M. V.: "Epirus, 4,000 years of Greek history and
civilisation". Ekdotikē Athēnōn, 1997, ISBN 978-960-213-371-2,
^ Kondis, 1976, p. 21: "In February 1879, Greek and Turkish
commissioners met at
Preveza in accordance with the Congress
recommendation; five meetings were held, but all failed completely."
^ Kondis, 1976, p. 24: "Just before the start of the Berlin Conference
the Porte, in order to use Albanian unrest for delaying purposes,
appointed a member of the Albanian League, Abded Din Pasha Dino, a big
landlord from Epirus, as foreign minister. In secret directives Abded
Din Pasha promised to the Albanian League the support of the Porte in
its conflict with Greece."
^ Skoulidas p. 152: "Μεγάλη υπήρξε και η
κινητοποίηση του Abeddin bey Dino, ο οποίος
συγκέντρωσε στην Πρέβεζα αλβανούς
ηγέτες από ολόκληρο τον αλβανικό και
τον ηπειρωτικό χώρο, οι οποίοι
διαμαρτύρονταν για την ενδεχόμενη
προσάρτηση της Ηπείρου στην Ελλάδα.
Υπήρξαν ελληνικές εκτιμήσεις, με τη
συνδρομή του ιταλού υποπρόξενου Corti,
ότι ο Abeddin βρισκόταν στα όρια της
χρεοκοπίας και ότι θα μπορούσε να
εξαγοραστεί με 100 χιλιάδες φράγκα,
όμως οι σχετικές κινήσεις δεν
προχώρησαν υπό το πνεύμα μήπως
υπάρξουν επιπλοκές στις
διαπραγματεύσεις, τις οποίες οι
^ Medlicott William Norton. Bismarck, Gladstone, and the Concert of
Europe University of London, Athlone Press, 1956, p. 77
^ Kondis, 1976, p. 24
^ Jelavich, Barbara (1989). History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe
Publication Series. Cambridge University Press. p. 365.
^ Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening, 1878–1912.
Princeton University Press. p. 70.
^ Anamali, Skënder and Prifti, Kristaq. Historia e popullit shqiptar
në katër vëllime. Botimet Toena, 2002, ISBN 99927-1-622-3.
^ Gawrych, George (2006). The crescent and the eagle: Ottoman rule,
Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. I.B.Tauris. p. 54.
^ Ortayli, İlber (1998). Belleten. Belleten. 62. Türk Tarih Kurumu.
p. 153. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
^ Skoulidas, 2001, p. 157: "Η Υψηλή Πύλη, για
άγνωστους λόγους που ενδεχομένως
σχετίζονταν με την σημαντική
κινητοποίηση και παρουσία Αλβανών
στην Πρέβεζα που θα μπορούσε να
καταστεί επικίνδυνη για τα συμφέροντα
της, ανακάλεσε τον Abeddiii bey Dino στην
Κων/λη και στη θέση του έστειλε τον
Costali Pasha, προκαλώντας τη δυσαρέσκεια
του Vessel bey Dino, του καδή της Πρέβεζας και
άλλων αλβανών προκρίτων, οι οποίοι στη
συνέχεια αποχώρησαν στις ιδιαίτερες
^ Kondis, 1976, p. 25: "In the Berlin Conference as was the case at
Preveza and Constantinople matters dragged out. Turkey was willing to
make a small concession in
Thessaly but she refused to cede any
territory from the vilayet of Janina to Greece. Albanian unrest was
again used as an excuse."
^ Skoulidas, 2001, p. 164: "Η στάση της
αυτοκρατορίας μεταβλήθηκε στα τέλη
του Μαρτίου 1881 όταν και παρουσίασε μία
νέα πρόταση: παραχώρηση στην Ελλάδα
της Θεσσαλίας και του τμήματος του
καζά Άρτας ανατολικά του Αράχθου, αλλά
όχι μεγαλύτερο τμήμα από την Ήπειρο.
Μία πρόταση, η οποία ήταν και αυτή που
εφαρμόστηκε τελικά. Η μεταβολή της
στάσεως που ακολούθησε η Οθωμανική
αυτοκρατορία δεν μπορεί να εξηγηθεί
χωρίς να ληφθεί υπόψη η μεταβολή στις
σχέσεις Οθωμανών και Αλβανών, οι
οποίες σταδιακά είχαν οδηγηθεί σε
^ Sakellariou, M. V. (1997). Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and
civilization. Ekdotike Athenon. p. 310.
^ Sakellariou, M. V. (1997). Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and
civilization. Ekdotike Athenon. p. 360.
^ a b Πρέβεζα Η Καθημερινή, Επτά Ημέρες,
2001, p. 7-8
^ Baker, David, "Flight and Flying: A Chronology", Facts On File,
Inc., New York, New York, 1994, Library of Congress card number
92-31491, ISBN 0-8160-1854-5, page 61.
^ Vitalis, Filaretos (1978). "Ειδήσεις για τα
σχολεία Πρεβέζης επί Τουρκοκρατίας"
(PDF). Πρεβεζάνικα Χρονικά (in Greek) (1). Municipal
Library of Preveza. p. 9. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
^ "Douzelage.org: Home". douzelage.org. Archived from the original on
17 February 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
^ "Douzelage.org: Member Towns". douzelage.org. Archived from the
original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
Kondis, Basil (1976).
Greece and Albania: 1908-1914. Thessaloniki:
Institute for Balkan Studies, New York University.
Skoulidas, Ilias (2001). "The Relations Between the
Greeks and the
Albanians during the 19th Century: Political Aspirations and Visions
(1875 - 1897)". www.didaktorika.gr (in Greek). University of Ioannina.
doi:10.12681/eadd/12856. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
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District of Epirus: Part of Preveza
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Administrative division of the
9,203 km2 (3,553 sq mi)
336,856 (as of 2011)
18 (since 2011)
Regional unit of Arta
Regional unit of Ioannina
Regional unit of Preveza
Regional unit of Thesprotia
Alexandros Kachrimanis (el) (since 2014)
Epirus and Western Macedonia
Subdivisions of the municipality of Preveza
Municipal unit of Louros
Municipal unit of Preveza
Municipal unit of Zalongo
Prefectural capitals of Greece
European Union: Members of the town twinning "Douzelage"