The Info List - Príncipe

is the smaller, northern major island of the country of São Tomé and Príncipe
lying off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea.[1] It has an area of 136 square kilometres (53 sq mi) and a population of approximately 5,000. The island is a heavily eroded volcano speculated to be over three million years old, surrounded by smaller islands including Ilheu Bom Bom, Ilhéu Caroço, Tinhosa Grande
Tinhosa Grande
and Tinhosa Pequena. Part of the Cameroon Line
Cameroon Line
archipelago, Príncipe
rises in the south to 948 metres at Pico de Príncipe, in a thickly forested area forming part of the Obo National Park.[2]


1 History 2 Administration 3 Settlements 4 Demographics 5 Nature

5.1 Ecological reserve

6 Notable people 7 Twin towns – sister cities 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] The island was uninhabited when discovered by the Portuguese on 17 January 1471 and was first named Saint Anthony ("Ilha de Santo Antão"). The first settlement was founded in 1502 and what was the island name would be used for the main town, the island name became "Príncipe" (Prince's island) in honor of Afonso, Prince of Portugal, his father's favorite. Subsequently, the north and centre of the island were made into plantations, most of them formed by Portuguese colonialists using slave labor. These concentrated initially on producing sugar and later on cocoa, becoming the world's greatest cocoa producer.[3] Since independence, these plantations have largely reverted to forest. In 1573, the donatary was reverted to the Portuguese Crown. Under the context of the Habsburg Philippine Dynasty which ruled all of its empire. The first occupiers of the Island were the Dutch, an expedition sent by the Dutch merchant Balthazar de Moucheron, occupied the island from August to October 1598 and again in 1600, when a second Dutch expedition was sent. That year, to encourage the defense of the island, the island received a charter. That time, several governors and capitains of the island included Vasco de Carvalho de Sousa from 1601 to 1604, Rui de Sousa de Alarcão from 1604 to 1609 and D. Fernando de Noronha
Fernando de Noronha
in 1609. After the conquest of Elmina Castle
Elmina Castle
by the Dutch in 1637, under the context of the Portuguese Restoration in 1640, they conquered the archipelago from 1641 to 1644 and conrolled the slave trade until they were expelled by the Portuguese in 1648. The island's fortress named Fortaleza de Santo António
Santo António
da Ponta da Mina on a point inside Baía de Santo António
Santo António
( Santo António
Santo António
Bay) was built in 1695. In 1706 and in 1709, the city was invaded by the French to avoid the fire in the fort. In 1719, the city of Santo António and its fortress was attacked and destroyed by the Welsh pirate Bartholomew Roberts, nicknamed "John Roberts" and "Black Bart" in revenge of the death of his captain Howell Davis. In 1753, it became the island that was home to the colonial capital along with the diocese seat, it remained until 1852 when it returned to the island of São Tomé and its city. In 1758, some Acadians (Francophone Canadians of Acadia, later the Southern Maritimes) were deported into the island after the British conquered that colony. Several additional species of flowers and plants were described and discovered in the 19th century. John Gerrard Keulemans
John Gerrard Keulemans
was the first Dutch ornithologists who visited the island in 1865, he made observations of the bird species including gray parrot Psittacus erythracus.[4] At the start of the early 20th century, the archipelago including the island was the chief producer of coffee and cocoa. Príncipe
was the site where Einstein's theory of relativity was experimentally corroborated by Arthur Stanley Eddington
Arthur Stanley Eddington
and his team during the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919; photographs of the eclipse revealed evidence of the 'bending' of starlight, in accordance with Einstein's predictions. In the mid to the late 20th century, the population steadily grew large: in 1940, the island's population was 3,124, it was 5,000 before 1980 and reached nearly 6,000 in 2001. Portuguese rule did not end until 1974 when the archipelago became an autonomous province and on July 12, 1975, it was no longer part of Portugal. Not long after independence, 3,000 people of Cape Verdean origin came to the island, some would speak the Cape Verdean creole (mainly Santiago/Badiu form) on the island. On April 29, 1995, the island gained its own administration with an autonomous region forming the Pagué District. In 1988, Ponta da Mina
Ponta da Mina
had its own lighthouse. In May 2003, when the last dictatorship took over the nation, Príncipe
and the surrounding islands never took part, the autonomy was the sole rule for a couple of days; not long after, Santomean administration returned. The southern portion of the island became a fully protected area, that part was included in the Obo Natural Park
Obo Natural Park
in 2006, and in 2012 to the south of the island in underwater areas, the Island of Principe Biosphere Reserve was recognised by UNESCO. Administration[edit] The island is part of Pagué District, the only district of Príncipe Province. Settlements[edit] Príncipe
has one town, Santo António, and an airport (IATA code: PCP, ICAO: FPPR), as well as some villages including Bela Vista, Bombom, Futuro, Neves Ferreira, Paciência, Ponta Fonte, Ribeira Ize, Santo António
Santo António
de Ureca and Vila Rosa. Few of them are connected to the small road network. Demographics[edit] Portuguese is the official and main language of the island. Portuguese creoles are also spoken: Principense or Lunguyê and, in some scale, Forro are also spoken. Nature[edit] Príncipe
has been entirely forested, the southern portion, the most mountains part remains heavily forested. Abundant flora and fauna are founded. Examples included birds such as the Príncipe
kingfisher, Principe seedeater, Principe starling, Príncipe
sunbird, black-capped speirops (Zosterops lugubris), Dohrn's thrush-babbler, the Príncipe weaver and the Príncipe
white-eye, geckos include the Príncipe
gecko (Hemidactylus principensis), frogs include the palm forest tree frog and the Phrynobatrachus dispar. Marine fauna dominate the shores including Muricopsis principensis, a mollusc and the West African mud turtle. Ecological reserve[edit] Main article: Island of Príncipe
Biosphere Reserve UNESCO
established the Island of Príncipe Biosphere Reserve
Island of Príncipe Biosphere Reserve
in 2012 under the Man and the Biosphere Programme. The reserve encompasses the entire emerged area of the island of Príncipe, and its islets Bom Bom, Boné do Jóquei, Mosteiros, Santana, and Pedra da Galei, and the Tinhosas islands.[5] Notable people[edit]

Damião Vaz d'Almeida, former Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe João Cassandrá, former autonomous president of the island João Paulo Cassandra, former autonomous president of the island José Cassandra, current president of the island Sara Pinto Coelho, colonial born Portuguese writer Camilo Domingos, singer Mário Domingues, writer, journalist and historian Manuela Margarido, writer

Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Príncipe
is twinned with:

Faro, Portugal[6]


^ "Satellite View and Map of São Tomé and Príncipe" Nations Online. Retrieved 2014-9-26. ^ "Príncipe: a haven on earth" Financial Times. Retrieved 2014-9-26. ^ Pinnock, D & Pinnock, G (2012) Chocolate Island. Africa Geographic. February 2012 ^ Keulemans 1873 - Onze vogels in huis en tuin (vol. 2, p. 3), at the Dutch language Wikisource ^ "World Network of Biosphere Reserves". Island of Príncipe. UNESCO. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ "Geminações de Cidades e Vilas". Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-07-20. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutPríncipeat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
portal Geography portal

Map of Príncipe Bom Bom Island resort (Príncipe) Principe portal Wikimedia Atlas of São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe travel guide from Wikivoyage Príncipe
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

v t e

Pagué District/ Príncipe


Aeroporto Belo Monte Bom Bom (also as Praia e Ilhéu de Bom Bom) Bom Viver Hospital Velho Neves Ferreira Novo Estrela Picão Portinho Praia Inhame Porto Real Santo António Sundy

Geographical features

Ilhéu Bom Bom Ilhéu Caroço Ilhéu dos Mosteiros Príncipe
National Park (part of Obo Natural Park) Pedra da Galé Pedras Tinhosas (Tinhosa Grande Tinhosa Pequena) Pico de Príncipe Ponta da Mina Príncipe Island of Príncipe
Biosphere Reserve


Fortaleza de Santo António
Santo António
da Ponta da Mina Príncipe


Island League/Championships

v t e

Islands of São Tomé and Príncipe

Major islands

Príncipe São Tomé

Minor islands and islets

Ilhéu Bom Bom Boné de Jóquei Ilhéu das Cabras Ilhéu Caroço Ilhéu Gabado Pedra da Galé Ilhéu dos Mosteiros Ilhéu Quixibá Ilhéu das Rolas Ilhéu de Santana Ilhéu de São Miguel Sete Pedras Tinhosa Grande Tinhosa Pequena

v t e

Provinces and Districts of São Tomé and Príncipe

São Tomé Province

Água Grande Cantagalo Caué Lembá Lobata Mé-Zóchi



v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century


Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125597582 LCCN: n88187472 GND: 4103301-2 BNF: cb1267