Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been
willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the
individual soul. Explanations of predestination often seek to
address the "paradox of free will", whereby God's omniscience seems
incompatible with human free will. In this usage, predestination can
be regarded as a form of religious determinism; and usually
New Testament period
1.1.2 Patristic period
1.1.3 Middle Ages
1.2 Views of Christian branches
1.2.1 Eastern Orthodoxy
184.108.40.206 Comparison between Protestants
1.2.4 The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints
1.3 Types of predestination
1.3.1 Conditional election
Supralapsarianism and infralapsarianism
1.3.3 Double predestination
1.3.4 Open theism
5 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
New Testament period
There is some disagreement among scholars regarding the views on
predestination of first-century AD Judaism, out of which Christianity
Josephus wrote during the first century that the three main
Jewish sects differed on this question. He argued that the
Pharisees argued that God's providence orders all human events, but
Pharisees still maintained that people are able to choose between
right and wrong. He wrote that the
Sadducees did not have a doctrine
The biblical scholar
N. T. Wright
N. T. Wright argues that Josephus's portrayal of
these groups is incorrect, and that the Jewish debates referenced by
Josephus should be seen as having to do with God's work to liberate
Israel rather than philosophical questions about predestination.
Wright asserts that
Essenes were content to wait for
God to liberate
Pharisees believed Jews needed to act in cooperation with
God. John Barclay responded that Josephus's description was an
over-simplification and there were likely to be complex differences
between these groups which may have been similar to those described by
Josephus. Francis Watson has also argued on the basis of 4 Ezra, a
document dated to the first century AD, that Jewish beliefs in
predestination are primarily concerned with God's choice to save some
In the New Testament, Romans 8–11 presents a statement on
predestination. In Romans 8:28–30, Paul writes,
We know that in everything
God works for good with those who love him,
who are called according to his purpose. For those whom he foreknew he
also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order
that he might be the first-born among many brethren. And those whom he
predestined he also called; and those whom he called he also
justified; and those whom he justified he also glorified.
Biblical scholars have interpreted this passage in several ways. Many
say this only has to do with service, those he chose of service and is
not about salvation. The Catholic biblical commentator Brendan Byrne
wrote that the predestination mentioned in this passage should be
interpreted as applied to the Christian community corporately rather
than individuals. Another Catholic commentator, Joseph Fitzmyer,
wrote that this passage teaches that
God has predestined the salvation
of all humans. Douglas Moo, a Protestant biblical interpreter,
reads the passage as teaching that
God has predestined a certain set
of people to salvation. Similarly, Wright's interpretation is that
in this passage Paul teaches that
God will save those whom he has
chosen, but Wright also emphasizes that Paul does not intend to
God has eliminated human free will or responsibility.
Instead, Wright asserts that God's will works through that of humans
to accomplish salvation.
Origen, writing in the third century, taught that God's providence
extends to every individual. He believed God's predestination was
based on God's foreknowledge of every individual's merits, whether in
their current life or a previous life.
Later in the fourth and fifth centuries, Augustine of Hippo
(354–430) also taught that
God orders all things while preserving
human freedom. Prior to 396, Augustine believed that
predestination was based on God's foreknowledge of whether individuals
would believe, that God's grace was "a reward for human assent".
Later, in response to Pelagius, Augustine said that the sin of pride
consists in assuming that "we are the ones who choose
God or that God
chooses us (in his foreknowledge) because of something worthy in us",
and argued that God's grace causes individual act of faith.
Scholars are divided over whether Augustine's teaching implies double
predestination, or the belief that
God chooses some people for
damnation as well as some for salvation. Catholic scholars tend to
deny that he held such a view while some Protestants and secular
scholars have held that Augustine did believe in double
Augustine's position raised objections.
Julian of Eclanum expressed
the view that Augustine was bringing
Manichean thoughts into the
church. For Vincent of Lérins, this was a disturbing
innovation. This new tension eventually became obvious with the
confrontation between Augustine and
Pelagius culminating in
Pelagianism (as interpreted by Augustine) at the
Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus in 431.
Pelagius denied Augustine's view of
predestination in order to affirm that salvation is achieved by an act
of free will.
The Council of Arles in the late fifth century condemned the position
"that some have been condemned to death, others have been predestined
to life", though this may seem to follow from Augustine's teaching.
Second Council of Orange in 529 also condemned the position that
"some have been truly predestined to evil by divine power".
In the eighth century,
John of Damascus
John of Damascus emphasized the freedom of the
human will in his doctrine of predestination, and argued that acts
arising from peoples' wills are not part of God's providence at all.
Damascene teaches that people's good actions are done in cooperation
with God, but are not caused by him.
Gottschalk of Orbais, a ninth-century
Saxon monk, argued that God
predestines some people to hell as well as predestining some to
heaven, a view known as double predestination. He was condemned by
several synods, but his views remained popular. Irish theologian John
Scottus Eriugena wrote a refutation of Gottschalk. Eriugena
abandoned Augustine's teaching on predestination. He wrote that
God's predestination should be equated with his foreknowledge of
In the twelfth century,
Thomas Aquinas taught that
certain people to the beatific vision based solely on his own goodness
rather than that of creatures. Aquinas also believed people are
free in their choices, fully cause their own sin, and are solely
responsible for it. Aquinas distinguished between several ways in
God wills actions. He directly wills the good, indirectly wills
evil consequences of good things, and only permits evil. Aquinas held
that in permitting evil,
God does not will it to be done or not to be
In the thirteenth century,
William of Ockham
William of Ockham taught that
God does not
cause human choices and equated predestination with divine
foreknowledge. Though Ockham taught that
God predestines based on
people's foreseen works, he maintained that God's will was not
constrained to do this.
John Calvin rejected the idea that
God permits rather than actively
decrees the damnation of sinners, as well as other evil. Calvin
did not believe
God to be guilty of sin, but he considered it an
unfathomable mystery that
God seems to simultaneously will sin and to
also not will sin. Though he maintained God's predestination
applies to damnation as well as salvation, he taught that the
damnation of the damned is caused by their sin, but that the salvation
of the saved is solely caused by God. Other Protestant Reformers,
Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli, also held double
Views of Christian branches
Eastern Orthodox view was summarized by Bishop Theophan the
Recluse in response to the question, "What is the relationship between
the Divine provision and our free will?"
Answer: The fact that the Kingdom of
God is "taken by force"
presupposes personal effort. When the Apostle Paul says, "it is not of
him that willeth," this means that one's efforts do not produce what
is sought. It is necessary to combine them: to strive and to expect
all things from grace. It is not one's own efforts that will lead to
the goal, because without grace, efforts produce little; nor does
grace without effort bring what is sought, because grace acts in us
and for us through our efforts. Both combine in a person to bring
progress and carry him to the goal. (God's) foreknowledge is
unfathomable. It is enough for us with our whole heart to believe that
it never opposes God's grace and truth, and that it does not infringe
man's freedom. Usually this resolves as follows:
God foresees how a
man will freely act and makes dispositions accordingly. Divine
determination depends on the life of a man, and not his life upon the
Stefan Lochner, Last Judgement, c. 1435. Wallraf-Richartz Museum,
Catholicism teaches the doctrine of predestination, while rejecting
Calvinist view known as "double predestination." This
means that while it is held that those whom
God has elected to eternal
life will infallibly attain it, and are therefore said to be
predestined to salvation by God, those who perish are not predestined
to damnation. But Catholicism has been generally discouraging to human
attempts to guess or predict the Divine Will. The Catholic
Encyclopedia entry on predestination says:
God, owing to His infallible prescience of the future, has appointed
and ordained from eternity all events occurring in time, especially
those that directly proceed from, or at least are influenced by, man's
The heretical seventeenth and eighteenth centuries sect within Roman
Catholicism known as
Jansenism preached the doctrine of double
Jansenism claimed that even members of the
saved elect could lose their salvation by doing sinful, unrepentant
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II wrote:
The universality of salvation means that it is granted not only to
those who explicitly believe in
Christ and have entered the Church.
Since salvation is offered to all, it must be made concretely
available to all.
Grace comes from Christ; it is the result of his Sacrifice and is
communicated by the Holy Spirit. It enables each person to attain
salvation through his or her free cooperation.
Catholic Catechism says, "To God, all moments of time are present
in their immediacy. When therefore he establishes his eternal plan of
"predestination", he includes in it each person's free response to his
grace." According to the Catholic Church,
God predestines no one
to go to hell, for this, a willful turning away from
God (a mortal
sin) is necessary, and persistence in it until the end."
Catholics do not believe that any hints or evidence of the predestined
status of individuals is available to humans, and predestination
generally plays little or no part in Catholic teaching to the
faithful, being a topic addressed in a professional theological
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo laid the foundation for much of the later Catholic
teaching on predestination. His teachings on grace and free will were
largely adopted by the
Second Council of Orange (529), whose decrees
were directed against the Semipelagians. Augustine wrote,
[God] promised not from the power of our will but from His own
predestination. For He promised what He Himself would do, not what men
would do. Because, although men do those good things which pertain to
God’s worship, He Himself makes them to do what He has commanded; it
is not they that cause Him to do what He has promised. Otherwise the
fulfilment of God’s promises would not be in the power of God, but
in that of men"
Augustine also teaches that people have free will. For example, in "On
Grace and Free Will", (see especially chapters II–IV) Augustine
states that "He [God] has revealed to us, through His Holy Scriptures,
that there is in man a free choice of will," and that "God's precepts
themselves would be of no use to a man unless he had free choice of
will, so that by performing them he might obtain the promised
rewards." (chap. II)
Thomas Aquinas' views concerning predestination are largely in
agreement with Augustine and can be summarized by many of his writings
in his Summa Theologiæ:
God does reprobate some. For it was said above (A) that
predestination is a part of providence. To providence, however, it
belongs to permit certain defects in those things which are subject to
providence, as was said above (Q, A). Thus, as men are ordained
to eternal life through the providence of God, it likewise is part of
that providence to permit some to fall away from that end; this is
called reprobation. Thus, as predestination is a part of providence,
in regard to those ordained to eternal salvation, so reprobation is a
part of providence in regard to those who turn aside from that end.
Hence reprobation implies not only foreknowledge, but also something
more, as does providence, as was said above (Q, A). Therefore,
as predestination includes the will to confer grace and glory; so also
reprobation includes the will to permit a person to fall into sin, and
to impose the punishment of damnation on account of that sin."
Comparison between Protestants
This table summarizes the classical views of three different
Unconditional election to salvation only
Unconditional election to salvation only, with reprobation (passing
Conditional election in view of foreseen faith or unbelief
Lutherans do not believe that there are certain people that are
predestined to salvation, but salvation is predestined for those who
seek God. Lutherans believe Christians should be assured that they
are among the predestined. However, they disagree with those who
make predestination the source of salvation rather than Christ's
suffering, death, and resurrection. Unlike some Calvinists, Lutherans
do not believe in a predestination to damnation. Instead,
Lutherans teach eternal damnation is a result of the unbeliever's
sins, rejection of the forgiveness of sins, and unbelief.
Martin Luther's attitude towards predestination is set out in his On
the Bondage of the Will, published in 1525. This publication by Luther
was in response to the published treatise by
Desiderius Erasmus in
1524 known as On Free Will. Luther based his views on Ephesians
2:8–10, which says:
For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of
yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works, lest anyone should
boast. For we are His workmanship, created in
Christ Jesus for good
God prepared beforehand that we should walk in them.
Predestination in Calvinism
Belgic Confession of 1561 affirmed that
God "delivers and
preserves" from perdition "all whom he, in his eternal and
unchangeable council, of mere goodness hath elected in
our Lord, without respect to their works" (Article XVI). Calvinists
God picked those who he will save and bring with him to
Heaven before the world was created. They also believe that those
God does not save will go to Hell.
John Calvin thought people
who were saved could never lose their salvation and the "elect" (those
God saved) would know they were saved because of their actions.
In this common, loose sense of the term, to affirm or to deny
predestination has particular reference to the
Calvinist doctrine of
unconditional election. In the
Calvinist interpretation of the Bible,
this doctrine normally has only pastoral value related to the
assurance of salvation and the absolution of salvation by grace alone.
However, the philosophical implications of the doctrine of election
and predestination are sometimes discussed beyond these systematic
bounds. Under the topic of the doctrine of
God (theology proper), the
predestinating decision of
God cannot be contingent upon anything
outside of himself, because all other things are dependent upon him
for existence and meaning. Under the topic of the doctrines of
salvation (soteriology), the predestinating decision of
God is made
from God's knowledge of his own will (Romans 9:15), and is therefore
not contingent upon human decisions (rather, free human decisions are
outworkings of the decision of God, which sets the total reality
within which those decisions are made in exhaustive detail: that is,
nothing left to chance). Calvinists do not pretend to understand how
this works; but they are insistent that the Scriptures teach both the
sovereign control of
God and the responsibility and freedom of human
Calvinist groups use the term Hyper-
Calvinism to describe Calvinistic
systems that assert without qualification that God's intention to
destroy some is equal to his intention to save others. Some forms of
Calvinism have racial implications, as when Dutch Calvinist
Franciscus Gomarus however argued that Jews, because of
their refusal to worship Jesus Christ, were members of the
non-elect.Some Dutch settlers in South Africa argued that black people
were sons of Ham, whom Noah had cursed to be slaves, according to
Genesis 9:18-19, or drew analogies between them and the Canaanites,
suggesting a "chosen people" ideology similar to that espoused by
proponents of the Jewish nation. This justified racial hierarchy on
earth, as well as racial segregation of congregations, but did not
exclude blacks from being part of the elect. Other Calvinists
vigorously objected to these arguments (see Afrikaner Calvinism).
Expressed sympathetically, the
Calvinist doctrine is that
mercy or withholds it, with particular consciousness of who are to be
the recipients of mercy in Christ. Therefore, the particular persons
are chosen, out of the total number of human beings, who will be
rescued from enslavement to sin and the fear of death, and from
punishment due to sin, to dwell forever in his presence. Those who are
being saved are assured through the gifts of faith, the sacraments,
and communion with
God through prayer and increase of good works, that
their reconciliation with him through
Christ is settled by the
sovereign determination of God's will.
God also has particular
consciousness of those who are passed over by his selection, who are
without excuse for their rebellion against him, and will be judged for
Calvinists typically divide on the issue of predestination into
infralapsarians (sometimes called 'sublapsarians') and
supralapsarians. Infralapsarians interpret the biblical election of
God to highlight his love (1 John 4:8; Ephesians 1:4b-5a) and chose
his elect considering the situation after the Fall, while
supralapsarians interpret biblical election to highlight God's
sovereignty (Romans 9:16) and that the Fall was ordained by God's
decree of election. In infralapsarianism, election is God's response
to the Fall, while in supralapsarianism the Fall is part of God's plan
for election. In spite of the division, many
would consider the debate surrounding the infra- and supralapsarian
positions one in which scant Scriptural evidence can be mustered in
either direction, and that, at any rate, has little effect on the
Some Calvinists decline from describing the eternal decree of
terms of a sequence of events or thoughts, and many caution against
the simplifications involved in describing any action of
speculative terms. Most make distinctions between the positive manner
God chooses some to be recipients of grace, and the manner in
which grace is consciously withheld so that some are destined for
Debate concerning predestination according to the common usage,
concerns the destiny of the damned, whether
God is just if that
destiny is settled prior to the existence of any actual volition of
the individual, and whether the individual is in any meaningful sense
responsible for his destiny if it is settled by the eternal action of
Main article: Corporate election
Arminians hold that
God does not predetermine, but instead infallibly
knows who will believe and perseveringly be saved. This view is known
as conditional election, because it states that election is
conditional on the one who wills to have faith in
God for salvation.
God knows from the beginning of the world who will go where,
the choice is still with the individual. The Dutch Calvinist
Franciscus Gomarus strongly opposed the views of Jacobus
Arminius with his doctrine of supralapsarian predestination.
The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) rejects
the doctrine of predestination, but does believe in foreordination.
Foreordination, an important doctrine of the LDS Church,
teaches that during the pre-mortal existence,
("foreordained") particular people to fulfill certain missions
("callings") during their mortal lives. For example, prophets were
foreordained to be the Lord's servants (see Jeremiah 1:5), all who
receive the priesthood were foreordained to that calling, and Jesus
was foreordained to enact the atonement.
The LDS Church teaches the doctrine of moral agency, the ability to
choose and act for ourselves, and decide whether to accept Christ's
Types of predestination
Conditional election is the belief that
God chooses for eternal
salvation those whom he foresees will have faith in Christ. This
belief emphasizes the importance of a person's free will. The
counter-view is known as unconditional election, and is the belief
God chooses whomever he will, based solely on his purposes and
apart from an individual's free will. It has long been an issue in
Supralapsarianism and infralapsarianism
Infralapsarianism (also called sublapsarianism) holds that
predestination logically coincides with the preordination of Man's
fall into sin. That is,
God predestined sinful men for salvation.
Therefore, according to this view,
God is the ultimate cause, but not
the proximate source or "author" of sin. Infralapsarians often
emphasize a difference between God's decree (which is inviolable and
inscrutable), and his revealed will (against which man is
disobedient). Proponents also typically emphasize the grace and mercy
God toward all men, although teaching also that only some are
predestined for salvation.
In common English parlance, the doctrine of predestination often has
particular reference to the doctrines of Calvinism. The version of
predestination espoused by John Calvin, after whom
Calvinism is named,
is sometimes referred to as "double predestination" because in it God
predestines some people for salvation (i.e. unconditional election)
and some for condemnation (i.e. Reprobation) which results by allowing
the individual's own sins to condemn them. Calvin himself defines
predestination as "the eternal decree of God, by which he determined
with himself whatever he wished to happen with regard to every man.
Not all are created on equal terms, but some are preordained to
eternal life, others to eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each
has been created for one or other of these ends, we say that he has
been predestined to life or to death."
On the spectrum of beliefs concerning predestination,
Calvinism is the
strongest form among Christians. It teaches that God's predestining
decision is based on the knowledge of his own will rather than
foreknowledge, concerning every particular person and event; and, God
continually acts with entire freedom, in order to bring about his will
in completeness, but in such a way that the freedom of the creature is
not violated, "but rather, established".
Calvinists who hold the infralapsarian view of predestination usually
prefer that term to "sublapsarianism," perhaps with the intent of
blocking the inference that they believe predestination is on the
basis of foreknowledge (sublapsarian meaning, assuming the fall into
sin). The different terminology has the benefit of distinguishing
Calvinist double predestination version of infralapsarianism from
Lutheranism's view that predestination is a mystery, which forbids the
unprofitable intrusion of prying minds since
God only reveals partial
knowledge to the human race.
Supralapsarianism is the doctrine that God's decree of predestination
for salvation and reprobation logically precedes his preordination of
the human race's fall into sin. That is,
God decided to save, and to
damn; he then determined the means by which that would be made
possible. It is a matter of controversy whether or not Calvin himself
held this view, but most scholars link him with the infralapsarian
position. It is known, however, that Calvin's successor in Geneva,
Theodore Beza, held to the supralapsarian view.
Double predestination, or the double decree, is the doctrine that God
actively reprobates, or decrees damnation of some, as well as
salvation for those whom he has elected. Augustine made statements
that on their own seem to teach such a doctrine, but in the context of
his other writings it is not clear whether he held it. Augustine's
doctrine of predestination does seem to imply a double predestinarian
Gottschalk of Orbais taught it more explicitly in the ninth
Gregory of Rimini in the fourteenth. During the
John Calvin also held double predestinarian
John Calvin states: "By predestination we mean the
eternal decree of God, by which he determined with himself whatever he
wished to happen with regard to every man. All are not created on
equal terms, but some are preordained to eternal life, others to
eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each has been created for one
or other of these ends, we say that he has been predestinated to life
or to death."
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Open theism advocates the non-traditional Arminian view of election
that predestination is corporate. In corporate election,
not choose which individuals he will save prior to creation, but
God chooses the church as a whole. Or put differently, God
chooses what type of individuals he will save. Another way the New
Testament puts this is to say that
God chose the church in Christ
(Eph. 1:4). In other words,
God chose from all eternity to save all
those who would be found in Christ, by faith in God. This choosing is
not primarily about salvation from eternal destruction either but is
about God's chosen agency in the world. Thus individuals have full
freedom in terms of whether they become members of the church or not.
Corporate election is thus consistent with the open view's position on
God's omniscience, which states that God's foreknowledge does not
determine the outcomes of individual free will.
Predestination in Islam
Qadar (Arabic: قدر, transliterated qadar, meaning "fate",
"divine fore-ordainment", "predestination") is the concept of
divine destiny in Islam. It is one of Islam's six pillars of
faith, along with belief in the Oneness of God, the Revealed Books,
Prophets of Islam, the Day of Resurrection and Angels.
In Islam, "predestination" is the usual English language rendering of
a belief that Muslims call al-qada wa al-qadar in Arabic. The phrase
means "the divine decree and the predestination". In Islam,
predetermined, known, ordained, and is constantly creating every event
that takes place in the world. This is entailed by his being
omnipotent and omniscient. Sunni scholars hold that there is no
contradiction in people's deeds (and naturally their choices) being
created and predetermined by the creator, since they define free will
to be the antonym of compulsion and coercion. People – in the Sunni
perspective – do acknowledge that they are free, since they do not
see anybody or anything forcing them to do whatever they chose to do.
This, however, does not contradict that everything they do, including
the choices they make, are predestined and predetermined by God.
Consequently, people are already predestined to either heaven or hell
at birth, as Sunnis believe; however, they will have no argument on
the day of judgment since they never knew in advance what their fate
would be, and they do acknowledge that they have choice; which is what
moral responsibility comes with.
The concept of human will being predetermined by God's will is stated
clearly in the Quran: "Verily this (The Holy Quran) is no less than a
Message to (all) the Worlds; (With profit) to whoever among you wills
to go straight, but ye shall not will except as
God wills; the
Cherisher of the Worlds."
Free will in theology § In Jewish thought
In Rabbinic literature, there is much discussion as to the apparent
contradiction between God's omniscience and free will. The
representative view is that "Everything is foreseen; yet free will is
given" (Rabbi Akiva,
Pirkei Avoth 3:15). Based on this understanding,
the problem is formally described as a paradox, perhaps beyond our
Hasdai Crescas resolved this dialectical tension by taking the
position that free will doesn't exist. All of a person's actions are
predetermined by the moment of their birth, and thus their judgment in
the eyes of
God (so to speak) is effectively preordained. In this
scheme this is not a result of God's predetermining one's fate, but
rather that the universe is deterministic. Crescas's views on this
topic were rejected by Judaism at large. In later centuries this idea
independently developed among some in the
Chabad (Lubavitch) movement
of Hasidic Judaism. Many individuals within
Chabad take this view
seriously, and hence effectively deny the existence of free will.
Chabad (Lubavitch) Jews attempt to hold both views. They
affirm as infallible their rebbe's teachings that
God knows and
controls the fate of all, yet at the same time affirm the classical
Jewish belief in free will. The inherent contradiction between the two
results in their belief that such contradictions are only "apparent",
due to man's inherent lack of ability to understand greater truths and
due to the fact that Creator and Created exist in different realities.
The same idea is strongly repeated by
Rambam (Mishneh Torah, Laws of
Repentance, Chapter 5).
Many other Jews (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform and secular) affirm
that since free will exists, then by definition one's fate is not
preordained. It is held as a tenet of faith that whether
omniscient or not, nothing interferes with mankind's free will. Some
Jewish theologians, both during the medieval era and today, have
attempted to formulate a philosophy in which free will is preserved,
while also affirming that
God has knowledge of what decisions people
will make in the future. Whether or not these two ideas are mutually
compatible, or whether there is a contradiction between the two, is
still a matter of great study and interest in philosophy today.
Predestination is rejected in Zoroastrian teaching. Humans
bear responsibility for all situations they are in, and in the way
they act toward one another. Reward, punishment, happiness, and grief
all depend on how individuals live their lives.
^ "Predestination", The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural
Literacy, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. 13 Jun 2011
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^ Levering 2011, p. 31.
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^ Levering 2011, p. 33.
^ Levering 2011, p. 38.
^ Levering 2011, p. 39–40.
^ Levering 2011, p. 44.
^ Levering 2011, p. 48-49.
^ Levering 2011, p. 47–48.
^ a b James 1998, p. 102.
^ Chadwick 1993, p. 232.
^ Chadwick 1993, p. 233.
^ Levering 2011, p. 37.
^ Levering 2011, p. 60.
^ a b Levering 2011, p. 70.
^ Levering 2011, p. 69.
^ Levering 2011, p. 74.
^ Levering 2011, p. 80.
^ Levering 2011, p. 78.
^ Levering 2011, p. 78–79.
^ Levering 2011, p. 88.
^ Levering 2011, p. 89.
^ Levering 2011, p. 102.
^ Levering 2011, p. 104.
^ Levering 2011, p. 105–106.
^ James 1998, p. 30; Trueman 1994, p. 69.
^ St. Theophan the Recluse, An Explanation of Certain Texts of Holy
Scripture, as quoted in Johanna Manley's The Bible and the Holy
Fathers for Orthodox: Daily Scripture Readings and Commentary for
Orthodox Christians, pg. 609.
Catholic Encyclopedia entry on entry on Predestination
^ the encyclical Redemptoris Missio, chapter 1, section 10
^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, section 600
^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, section 1037
^ Augustine of Hippo. "In What Respects
Predestination and Grace
Differ". Anti Pelagian Writings. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
^ Aquinas, Thomas. "Whether
Reprobates any Man". Summa Theologica.
Retrieved 23 March 2013.
^ Table drawn from, though not copied, from Lange, Lyle W.
Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine. Milwaukee:
Northwestern Publishing House, 2006. p. 448.
^ Peterson, Robert A.; Michael D. Williams (2004). Why I am not an
Arminian. Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity Press. p. 132.
^ Acts 13:48, Eph. 1:4–11, Epitome of the Formula of Concord,
Article 11, Election, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis:
Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 585–9, section "The Doctrine
of Eternal Election: 1. The Definition of the Term", and Engelder,
T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House,
1934. pp. 124–8, Part XXXI. "The Election of Grace", paragraph 176.
^ 2 Thess. 2:13, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis:
Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 589–593, section "The Doctrine
of Eternal Election: 2. How Believers are to Consider Their Election,
and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1934. pp. 127–8, Part XXXI. "The Election of
Grace", paragraph 180.
^ 1 Tim. 2:4, 2 Pet. 3:9, Epitome of the Formula of Concord, Article
11, Election, and Engelder's Popular Symbolics, Part XXXI. The
Election of Grace, pp. 124–8.
^ Hos. 13:9, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia
Publishing House, 1934. p. 637, section "The Doctrine of the Last
Things (Eschatology), part 7. "Eternal Damnation", and Engelder,
T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House,
1934. pp. 135–6, Part XXXIX. "Eternal Death", paragraph 196.
^ "Gospel Topics: Foreordination", LDS.org, LDS Church, archived from
the original on 2014-12-07
^ McConkie, Bruce R. (May 1974). "
God Foreordains His
Prophets and His
People". Archived from the original on 2014-12-07.
^ "Agency". lds.org. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
^ Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion, (Henry
Beveridge, trans.), III.21.5
^ Westminster Confession of faith, Ch 3
^ Here, sub- is opposed to super- or supra- in a sense related to
volition and/or necessity. Cf., for relapse of same origin,
L. relapsus, p. p. of relabi to slip back, to relapse.
^ James 1998, p. 147.
^ James 1998, p. 30.
^ Trueman 1994, p. 69.
^ Calvin, John. Institutes of Christian Religion. Book Three, Chapter
^ Society of Evengelical Arminians
Retrieved 18 May 2017. Missing or empty title= (help)
^ J. M. Cowan (ed.) (1976). The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written
Arabic. Wiesbaden, Germany: Spoken Language Services.
^ "Qadar". missionislam.com.
^ "الجواب في مسألة القدر وشبهة الجبر
والاختيار". eltwhed.com. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
^ The Holy Koran; Section 81, Verses 27-29
^ "موقع الإسلام سؤال وجواب - عربي -
islamqa.info". islam-qa.com. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
^ Abasciano, Brian. "The FACTS of Salvation: A Summary of Arminian
Theology/the Biblical Doctrines of Grace". Society of Evangelical
Arminians (The Facts of Salvation). Retrieved 13 June 2017.
^ Nicholas Campbell Corff (2012). 201 Billion Galaxies: And Other
Religious Discoveries. Trafford Publishing. p. 301.
^ Olsen, Brad (1 Mar 2014). Modern Esoteric: Beyond Our Senses. CCC
Publishing. p. 133. ISBN 9781888729504.
^ Cavendish, Richard; Ling, Trevor Oswald (1980), Mythology: an
Illustrated Encyclopedia, Rizzoli, pp. 40–45,
Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion, (Henry Beveridge,
Chadwick, Henry (1993). The Early Church. Penguin.
James, Frank A., III (1998). Peter Martyr Vermigli and Predestination:
The Augustinian Inheritance of an Italian Reformer. Oxford: Clarendon
– via Questia. (Subscription required (help)).
Levering, Matthew (2011). Predestination: Biblical and Theological
Paths. New York: Oxford University Press.
Trueman, Carl R. (1994). Luther's Legacy: Salvation and English
Reformers, 1525-1556. Oxford: Clarendon – via Questia. (Subscription
Leif Dixon, Practical Predestinarians in England, c. 1590 – 1640;
Farnham, Ashgate, 2013, ISBN 9781409463863. Book review at 
Akin, James. The Salvation Controversy. San Diego, Calif.: Catholic
Answers, 2001. Vid. p. 77, 83-87, explaining the resemblances of
this Catholic dogma with, and the divergences from, the teaching of
Calvin and Luther on this matter. ISBN 1-888992-18-2
Garrigou-Lagrange, Réginald. Predestination. Rockford, Ill.: TAN
Books, 1998, cop. 1939. N.B.: Trans. of the author's La
Prédestination des saints et la grâce; reprint of the 1939 ed. of
the trans. published by G. Herder Book Co., Saint Louis, Mo.
ISBN 0-89555-634-0 pbk.
Park, Jae-Eun, John Knox's Doctrine of
Predestination and Its
Practical Application for His Ecclesiology, 5, 2 (2013): 65-90:
Puritan Reformed Journal .
_______. "John Plaifere (d.1632) on Conditional Predestination: A
Well-mixed Version of scientia media and Resistible Grace."
Reformation & Renaissance Review, 18.2 (2016): 155-73.
Determinism in Theology: Predestination" by Robert M. Kindon in The
Dictionary of the History of Ideas (1973–74)
"The question asked was does
God know the future and how we will turn
Predestination in Islam
Detailed Lecture on Islamic Perspective on Fate
Occurrences of "predestination" in the Bible text (ESV)
The Reformed Doctrine of
Predestination (1932) by Loraine Boettner
The Biblical Doctrine Of Predestination, Foreordination, and Election
by F. Furman Kearley (Arminian perspective)
"Predestination" from The
Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
Academic articles on predestination and election (Lutheran
Predestination and Free Will Overview of the concept of predestination
from the Protestant and Catholic perspectives
On the Presuppositions of our Personal Salvation Grace and
predestination from the Orthodox perspective
Means of grace
Union with Christ
Early Lutheran controversies
Issues / people / publications involved
Descent into Hell
Descent into Hell
Nicolaus von Amsdorf
On the Bondage of the Will
Augsburg Confession Variata
The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ
a According to the
Formula of Concord
Formula of Concord articles identified (I–XII).
Chronology protection conjecture
Closed timelike curve
Novikov self-consistency principle
Quantum mechanics of time travel
Time travel in fiction
Timelines in fiction
in science fiction
television series that include time travel
Causal loop (predestination paradox)
Parallel universe (fiction)
space and time
Spacetimes in general
relativity that can contain
closed timelike curves
BTZ black hole
van Stockum dust
Time travel claims
and urban legends