HOME
The Info List - Prague Spring


--- Advertisement ---



The Prague
Prague
Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček
Alexander Dubček
was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
(KSČ), and continued until 21 August 1968 when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and other members of the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invaded the country to halt the reforms. The Prague
Prague
Spring reforms were a strong attempt by Dubček to grant additional rights to the citizens of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in an act of partial decentralization of the economy and democratization. The freedoms granted included a loosening of restrictions on the media, speech and travel. After national discussion of dividing the country into a federation of three republics, Bohemia, Moravia-Silesia
Moravia-Silesia
and Slovakia, Dubček oversaw the decision to split into two, the Czech Republic
Republic
and Slovak Republic.[1] This was the only formal change that survived the end of Prague
Prague
Spring, though the relative success of the nonviolent resistance undoubtedly prefigured and facilitated the peaceful transition to liberal democracy with the collapse of Soviet hegemony in 1989.[citation needed] The reforms, especially the decentralization of administrative authority, were not received well by the Soviets, who, after failed negotiations, sent half a million Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
troops and tanks to occupy the country. The New York Times cited reports of 650,000 men equipped with the most modern and sophisticated weapons in the Soviet military catalogue.[2] A large wave of emigration swept the nation. A spirited non-violent resistance was mounted throughout the country, involving attempted fraternization, painting over and turning street signs (on one occasion an entire invasion force from Poland was routed back out of the country after a day's wandering[citation needed]), defiance of various curfews, etc. While the Soviet
Soviet
military had predicted that it would take four days to subdue the country, the resistance held out for eight months, and was only circumvented by diplomatic stratagems (see below). There were sporadic acts of violence and several suicides by self-immolation (such as that of Jan Palach), but there was no military resistance. Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
remained Soviet-controlled until 1989, when the Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
ended pro- Soviet
Soviet
rule peacefully, undoubtedly drawing upon the successes of the non-violent resistance twenty years earlier.[citation needed] The resistance also became an iconic example of civilian-based defense which, along with unarmed civilian peacekeeping, constitute the two ways that nonviolence can be and occasionally has been applied directly to military or paramilitary threats. After the invasion, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
entered a period known as "normalization": subsequent leaders attempted to restore the political and economic values that had prevailed before Dubček gained control of the KSČ. Gustáv Husák, who replaced Dubček and also became president, reversed almost all of Dubček's reforms. The Prague
Prague
Spring inspired music and literature such as the work of Václav Havel, Karel Husa, Karel Kryl, and Milan Kundera's novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 1967 Writers' Congress

2 Dubček's rise to power

2.1 Literární listy

3 Socialism with a human face

3.1 Publications and media

4 Soviet
Soviet
reaction

4.1 Invasion 4.2 Reactions to the invasion

5 Aftermath

5.1 Normalization and censorship 5.2 Cultural impact

6 See also 7 References

7.1 Further reading

8 External links

Background[edit]

Eastern Bloc

Soviet
Soviet
Socialist Republics

Armenia Azerbaijan Byelorussia Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kirghizia Latvia Lithuania Moldavia Russian SFSR Tajikistan Turkmenia Ukraine Uzbekistan

Allied states

Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

Socialist Republic
Republic
of Romania

German Democratic Republic People's Republic
Republic
of Bulgaria

Socialist Federal Republic
Republic
of Yugoslavia (to 1948)

People's Socialist Republic
Republic
of Albania (to 1961)

Republic
Republic
of Cuba People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada People's Republic
Republic
of Benin People's Republic
Republic
of the Congo People's Republic
Republic
of Angola People's Republic
Republic
of Mozambique People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Ethiopia

Somali Democratic Republic (to 1977)

People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Yemen Democratic Republic
Republic
of Afghanistan Mongolian People's Republic

People's Republic
Republic
of China (to 1961)

Democratic People's Republic
Republic
of Korea Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam Lao People's Democratic Republic People's Republic
Republic
of Kampuchea

Related organizations

Cominform COMECON Warsaw Pact

World Federation
Federation
of Trade Unions (WFTU) World Federation
Federation
of Democratic Youth (WFDY)

Dissent and opposition

Forest Brothers

in Lithuania in Latvia in Estonia

Operation "Jungle"

Ukrainian Insurgent Army Goryani
Goryani
movement (Bulgaria) Romanian anti-communism Polish Cursed Soldiers

1953 uprisings

in Plzeň in East Germany

1956 protests

in Georgia in Poznań

Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Novocherkassk massacre
Novocherkassk massacre
(Russia)

1968 events

Prague
Prague
Spring Invasion of Czechoslovakia Red Square demonstration

Charter 77
Charter 77
(Czechoslovakia)

Solidarity (Poland)

Jeltoqsan
Jeltoqsan
(Kazakhstan)

Braşov Rebellion (Romania)

January Events (Lithuania)

The Barricades
The Barricades
(Latvia)

April 9 tragedy
April 9 tragedy
(Georgia)

Black January
Black January
(Azerbaijan)

Cold War
Cold War
events

Marshall Plan

1948 Czechoslovak coup

Tito–Stalin split

Berlin Blockade

1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis

1980 Moscow
Moscow
Olympics

Decline

Singing Revolution

Polish Round Table Agreement

Revolutions of 1989

Fall of the Berlin Wall

January 1991

in Lithuania in Latvia

Breakup of Yugoslavia

Yugoslav Wars

End of the Soviet
Soviet
Union

Fall of communism in Albania

v t e

The process of de-Stalinization in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
had begun under Antonín Novotný
Antonín Novotný
in the late 1950s and early 1960s, but had progressed more slowly than in most other states of the Eastern Bloc.[3] Following the lead of Nikita Khrushchev, Novotný proclaimed the completion of socialism, and the new constitution,[4] accordingly, adopted the name Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. The pace of change, however, was sluggish; the rehabilitation of Stalinist-era victims, such as those convicted in the Slánský trials, may have been considered as early as 1963, but did not take place until 1967.[5] In the early 1960s, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
underwent an economic downturn.[6] The Soviet
Soviet
model of industrialization applied poorly to Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was already quite industrialized before World War II
World War II
and the Soviet
Soviet
model mainly took into account less developed economies. Novotný's attempt at restructuring the economy, the 1965 New Economic Model, spurred increased demand for political reform as well.[7] 1967 Writers' Congress[edit] As the strict regime eased its rules, the Union of Czechoslovak Writers cautiously began to air discontent, and in the union's gazette, Literární noviny, members suggested that literature should be independent of Party doctrine.[8] In June 1967, a small fraction of the Czech writer's union sympathized with radical socialists, specifically Ludvík Vaculík, Milan Kundera, Jan Procházka, Antonín Jaroslav Liehm, Pavel Kohout
Pavel Kohout
and Ivan Klíma.[8] A few months later, at a party meeting, it was decided that administrative actions against the writers who openly expressed support of reformation would be taken. Since only a small part of the union held these beliefs, the remaining members were relied upon to discipline their colleagues.[8] Control over Literární noviny and several other publishing houses was transferred to the Ministry of Culture,[8] and even members of the party who later became major reformers — including Dubček — endorsed these moves.[8] Dubček's rise to power[edit]

Alexander Dubček

As President Antonín Novotný
Antonín Novotný
was losing support, Alexander Dubček, First Secretary of the regional Communist Party of Slovakia, and economist Ota Šik challenged him at a meeting of the Central Committee. Novotný then invited the secretary-general of the Communist Party of Soviet
Soviet
Union, Leonid Brezhnev, to Prague
Prague
that December, seeking support;[9] but Brezhnev was surprised at the extent of the opposition to Novotný and thus supported his removal as Czechoslovakia's leader. Dubček replaced Novotný as First Secretary on 5 January 1968.[10] On 22 March 1968, Novotný resigned his presidency and was replaced by Ludvík Svoboda, who later gave consent to the reforms.[11] Early signs of change were few.[citation needed] When the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(KSČ) Presidium member Josef Smrkovský
Josef Smrkovský
was interviewed in a Rudé Právo
Rudé Právo
article, entitled "What Lies Ahead", he insisted that Dubček's appointment at the January Plenum would further the goals of socialism and maintain the working class nature of the Communist Party.[12] Literární listy[edit] However, right after Dubček assumed power, the scholar Eduard Goldstücker became chairman of the Union of Czechoslovak Writers and thus editor-in-chief of the previously hard-line communist weekly Literární noviny,[13][14] which under Novotny had been filled with party loyalists.[14] Goldstucker tested the boundaries of Dubček’s devotion to freedom of the press when he appeared on a television interview as the new head of the union. On 4 February, in front of the entire nation, he openly criticized Novotny, exposing all of Novotny’s previously unreported policies and explaining how they were preventing progress in Czechoslovakia.[15] Despite the official government statement that allowed for freedom of the press, this was the first trial of whether or not Dubček was serious about reforms. Goldstucker suffered no repercussions, and Dubček instead began to build a sense of trust among the media, the government, and the citizens.[14] It was under Goldstücker that the journal's name was changed to Literární listy, and on 29 February 1968, the Writers’ Union published the first copy of the censor-free Literární listy.[13] By August 1968, Literární listy had a circulation of 300,000, making it the most published periodical in Europe.[16] Socialism with a human face[edit] Main article: Socialism with a human face On the 20th anniversary of Czechoslovakia’s "Victorious February", Dubček delivered a speech explaining the need for change following the triumph of socialism. He emphasized the need to "enforce the leading role of the party more effectively"[17] and acknowledged that, despite Klement Gottwald's urgings for better relations with society, the Party had too often made heavy-handed rulings on trivial issues. Dubček declared the party's mission was "to build an advanced socialist society on sound economic foundations ... a socialism that corresponds to the historical democratic traditions of Czechoslovakia, in accordance with the experience of other communist parties ..."[17] One of the most important steps towards the reform was the reduction and later complete abolition of the censorship on 4. March 1968. It was for the first time in Czech history the censorship was abolished and it was also probably the only reform fully implemented, albeit only for a short period. From the instrument of Party's propaganda media quickly became the instrument of criticism of the regime.[18][19] In April, Dubček launched an "Action Programme" of liberalizations, which included increasing freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and freedom of movement, with economic emphasis on consumer goods and the possibility of a multiparty government. The programme was based on the view that "Socialism cannot mean only liberation of the working people from the domination of exploiting class relations, but must make more provisions for a fuller life of the personality than any bourgeois democracy."[20] It would limit the power of the secret police[21] and provide for the federalization of the ČSSR into two equal nations.[22] The programme also covered foreign policy, including both the maintenance of good relations with Western countries and cooperation with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
nations.[23] It spoke of a ten-year transition through which democratic elections would be made possible and a new form of democratic socialism would replace the status quo.[24] Those who drafted the Action Programme were careful not to criticize the actions of the post-war Communist regime, only to point out policies that they felt had outlived their usefulness.[25] For instance, the immediate post-war situation had required "centralist and directive-administrative methods"[25] to fight against the "remnants of the bourgeoisie."[25] Since the "antagonistic classes"[25] were said to have been defeated with the achievement of socialism, these methods were no longer necessary. Reform was needed, for the Czechoslovak economy to join the "scientific-technical revolution in the world"[25] rather than relying on Stalinist-era heavy industry, labour power, and raw materials.[25] Furthermore, since internal class conflict had been overcome, workers could now be duly rewarded for their qualifications and technical skills without contravening Marxism-Leninism. The Programme suggested it was now necessary to ensure important positions were "filled by capable, educated socialist expert cadres" in order to compete with capitalism.[25] Although it was stipulated that reform must proceed under KSČ direction, popular pressure mounted to implement reforms immediately.[26] Radical elements became more vocal: anti-Soviet polemics appeared in the press on 26 June 1968,[24] the Social Democrats began to form a separate party, and new unaffiliated political clubs were created. Party conservatives urged repressive measures, but Dubček counselled moderation and re-emphasized KSČ leadership.[27] At the Presidium of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in April, Dubček announced a political programme of "socialism with a human face".[28] In May, he announced that the Fourteenth Party Congress
Party Congress
would convene in an early session on 9 September. The congress would incorporate the Action Programme into the party statutes, draft a federalization law, and elect a new Central Committee.[29] Dubček's reforms guaranteed freedom of the press, and political commentary was allowed for the first time in mainstream media.[30] At the time of the Prague
Prague
Spring, Czechoslovak exports were declining in competitiveness, and Dubček's reforms planned to solve these troubles by mixing planned and market economies. Within the party, there were varying opinions on how this should proceed; certain economists wished for a more mixed economy while others wanted the economy to remain mostly planned. Dubček continued to stress the importance of economic reform proceeding under Communist Party rule.[31] On 27 June Ludvík Vaculík, a leading author and journalist, published a manifesto titled The Two Thousand Words. It expressed concern about conservative elements within the KSČ and so-called "foreign" forces. Vaculík called on the people to take the initiative in implementing the reform programme.[32] Dubček, the party Presidium, the National Front, and the cabinet denounced this manifesto.[33] Publications and media[edit]

Play media

Prague. 1968-08. «Periscope ƒilm»

Dubček’s relaxation of censorship ushered in a brief period of freedom of speech and the press.[34] The first tangible manifestation of this new policy of openness was the production of the previously hard-line communist weekly Literarni noviny, renamed Literarni listy.[13][14] Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press
also opened the door for the first honest look at Czechoslovakia’s past by Czechoslovakia’s people. Many of the investigations centered on the country’s history under communism, especially in the instance of the Joseph Stalin-period.[13] In another television appearance, Goldstucker presented both doctored and undoctored photographs of former communist leaders who had been purged, imprisoned, or executed and thus erased from communist history.[14] The Writer’s Union also formed a committee in April 1968, headed by the poet Jaroslav Seifert, to investigate the persecution of writers after the Communist takeover in February 1948 and rehabilitate the literary figures into the Union, bookstores and libraries, and the literary world.[35][36] Discussions on the current state of communism and abstract ideas such as freedom and identity were also becoming more common; soon, non-party publications began appearing, such as the trade union daily Prace (Labour). This was also helped by the Journalists Union, which by March 1968 had already convinced the Central Publication Board, the government censor, to allow editors to receive uncensored subscriptions for foreign papers, allowing for a more international dialogue around the news.[37] The press, the radio, and the television also contributed to these discussions by hosting meetings where students and young workers could ask questions of writers such as Goldstucker, Pavel Kohout, and Jan Prochazka and political victims such as Josef Smrkovský, Zdenek Hejzlar, and Gustav Husak.[15] Television also broadcast meetings between former political prisoners and the communist leaders from the secret police or prisons where they were held.[14] Most importantly, this new freedom of the press and the introduction of television into the lives of everyday Czechoslovak citizens moved the political dialogue from the intellectual to the popular sphere. Soviet
Soviet
reaction[edit]

Leonid Brezhnev.

Initial reaction within the Communist Bloc was mixed. Hungary's János Kádár was highly supportive of Dubček's appointment in January, but Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
and others grew concerned about Dubček's reforms, which they feared might weaken the position of the Communist Bloc during the Cold War.[38][39][40] At a 23 March meeting in Dresden
Dresden
in East Germany, leaders of the "Warsaw Five" (USSR, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria and East Germany) questioned a Czechoslovak delegation over the planned reforms, suggesting any talk of "democratization" was a veiled critique of other policies.[41] Władysław Gomułka
Władysław Gomułka
and János Kádár
János Kádár
were less concerned with the reforms themselves than with the growing criticisms levelled by the Czechoslovak media, and worried the situation might be "similar to the prologue of the Hungarian counterrevolution".[41] Some of the language in April's KSČ Action Programme may have been chosen to assert that no counter-revolution was planned, but Kieran Williams suggests that Dubček was perhaps surprised at, but not resentful of, Soviet
Soviet
suggestions.[42] The Soviet
Soviet
leadership tried to stop, or limit, the changes in the ČSSR through a series of negotiations. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
agreed to bilateral talks with Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in July at Čierna nad Tisou, near the Slovak- Soviet
Soviet
border. At the meeting, with attendance of Brezhnev, Alexei Kosygin, Nikolai Podgorny, Mikhail Suslov
Mikhail Suslov
and others on the Soviet
Soviet
side and Dubček, Svoboda, Oldřich Černík, Smrkovský and others on the Czechoslovak side, Dubček defended the proposals of the reformist wing of the KSČ while pledging commitment to the Warsaw Pact and Comecon.[23] The KSČ leadership, however, was divided between vigorous reformers (Josef Smrkovský, Oldřich Černík, and František Kriegel) who supported Dubček, and conservatives (Vasil Biľak, Drahomír Kolder, and Oldřich Švestka) who adopted an anti-reformist stance.[43] Brezhnev decided on compromise. The KSČ delegates reaffirmed their loyalty to the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
and promised to curb "anti-socialist" tendencies, prevent the revival of the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party, and control the press more effectively. The Soviets agreed to withdraw their armed forces (still in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
after manoeuvres that June) and permit the 9 September Party Congress.[43] On 3 August representatives from the "Warsaw Five" and Czechoslovakia met in Bratislava
Bratislava
and signed the Bratislava
Bratislava
Declaration. The declaration affirmed unshakable fidelity to Marxism-Leninism
Marxism-Leninism
and proletarian internationalism and declared an implacable struggle against "bourgeois" ideology and all "anti-socialist" forces.[44] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
expressed its intention to intervene in a Warsaw Pact country if a "bourgeois" system—a pluralist system of several political parties representing different factions of the capitalist class—was ever established. After the Bratislava
Bratislava
conference, the Soviet
Soviet
Army left Czechoslovak territory but remained along its borders.[45] Invasion[edit] Main article: Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia

Prague
Prague
Spring of 1968 poster by the Young Union.

As these talks proved unsatisfactory, the Soviets began to consider a military alternative. The Soviet
Soviet
Union's policy of compelling the socialist governments of its satellite states to subordinate their national interests to those of the "Eastern Bloc" (through military force if needed) became known as the Brezhnev Doctrine.[46] On the night of 20–21 August 1968, Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
armies from four Warsaw Pact countries – the Soviet
Soviet
Union, Bulgaria, Poland and Hungary—invaded the ČSSR.[47][48] That night, 200,000 troops and 2,000 tanks entered the country.[49] They first occupied the Ruzyně International Airport, where air deployment of more troops was arranged. The Czechoslovak forces were confined to their barracks, which were surrounded until the threat of a counter-attack was assuaged. By the morning of 21 August Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was occupied.[48] Neither Romania nor Albania took part in the invasion.[50] Soviet command refrained from drawing upon East German troops for fear of reviving memories of the Nazi invasion in 1938.[51] During the invasion by the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
armies, 72  Czechs
Czechs
and Slovaks
Slovaks
were killed (19 of those in Slovakia), 266 severely wounded and another 436 slightly injured.[52][53] Alexander Dubček
Alexander Dubček
called upon his people not to resist.[53] Nevertheless, there was scattered resistance in the streets. Road signs in towns were removed or painted over—except for those indicating the way to Moscow.[54] Many small villages renamed themselves "Dubcek" or "Svoboda"; thus, without navigational equipment, the invaders were often confused.[55] Although, on the night of the invasion the Czechoslovak Presidium declared that Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
troops had crossed the border without the knowledge of the ČSSR government, the Soviet
Soviet
Press printed an unsigned request – allegedly by Czechoslovak party and state leaders – for "immediate assistance, including assistance with armed forces".[56] At the 14th KSČ Party Congress
Party Congress
(conducted secretly, immediately following the intervention), it was emphasized that no member of the leadership had invited the intervention.[57] More recent evidence suggests that conservative KSČ members (including Biľak, Švestka, Kolder, Indra, and Kapek) did send a request for intervention to the Soviets.[58] The invasion was followed by a previously unseen wave of emigration, which was stopped shortly thereafter. An estimated 70,000 fled immediately with an eventual total of some 300,000.[59] The Soviets attributed the invasion to the "Brezhnev Doctrine" which stated that the U.S.S.R. had the right to intervene whenever a country in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
appeared to be making a shift towards capitalism.[60] There is still some uncertainty, however, as to what provocation, if any, occurred to make the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
armies invade. The days leading up to the invasion was a rather calm period without any major events taking place in Czechoslovakia.[29] Reactions to the invasion[edit] See also: Protests of 1968
Protests of 1968
§  Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and the Soviet
Soviet
Union

Romanian Prime Secretary Nicolae Ceauşescu gives a speech critical of the invasion, in front of a crowd in Bucharest, 21 August 1968

In Czechoslovakia, especially in the week immediately following the invasion, popular opposition was expressed in numerous spontaneous acts of nonviolent resistance.[61] On 16 January 1969, student Jan Palach set himself on fire in Prague's Wenceslas Square
Wenceslas Square
to protest against the renewed suppression of free speech.[62] Civilians purposely gave wrong directions to invading soldiers, while others identified and followed cars belonging to the secret police.[63] The generalized resistance caused the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to abandon its original plan to oust the First Secretary. Dubček, who had been arrested on the night of 20 August was taken to Moscow
Moscow
for negotiations. There, he and several other leaders (including all the highest-ranked officials President Svoboda, Prime Minister Černík and Chairman of the National Assembly Smrkovský) signed, under heavy psychological pressure from Soviet
Soviet
politicians, the Moscow
Moscow
Protocol and it was agreed that Dubček would remain in office and a programme of moderate reform would continue.

Protest banner in Russian reading "For your freedom and ours".

On 25 August citizens of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
who did not approve of the invasion protested in Red Square; seven protesters opened banners with anti-invasion slogans. The demonstrators were arrested and later punished; the protest was dubbed "anti-Soviet".[64] A more pronounced effect took place in Romania, where Nicolae Ceaușescu, Prime Secretary of the Romanian CP, already a staunch opponent of Soviet
Soviet
influences and a self-declared Dubček supporter, gave a public speech in Bucharest
Bucharest
on the day of the invasion, depicting Soviet
Soviet
policies in harsh terms.[50] Albania withdrew from the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
in opposition calling the invasion an act of "social-imperialism". In Finland, a country under some Soviet political influence, the occupation caused a major scandal.[65] Like the Italian and French[66] Communist parties, the majority of the Communist Party of Finland
Communist Party of Finland
denounced the occupation. Nonetheless, Finnish president Urho Kekkonen
Urho Kekkonen
was the very first Western politician to officially visit Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
after August 1968; he received the highest Czechoslovakian honours from the hands of President Ludvík Svoboda, on 4 October 1969.[65] The Portuguese communist secretary-general Álvaro Cunhal
Álvaro Cunhal
was one of few political leaders from western Europe to have supported the invasion for being counter-revolutionary.[67] along with the Luxembourg party[66] and conservative factions of the Greek party.[66]

Helsinki demonstration against the invasion of Czechoslovakia

Most countries offered only vocal criticism following the invasion. The night of the invasion, Canada, Denmark, France, Paraguay, the United Kingdom and the United States
United States
requested a meeting of the United Nations Security Council.[68] At the meeting, the Czechoslovak ambassador Jan Muzik denounced the invasion. Soviet
Soviet
ambassador Jacob Malik insisted the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
actions were "fraternal assistance" against "antisocial forces".[68] The next day, several countries suggested a resolution condemning the intervention and calling for immediate withdrawal. Eventually, a vote was taken with ten members supporting the motion; Algeria, India, and Pakistan abstained; the USSR
USSR
(with veto power) and Hungary
Hungary
opposed. Canadian delegates immediately introduced another motion asking for a UN representative to travel to Prague
Prague
and work toward the release of the imprisoned Czechoslovak leaders.[68] By 26 August a new Czechoslovak representative requested the whole issue be removed from the Security Council's agenda. Shirley Temple Black visited Prague
Prague
in August 1968 to prepare for becoming the US Ambassador for a free Czechoslovakia. However, after the 21 August invasion she became part of a U.S. Embassy-organized convoy of vehicles that evacuated U.S. citizens from the country.[69] In August 1989, she returned to Prague
Prague
as U.S. Ambassador, three months before the Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
that ended 41 years of Communist rule.[70] Aftermath[edit] Main article: Normalization (Czechoslovakia)

Memorial to the victims of the invasion, located in Liberec

In April 1969, Dubček was replaced as first secretary by Gustáv Husák, and a period of "normalization" began.[71] Dubček was expelled from the KSČ and given a job as a forestry official.[22][72] Husák reversed Dubček's reforms, purged the party of its liberal members, and dismissed from public office professional and intellectual elites who openly expressed disagreement with the political transformation.[73] Husák worked to reinstate the power of the police and strengthen ties with the rest of the Communist bloc. He also sought to re-centralize the economy, as a considerable amount of freedom had been granted to industries during the Prague
Prague
Spring.[73] Commentary on politics was forbidden in mainstream media, and political statements by anyone not considered to have "full political trust" were also banned.[30] The only significant change that survived was the federalization of the country, which created the Czech Socialist Republic
Republic
and the Slovak Socialist Republic
Republic
in 1969. In 1987, the Soviet
Soviet
leader Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
acknowledged that his liberalizing policies of glasnost and perestroika owed a great deal to Dubček's "socialism with a human face".[74] When asked what the difference was between the Prague
Prague
Spring and Gorbachev's own reforms, a Foreign Ministry spokesman replied, "Nineteen years."[75] Dubček lent his support to the Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
of December 1989. After the collapse of the Communist regime that month, Dubček became chairman of the federal assembly under the Havel administration.[76] He later led the Social Democratic Party of Slovakia, and spoke against the dissolution of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
prior to his death in November 1992.[77] Normalization and censorship[edit] The Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion included attacks on media establishments, such as Radio Prague
Prague
and Czechoslovak Television, almost immediately after the initial tanks rolled into Prague
Prague
on 21 August 1968.[78] While both the radio station and the television station managed to hold out for at least enough time for initial broadcasts of the invasion, what the Soviets did not attack by force they attacked by reenacting party censorship. In reaction to the invasion, on 28 August 1968, all Czechoslovak publishers agreed to halt production of newspapers for the day to allow for a "day of reflection" for the editorial staffs.[79] Writers and reporters agreed with Dubcek to support a limited reinstitution of the censorship office, as long as the institution was to only last three months.[80] Finally, by September 1968, the Czechoslovak Communist Party
Czechoslovak Communist Party
plenum was held to instate the new censorship law. In the words of the Moscow-approved resolution, "The press, radio, and television are first of all the instruments for carrying into life the policies of the Party and state."[81] While this was not yet the end of the media’s freedom after the Prague
Prague
Spring, it was the beginning of the end. During November, the Presidium, under Husak, declared that the Czechoslovak press could not make any negative remarks about the Soviet
Soviet
invaders or they would risk violating the agreement they had come to at the end of August. When the weeklies Reporter and Politika responded harshly to this threat, even going so far as to not so subtly criticize the Presidium itself in Politika, the government banned Reporter for a month, suspended Politika indefinitely, and prohibited any political programs from appearing on the radio or television.[82] The intellectuals were stuck at a bypass; they recognized the government’s increasing normalization, but they were unsure whether to trust that the measures were only temporary or demand more. For example, still believing in Dubcek’s promises for reform, Milan Kundera published the article “Cesky udel” (Our Czech Destiny) in Literarni listy on 19 December.[36][83] He wrote: "People who today are falling into depression and defeatism, commenting that there are not enough guarantees, that everything could end badly, that we might again end up in a marasmus of censorship and trials, that this or that could happen, are simply weak people, who can live only in illusions of certainty."[84] In March 1969, however, the new Soviet-backed Czechoslovakian government instituted full censorship, effectively ending the hopes that normalization would lead back to the freedoms enjoyed during the Prague
Prague
Spring. A declaration was presented to the Presidium condemning the media as co-conspirators against the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Warsaw Pact in their support of Dubcek’s liberalization measures. Finally, on 2 April 1969, the government adopted measures "to secure peace and order" through even stricter censorship, forcing the people of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
to wait until the thawing of Eastern Europe for the return of a free media.[85] Former students from Prague, including Constantine Menges, and Czech refugees from the crisis, who were able to escape or resettle in Western Countries continued to advocate for human rights, religious liberty, freedom of speech and political asylum for Czech political prisoners and dissidents. Many raised concerns about the Soviet
Soviet
Union and Red Army's continued military occupation of the Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in the 1970s and 1980s, prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
and collapse of Communism
Communism
in Moscow
Moscow
and Eastern Europe. Cultural impact[edit] The Prague
Prague
Spring deepened the disillusionment of many Western leftists with Soviet
Soviet
views. It contributed to the growth of Eurocommunist ideas in Western communist parties, which sought greater distance from the Soviet
Soviet
Union, and eventually led to the dissolution of many of these groups.[86] A decade later, a period of Chinese political liberalization became known as the Beijing Spring. It also partly influenced the Croatian Spring
Croatian Spring
in Yugoslavia.[87] In a 1993 Czech survey, 60% of those surveyed had a personal memory linked to the Prague
Prague
Spring while another 30% were familiar with the events in another form.[88] The demonstrations and regime changes taking place in North Africa and the Middle East from December 2010 have frequently been referred to as an "Arab Spring". The event has been referenced in popular music, including the music of Karel Kryl, Luboš Fišer's Requiem,[89] and Karel Husa's Music for Prague
Prague
1968.[90] The Israeli song "Prague", written by Shalom Hanoch and performed by Arik Einstein
Arik Einstein
at the Israel Song Festival of 1969, was a lamentation on the fate of the city after the Soviet
Soviet
invasion and mentions Jan Palach's Self-immolation.[91] "They Can't Stop The Spring", a song by Irish journalist and songwriter John Waters, represented Ireland in the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
in 2007. Waters has described it as "a kind of Celtic celebration of the Eastern European revolutions and their eventual outcome", quoting Dubček's alleged comment: "They may crush the flowers, but they can't stop the Spring."[92] The Prague
Prague
Spring is featured in several works of literature. Milan Kundera set his novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being
The Unbearable Lightness of Being
during the Prague
Prague
Spring. It follows the repercussions of increased Soviet presence and the dictatorial police control of the population.[93] A film version was released in 1988. The Liberators, by Viktor Suvorov, is an eyewitness description of the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia, from the point of view of a Soviet
Soviet
tank commander.[94] Rock 'n' Roll, a play by award-winning Czech-born English playwright Tom Stoppard, references the Prague
Prague
Spring, as well as the 1989 Velvet Revolution.[95] Heda Margolius Kovály
Heda Margolius Kovály
also ends her memoir Under a Cruel Star with a first hand account of the Prague
Prague
Spring and the subsequent invasion, and her reflections upon these events.[96] In film there has been an adaptation of The Unbearable Lightness of Being, and also the movie Pelíšky
Pelíšky
from director Jan Hřebejk
Jan Hřebejk
and screenwriter Petr Jarchovský, which depicts the events of the Prague Spring and ends with the invasion by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and their allies.[97] The Czech musical film, Rebelové from Filip Renč, also depicts the events, the invasion and subsequent wave of emigration.[97] The number 68 has become iconic in the former Czechoslovakia. Hockey player Jaromír Jágr, whose grandfather died in prison during the rebellion, wears the number because of the importance of the year in Czechoslovak history.[98][99] A former publishing house based in Toronto, 68 Publishers, that published books by exiled Czech and Slovak authors, took its name from the event. See also[edit]

1960s portal

Velvet Revolution Croatian Spring Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Spring Revolutions (other) Constantine Menges

References[edit]

^ Czech radio broadcasts 18–20 August 1968 ^ New York Times September 2, 1968 ^ Williams (1997), p 170 ^ Williams (1997), p 7 ^ Skilling (1976), p 47 ^ "Photius.com, (info from CIA world Factbook)". Photius Coutsoukis. Retrieved 20 January 2008.  ^ Williams (1997), p 5 ^ a b c d e Williams (1997), p 55 ^ Navrátil (2006), pp 18–20 ^ Navazelskis (1990) ^ "Antonin Novotný Biography". Libri publishing house. Retrieved 15 November 2014.  ^ Navrátil (2006), p 46 ^ a b c d Williams, pp 68 ^ a b c d e f Bren, Paulina (2010). The Greengrocer and His TV: The Culture of Communism
Communism
after the 1968 Prague
Prague
Spring. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 23ff. ISBN 978-0-8014-4767-9.  ^ a b Williams, pp 69 ^ Holý, Jiří. Writers Under Siege: Czech Literature Since 1945. Sussex: Sussex Academic Press, 2011, pp 119 ^ a b Navrátil (2006), pp 52–54 ^ Vondrová, Jitka (25 June 2008). "PRAŽSKÉ JARO 1968". Akademický bulletin (in Czech). Akademie věd ČR. Retrieved 21 March 2018.  ^ Hoppe, Jiří (6 August 2008). "Co je Pražské jaro 1968?". iForum (in Czech). Charles University. Retrieved 21 March 2018.  ^ Ello (1968), pp 32, 54 ^ Von Geldern, James; Siegelbaum, Lewis. "The Soviet-led Intervention in Czechoslovakia". Soviethistory.org. Retrieved 7 March 2008.  ^ a b Hochman, Dubček (1993) ^ a b Dubček, Alexander; Kramer, Mark; Moss, Joy; Tosek, Ruth (translation) (10 April 1968). "Akční program Komunistické strany Československa". Action Program (in Czech). Rudé právo. pp. 1–6. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b Judt (2005), p 441 ^ a b c d e f g Ello (1968), pp 7–8, 129–30, 9, 131 ^ Derasadurain, Beatrice. " Prague
Prague
Spring". thinkquest.org. Archived from the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2008.  ^ Kusin (2002), p 107–122 ^ "The Prague
Prague
Spring, 1968". Library of Congress. 1985. Retrieved 5 January 2008.  ^ a b Williams (1997), p 156 ^ a b Williams (1997), p 164 ^ Williams (1997), pp 18–22 ^ Vaculík, Ludvík (27 June 1968). "Two Thousand Words". Literární listy.  ^ Mastalir, Linda (25 July 2006). "Ludvík Vaculík: a Czechoslovak man of letters". Radio Prague. Retrieved 23 January 2008.  ^ Williams, Tieren. The Prague
Prague
Spring and Its Aftermath: Czechoslovak Politics, 1968–1970. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp 67. ^ Golan, Galia. Cambridge Russian, Soviet
Soviet
and Post- Soviet
Soviet
Studies. Reform Rule in Czechoslovakia: The Dubček Era, 1968–1969. Vol. 11. Cambridge, UK: CUP Archive, 1973, pp 10 ^ a b Holy, pp 119 ^ Golan, pp 112 ^ Navrátil (2006), p 37 ^ "Document #81: Transcript of Leonid Brezhnev's Telephone Conversation with Alexander Dubček, August 13, 1968". The Prague Spring '68. The Prague
Prague
Spring Foundation. 1998. Retrieved 23 January 2008.  ^ Navrátil (2006), pp 172–181 ^ a b Navrátil (2006), pp 64–72 ^ Williams (1997), pp 10–11 ^ a b Navrátil (2006), pp 448–479 ^ Navrátil (2006), pp 326–329 ^ Navrátil (2006), pp 326–327 ^ Chafetz (1993), p 10 ^ Ouimet (2003), pp 34–35 ^ a b " Soviet
Soviet
Invasion of Czechoslovakia". Military. GlobalSecurity.org. 27 April 2005. Retrieved 19 January 2007.  ^ Washington Post, (Final Edition), 21 August 1968, p A11 ^ a b Curtis, Glenn E. "The Warsaw Pact". Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2008.  ^ "Der "Prager Frühling"". Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.  ^ "Springtime for Prague". Prague
Prague
Life. Lifeboat Limited. Retrieved 30 April 2006.  ^ a b Williams (1997), p 158 ^ See Paul Chan, "Fearless Symmetry" Artforum International vol. 45, March 2007. ^ "Civilian Resistance in Czechoslovakia". Fragments. Retrieved 5 January 2009.  ^ Skilling (1976) ^ Navrátil (2006), p xviii ^ Fowkes (2000), pp 64–85 ^ Čulík, Jan. "Den, kdy tanky zlikvidovaly české sny Pražského jara". Britské Listy. Retrieved 23 January 2008.  ^ Grenville (2005), p 780 ^ Windsor, Philip and Adam Roberts. Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
1968: Reform, Repression and Resistance. Chatto & Windus, London, 1969, pp. 97–143. ^ "Jan Palach". Radio Prague. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2008.  ^ Keane, John. Václav Havel: A Political Tragedy in Six Acts. Bloomsbury Publishing, 1999, p. 215 ^ Gorbanevskaya (1972) ^ a b Jutikkala, Pirinen (2001) ^ a b c Devlin, Kevin. "Western CPs Condemn Invasion, Hail Prague Spring". Open Society Archives. Retrieved 8 November 2014.  ^ Andrew, Mitrokhin (2005), p 444 ^ a b c Franck (1985) ^ The Real History of the Cold War: A New Look at the Past By Alan Axelrod ^ Joseph, Lawrence E (2 December 1990). "International; Prague's Spring Into Capitalism". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2008.  ^ Williams (1997), p xi ^ "Alexander Dubcek". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 25 January 2008.  ^ a b Goertz (1995), pp 154–157 ^ Gorbachev (2003), p x ^ Kaufman, Michael T. (12 April 1987). "Gorbachev Alludes to Czech Invasion". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 April 2008.  ^ Cook (2001), pp 320–321 ^ Alexander Dubcek, 70, Dies in Prague
Prague
(New York Times, 8 November 1992) ^ Bren, pp 28 ^ Williams, pp 147 ^ Williams, pp 148 ^ Bren, pp 29 ^ Williams, pp 175 ^ Williams, pp 182 ^ Williams, pp 183 ^ Williams, pp 202 ^ Aspaturian (1980), p 174 ^ Despalatović (2000), pp 91–92 ^ Williams (1997), p 29 ^ "Luboš Fišer". CZMIC. 5 February 2005. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2008.  ^ Duffie, Bruce (1 December 2001). "Karel Husa, The Composer in Conversation with Bruce Duffie". New Music Connoisseur Magazine. Retrieved 23 January 2008.  ^ Biography of Arik Einstein
Arik Einstein
– The Solo Years, Mooma (in Hebrew). Retrieved 15 May 2010. ^ "John Waters, The Events That Transpired it". Spring: The Events that Transpired it. 11 February 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2008.  ^ Kundera (1999), p 1 ^ Suvorov (1983), p 1 ^ Mastalir, Linda (28 June 2006). "Tom Stoppard's "Rock 'n' Roll"". Radio Prague. Retrieved 23 January 2008.  ^ Margolius-Kovály (1986), pp 178–192. ^ a b Čulík, Jan (11 April 2008). "The Prague
Prague
Spring as reflected in Czech postcommunist cinema". Britské Listy. Archived from the original on 12 April 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2008.  ^ Morrison (2006), pp 158–159 ^ "Legends of Hockey, Jaromír Jágr". Hockey Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

Aspaturian, Vernon; Valenta, Jiri; Burke, David P. (1 April 1980). Eurocommunism
Eurocommunism
Between East and West. Indiana Univ Pr. ISBN 0-253-20248-5.  Bischof, Günter, et al. eds. The Prague
Prague
Spring and the Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1968 (Lexington Books, 20100 510 pp. ISBN 978-0-7391-4304-9 Chafetz, Glenn (30 April 1993). Gorbachev, Reform, and the Brezhnev Doctrine: Soviet
Soviet
Policy Toward Eastern Europe, 1985–1990. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94484-0.  Christopher, Andrew; Mitrokhin, Vasili (2005). The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB
KGB
and the Battle for the Third World. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00311-7. Retrieved 9 October 2009.  Cook, Bernard (10 January 2001). Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-8153-1336-5.  Despalatović, Elinor. Neighbors at War: Anthropological Perspectives on Yugoslav Ethnicity. Penn State Press. ISBN 0-271-01979-4. Retrieved 9 October 2009.  Dubček, Alexander; Hochman, Jiří (1 January 1993). Hope Dies Last: The Autobiography of Alexander Dubcek. Kodansha International. ISBN 1-56836-000-2.  Ello (ed.), Paul (April 1968). Control Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, "Action Plan of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(Prague, April 1968)" in Dubcek’s Blueprint for Freedom: His original documents leading to the invasion of Czechoslovakia. William Kimber & Co. 1968 Fowkes, Ben (29 August 2000). Eastern Europe 1945–1969: From Stalinism
Stalinism
to Stagnation. Longman. ISBN 0-582-32693-1. Retrieved 9 October 2009.  Franck, Thomas M. (1985). Nation Against Nation: What Happened to the UN Dream and What the U.S. Can Do About It. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503587-9.  Goertz, Gary (27 January 1995). Contexts of International Politics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-46972-4.  Gorbachev, Mikhail; Mlynař, Zdeněk (8 October 2003). Conversations with Gorbachev: On Perestroika, the Prague
Prague
Spring, and the Crossroads of Socialism. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11865-1.  Gorbanevskaya, Natalia (1972). Red Square at Noon. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-085990-5.  Grenville, J.A.S. (4 August 2005). A History Of The World From the 20th To The 21st Century. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28955-6.  Hermann, Konstantin (2008). Sachsen und der "Prager Frühling". Beucha: Sax-Verlag. ISBN 0-415-28955-6.  Judt, Tony (5 October 2005). Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. Penguin Press. ISBN 1-59420-065-3.  Jutikkala, Eino; Pirinen, Kauko (2001). Suomen historia (History of Finland). ISBN 80-7106-406-8.  Kundera, Milan (1999). The Unbearable Lightness of Being. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-093213-9.  Kusin, Vladimir (18 July 2002). The Intellectual Origins of the Prague Spring: The Development of Reformist
Reformist
Ideas in Czechoslovakia 1956–1967. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52652-3.  Margolius-Kovály, Heda (1986). Under a Cruel Star: A life in Prague 1941–1968. New York: Holmes & Meier. ISBN 0-8419-1377-3.  Morrison, Scott; Cherry, Don (26 November 2006). Hockey Night in Canada: By The Numbers: From 00 to 99. Key Porter Books. ISBN 1-55263-984-3.  Navazelskis, Ina (1 August 1990). Alexander Dubcek. Chelsea House Publications; Library Binding edition. ISBN 1-55546-831-4.  Navrátil, Jaromír (1 April 2006). The Prague
Prague
Spring 1968: A National Security Archive Document Reader (National Security Archive Cold War Readers). Central European University Press. ISBN 963-7326-67-7.  Ouimet, Matthew (2003). The Rise and Fall of the Brezhnev Doctrine
Brezhnev Doctrine
in Soviet
Soviet
Foreign Policy. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill and London.  Skilling, Gordon H. (1976). Czechoslovakia’s Interrupted Revolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.  Suvorov, Viktor (1983). The Liberators. London, Hamilton: New English Library, Sevenoaks. ISBN 0-450-05546-9.  Williams, Kieran (1997). The Prague
Prague
Spring and its Aftermath: Czechoslovak Politics, 1968–1970. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58803-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prague
Prague
Spring.

Think Quest – The Prague
Prague
Spring 1968 Radio Free Europe – A Chronology Of Events Leading To The 1968 Invasion Prague
Prague
Life – More information on the Prague
Prague
Spring The Prague
Prague
Spring, 40 Years On – slideshow by The First Post Victims of the Invasion – A list of victims from the Warsaw Pact Invasion with method of death Praha 1968 footage on YouTube

v t e

Politics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1964–1985)

Events (1964–1982)

Collective leadership Glassboro Summit Conference Six Day War Prague
Prague
Spring Invasion of Czechoslovakia 1968 Red Square demonstration Brezhnev Doctrine Brezhnev assassination attempt Sino- Soviet
Soviet
border conflict Détente 1973 oil crisis Fall of Saigon Vladivostok Summit Helsinki Accords 1977 Moscow
Moscow
bombings 1977 Soviet
Soviet
Constitution 1978 Georgian demonstrations Cambodian–Vietnamese War Soviet–Afghan War 1980 Summer Olympics Reaction to 1980–1981 Polish crisis Exercise Zapad Death and state funeral of Leonid Brezhnev Legacy of Leonid Brezhnev

Events (1982–1985)

RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 1983 false nuclear alarm incident Able Archer 83 1984 Summer Olympics boycott Friendship Games

Politburo members

22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th

Aliyev Andropov Brezhnev Chebrikov Chernenko Demichev Dolgikh Efremov Gorbachev Grechko Grishin Gromyko Kirilenko Kiselyov Kunayev Kosygin Kulakov Kuznetsov Masherov Mazurov Mikoyan Mzhavanadze Pelše Podgorny Polyansky Ponomarev Rashidov Romanov Shcherbytsky Shelepin Shelest Shevardnadze Shvernik Solomentsev Suslov Tikhonov Ustinov Voronov Vorotnikov

Leaders

The Troika (Brezhnev Kosygin Podgorny) Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko

Governments

Kosygin's 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Tikhonov's 1st 2nd

National economy

Reforms

OGAS 1965 1973 1979 Food Programme 1984

Five-year plans

8th plan 9th plan 10th plan 11th plan

Brezhnev's family

Churbanov (son-in-law) Galina (daughter) Lyubov (niece) Viktoria (wife) Yakov (brother) Yuri (son)

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal

v t e

Prague
Prague
Spring

Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
Invasion Normalization Period

Major figures

Vasil Biľak Leonid Brezhnev Oldřich Černík Alexander Dubček Gustáv Husák František Kriegel Zdeněk Mlynář Antonín Novotný Jan Palach Petro Shelest Ota Šik Ludvík Svoboda Ludvík Vaculík

Related articles

Action Programme Brezhnev Doctrine Moscow
Moscow
Protocol Red Square demonstration Warsaw Pact

v t e

Protests of 1968

Movements

1968 movement in Italy Civil rights movement Anti-nuclear movement Black Consciousness Movement Black Power
Black Power
movement Black Power
Black Power
Revolution Chicano Movement Cultural Revolution Gay liberation German student movement Hippie
Hippie
movement Human rights
Human rights
movement in the Soviet
Soviet
Union Mexico 68 Northern Ireland civil rights movement Opposition to United States
United States
involvement in the Vietnam
Vietnam
War Prague
Prague
Spring Red Power movement Sexual revolution The Troubles Women's liberation movement

Events

1968 Polish political crisis 1968 student demonstrations in Yugoslavia 1968 Democratic National Convention protest activity 1968 Red Square demonstration Båstad riots Battle of Valle Giulia Ceaușescu's speech of 21 August 1968 Central Park be-ins Columbia University protests of 1968 East L.A. walkouts King assassination riots March of the One Hundred Thousand May 1968 events in France Memphis sanitation strike Occupation of the Old Student House Occupation of the Student Union Building Poor People's Campaign Presidio mutiny Rodney riots Third World Liberation Front strikes of 1968 Tlatelolco massacre

Related

Anti-capitalism Black Power Counterculture of the 1960s Desegregation Flower power Free love Hippie Antisemitism in Poland New Left Racism in the United States School discipline Second-wave feminism Segregation in Northern Ireland Student activism Vietnam
Vietnam
War Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino- Soviet
Soviet
split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam
Vietnam
War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague
Prague
Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino- Soviet
Soviet
border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen- South Yemen
South Yemen
Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet
Soviet
Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen
South Yemen
Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet
Soviet
reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet
Soviet
Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet
Soviet
espionage in the United States Soviet
Soviet
Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Eastern Bloc

Soviet
Soviet
Union Communism

Formation

Secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact protocol Soviet
Soviet
invasion of Poland Soviet
Soviet
occupations

Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Baltic states Hungary Romania

Yalta Conference

Annexed as, or into, SSRs

Eastern Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Memel East Prussia West Belarus Western Ukraine Moldavia

Satellite states

Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Romania German Democratic Republic People's Republic
Republic
of Albania (to 1961) People's Republic
Republic
of Bulgaria Federal People's Republic
Republic
of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(to 1948)

Annexing SSRs

Russian SFSR Ukrainian SSR Byelorussian SSR

Organizations

Cominform COMECON Warsaw Pact World Federation
Federation
of Trade Unions (WFTU) World Federation
Federation
of Democratic Youth (WFDY)

Revolts and opposition

Welles Declaration Goryani
Goryani
Movement Forest Brothers Ukrainian Insurgent Army Operation Jungle Baltic state continuity Baltic Legations (1940–1991) Cursed soldiers Rebellion of Cazin 1950 1953 uprising in Plzeň 1953 East German uprising 1956 Georgian demonstrations 1956 Poznań protests 1956 Hungarian Revolution Novocherkassk massacre 1965 Yerevan demonstrations Prague
Prague
Spring / Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia Brezhnev Doctrine 1968 Red Square demonstration 1968 student demonstrations in Belgrade 1968 protests in Kosovo 1970 Polish protests Croatian Spring 1972 unrest in Lithuania
1972 unrest in Lithuania
SSR June 1976 protests Solidarity / Soviet
Soviet
reaction / Martial law 1981 protests in Kosovo Reagan Doctrine Jeltoqsan Karabakh movement April 9 tragedy Romanian Revolution Black January

Cold War
Cold War
events

Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Tito–Stalin split 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état 1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis

Conditions

Emigration and defection (list of defectors) Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping

Decline

Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Romanian Revolution Fall of communism in Albania Singing Revolution Collapse of the Soviet
Soviet
Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia January 1991 events in Lithuania January 1991 events in Latvia

Post- Cold War
Cold War
topics

Baltic Assembly Collective Security Treaty Organization Commonwealth of Independent States Craiova Group European Union European migrant crisis Eurasian Economic Union NATO Post- Soviet
Soviet
states Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Visegrad Group

Authority control

GND: 41755

.