Posen speeches were two secret speeches made by Heinrich Himmler,
the head of the SS, on 4 and 6 October 1943 in the town hall of Posen
(Polish: Poznań), in German-occupied Poland. The recordings are the
first known documents in which a high-ranking German member of the
Nazi government spoke of the ongoing extermination of the
extermination camps. They demonstrate that the German government
wanted, planned and carried out the Holocaust.
2 Historical context
3 Speech of 4 October 1943
3.1 Addressees, reason and purpose
3.2 On the course of war
3.3 On the Holocaust
4 Speech of 6 October 1943
4.1 Beginning of the speech
4.2 On the Jewish question
5 Further speeches
5.1 Historical reception
5.2 Holocaust denial
5.3 Artistic references
6 See also
8 External links
Posen speeches of October 1943 are two of 132 speeches obtained in
various forms, which
Himmler conducted before officials of the Nazi
party. The first speech was given before 92 SS officers, the second
before Reichsleiters and Gauleiters, as well as other government
representatives. They constitute some of the most important of
Himmler's speeches during the war, as they demonstrate Himmler's role
as "Architect of the Final Solution" and a visionary of an elite race
to be henceforth supported by the SS state.
Although the genocide of the
Jews was not the central topic in either
of them, both carry historical significance in reference to it.
Himmler did away with the usual camouflage terms and spoke
explicitly of the extermination of the
Jews via mass murder, which he
depicted as a historical mission of the Nazis. This connection became
clear in five further speeches made between December 1943 and June
1944 to commanders of the Wehrmacht.
In the literature, only the first speech was known as the "Posen
Speech" until 1970. The second speech, uncovered at that time, is
often mistaken as the first or equated with it.
Himmler gave the speeches at a time when the German war effort
sustained constant setbacks, which the Nazi leaders found increasingly
disconcerting. At the
Casablanca Conference in January, 1943, the
Allies had decided that the only acceptable outcome of the war was
Germany's unconditional surrender. The Soviet victory in the Battle of
Stalingrad on 2 February 1943 was a turning point in the war. US
President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the prosecution of those
mainly responsible for war and genocide on 12 February, which the US
Congress agreed to on 18 March. US and British troops landed on Sicily
on 7 July 1943 and, after the
Italian armistice on 8 September,
gradually advanced northward. On 1 October,
Naples was freed from
The Red Army also ran a successful summer offensive on 17 July, during
which partisans blew up many railway connections behind the Eastern
Front on 3 August. In the week 27 July – 3 August 1943, Allied air
raids attacked Hamburg in Operation Gomorrah, and the armament centre
Peenemünde was destroyed also on 18 August. At the same time
resistance against occupying German forces grew, and a state of
emergency was declared in
Norway (17 August) and
Denmark (29 August).
Nazi dissidents planned Germany's reorganisation (the Kreisau Circle)
and assassination attempts on
Adolf Hitler (which led to "Operation
Walküre", 20 July 1944), on which basis the scorched earth policy was
brought in on 4 September for the foreseeable retreat of the Eastern
Front, and martial law against those in the armed forces who refused
to follow orders, initially introduced by the
General Government on 2
In the same period, the destruction of the
Jews became the most
important goal. In the spring of 1943,
Sonderaktion 1005 was
ordered, demanding the exhumation and incineration of those murdered
Einsatzgruppen across the whole Eastern Front in order to hide
the ongoing genocide, whose death toll had so far reached 1.8 million
Himmler ordered the liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in German
Poland on 11 June, and all Soviet ones on 21 June. As of 25
June, four new crematoria and gas chamber installations were completed
in Auschwitz-II Birkenau at Auschwitz concentration camp. On 1 July
Jews in the Reich were placed under police law. On 24 August
Himmler was appointed as minister of the interior, and thus all police
forces in the Reich and occupied territories were subordinated to him.
By 19 October,
Operation Reinhard was to be terminated and the
affiliated extermination camps dismantled.
Nonetheless, acts of resistance against the destruction of the Jews
occurred. There were prisoner rebellions in Treblinka (2 August 1943,)
and Sobibor (14 October 1943).
Jews of the
Białystok ghetto mounted
an insurrection against their liquidation (16–23 August), and the
Danes helped most of the Danish
Jews planned for arrest to escape.
Speech of 4 October 1943
Himmler did not prepare most of his speeches beforehand, but used
terse handwritten notes instead. Since the end of 1942 his verbal
lectures were no longer documented in shorthand, but recorded via
phonograph onto wax master plates. These recordings were then typed up
Untersturmführer Werner Alfred Wenn, who corrected obvious
grammatical errors and supplemented missing words.
Himmler then added
his own handwritten corrections, and the thus authorised version was
copied up via typewriter in large characters and then filed away.
Of Himmler's three-hour speech of 4 October 1943, 115 pages of the
final typewritten edition (one page was lost) were discovered among SS
files and submitted to the
Nuremberg Trials as document 1919-PS. On
day 23 of the hearing, a passage (which however did not concern the
Holocaust) was read out. A live recording of this speech survives,
allowing for the differences between the spoken and the copyedited
version to be examined. They are minor, and in no case
Addressees, reason and purpose
Posen's town hall, where the conference took place (the building no
longer exists today)
Himmler gave the first speech in the town hall, and not in the
imperial palace as is often erroneously assumed. Of the SS's
leadership cadre, 33 Obergruppenführers, 51 Gruppenführers and eight
Brigadeführers from the whole of the Reich were present. Many of
these came from areas of occupied eastern Europe. Large parts of
the speech therefore concerned the increasingly precarious situation
on the Eastern Front, while attempting to explain Soviet military
successes as being due to a claimed combination of Communist
ruthlessness and the weaknesses of Germany's allies.
Only about two minutes of the speech concerns the destruction of the
Himmler postulates his audience's experiences with mass
shootings, ghetto liquidations and extermination camps, and
accordingly, their knowledge of them. The speech is to justify the
crimes already perpetrated, and to commit its listeners to the "higher
purpose" bestowed upon them. Around 50 officers not present were sent
a copy of the speech and had to confirm their acknowledgment of it.
On the course of war
After a tribute to the war dead,
Himmler gave his view of the war so
far. The tough Soviet resistance could be attributed to the political
commissars, a Soviet attack was only just anticipated,[clarification
needed] and due to failure by Germany's allies, a chance for victory
in 1942 was wasted.
Himmler speculated over the Soviet army's
potential, spoke disparagingly of the "Vlasov shivaree" (der
Wlassow-Rummel), expatiated on the inferiority of the Slavic race, and
included thoughts as to how a German minority can prevail over it.
In later passages,
Himmler claimed Italy's army had been contaminated
with communism and was sympathetic to the Western allies. He also
touches upon the situation in the Balkans and other occupied
territories, whose acts of resistance he disregards as irritating
pinpricks. The war in the air and sea is also mentioned, as well as
the domestic front (die innere Front) and factors from it such as
enemy radio broadcasters and defeatism stemming from air raids.
Himmler turns to the situation on the enemy's side,
speculating over the relationship between the
United Kingdom and the
United States and their resilience and readiness for war. He goes into
extensive detail about variances in the SS, individual divisions,
police organisations, and outlines his duties regarding economic
operations of the SS and being a minister of the Reich.
On the Holocaust
"Die Ausrottung des jüdischen Volkes"
An excerpt of this speech where
Himmler discusses the ongoing
extermination of the Jews.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
In his outline of the course of the war in the east,
on the deaths of millions of Soviet prisoners of war and forced
labourers. Like in pre-war speeches, and in accordance with Hitler's
remarks in Mein Kampf, he speaks of how the eradication of the Slavic
Untermensch is a historical and natural necessity. There is to be no
place for sentiment:
One basic principle must be the absolute rule for the SS men: We must
be honest, decent, loyal and comradely to members of our own blood and
to nobody else. What happens to a Russian, to a Czech, does not
interest me in the slightest. What other nations can offer in the way
of good blood of our type, we will take, if necessary, by kidnapping
their children and raising them here with us. Whether nations live in
prosperity or starve to death interests me only so far as we need them
as slaves for our culture; otherwise, it is of no interest to me.
Whether 10,000 Russian females fall down from exhaustion while digging
an antitank ditch interests me only insofar as the anti-tank ditch for
Germany is finished.
Himmler explicitly speaks of the genocide of the Jews, something which
had not been previously done by a representative of the Nazi party up
until this point:
I am now referring to the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of
the Jewish people. It's one of those things that is easily said: 'The
Jewish people are being exterminated', says every party member, 'this
is very obvious, it's in our program, elimination of the Jews,
extermination, we're doing it, hah, a small matter.' And then they
turn up, the upstanding 80 million Germans, and each one has his
decent Jew. They say the others are all swines, but this particular
one is a splendid Jew. But none has observed it, endured it. Most of
you here know what it means when 100 corpses lie next to each other,
when there are 500 or when there are 1,000. To have endured this and
at the same time to have remained a decent person — with exceptions
due to human weaknesses — has made us tough, and is a glorious
chapter that has not and will not be spoken of. Because we know how
difficult it would be for us if we still had
Jews as secret saboteurs,
agitators and rabble-rousers in every city, what with the bombings,
with the burden and with the hardships of the war. If the
still part of the German nation, we would most likely arrive now at
the state we were at in 1916 and 17 [...]
Himmler then praises the mindset of the SS man, devoting approximately
30 of the 116 pages to their virtues as well as their duty of becoming
Europe's ruling class in 20 to 30 years.
Speech of 6 October 1943
Of the second Posen speech, Himmler's terse notes are available, as
well as a version recorded via shorthand then typed up and corrected
in detail, and the final version as authorised by
Himmler himself. The
speech in each of these stages resided in the files of the Personal
Staff of the Reichsführer (Persönlichen Stabes Reichsführer-SS),
which were seized in their entirety by U.S. authorities in 1945. The
text of the speech was recorded into microfilm by the U.S. and
released to the Bundesarchiv. Analysis of these previously unavailable
documents by historian Erich Goldhagen in 1970 in Koblenz revealed a
speech hitherto unknown. It was printed in its entireity for the
first time in 1974 in Bradley Smith's and Agnes Peterson's book of
At the end of September 1943, the party chancellery invited all
Reichsleiters and Gauleiters, the head of the
Hitler Youth Artur
Axmann and Reich ministers
Albert Speer and
Alfred Rosenberg to a
Posen Conference began on 6 October at 9 o'clock in
the morning with Speer's reports, his speakers, and four big
industries for armament production. Talks from
Karl Dönitz and Erhard
Himmler held his speech from 17:30 to 19:00. The
second speech is shorter than the first, but contains a slightly
longer and more explicit passage regarding the genocide of the
Beginning of the speech
Himmler begins by discussing partisans in Russia and support from
Vlasov's auxiliary forces. The widespread idea that there would be a
300 kilometre wide belt dominated by partisans behind the German front
is considered false. Frequently expressed is the view that Russia can
only be conquered by Russians. This view is considered to be dangerous
and wrong. Slavs are to be considered unreliable on a matter of
principle, and for that reason, Russian Hiwis may only be employed as
combatants in mixed units.
The danger of infiltrated parachutists, fugitive POWs and forced
labourers is considered marginal, since the German population is in an
impeccable way and grants the opponent no shelter, and the police have
such dangers under control. A request by Gauleiters for a special
force against the insurgency in the country is considered to be
unnecessary and unacceptable.
On the Jewish question
Himmler then reveals to "this most secret circle" his thoughts on the
Jewish question, which he describes as "the most difficult decision of
Stroop Report original caption: "Forcibly pulled out of dug-outs".
Jews are led by German troops to the assembly point for
deportation after the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943
I ask of you that that which I say to you in this circle be really
only heard and not ever discussed. We were faced with the question:
what about the women and children? – I decided to find a clear
solution to this problem too. I did not consider myself justified to
exterminate the men – in other words, to kill them or have them
killed and allow the avengers of our sons and grandsons in the form of
their children to grow up. The difficult decision had to be made to
have this people disappear from the earth. For the organisation which
had to execute this task, it was the most difficult which we had ever
had. [...] I felt obliged to you, as the most superior dignitary, as
the most superior dignitary of the party, this political order, this
political instrument of the Führer, to also speak about this question
quite openly and to say how it has been. The
Jewish question in the
countries that we occupy will be solved by the end of this year. Only
remainders of odd
Jews that managed to find hiding places will be left
Himmler then discusses the
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (19 April – 16 May
1943) and the heavy battles during it:
This entire ghetto was producing fur coats, dresses, and the like.
Whenever we tried to get at it in the past we were told: Stop!
Armaments factory! Of course, this has nothing to do with Party
Comrade Speer. It wasn't your doing. It is this portion of alleged
armaments factories that Party Comrade Speer and I intend to clear out
in the next few weeks.
Himmler discusses the dismissal of Benito Mussolini, which is to have
led to defeatism. A few death sentences imposed on the basis of making
corrosive remarks are to serve as dissuasive warnings for thousands of
others, and party members must display exemplary behaviour. Himmler
then discusses his duties as Reich minister of the interior. By
Hitler's volition, party organisation and administrative organisation
are henceforth two separate pillars. Decentralized decisions are
considered important, but centralised arrangements take precedence in
the strained war situation. As a result,
Himmler makes broad criticism
of the personal politics of Gauleiters. In the last part of his
speech, he goes into the benefits of the Waffen-SS.
Himmler closes by
discussing how the German national boundary will be pushed 500 km
eastwards with 120 million people being relocated, and ends with the
Albert Speer awarded an
Organisation Todt ring by
Adolf Hitler – May
When we see this then we will never lose our belief, never will we
become disloyal, never will we be cowardly, never in bad spirits, but
we will strive to be worthy to have lived under
Adolf Hitler and been
allowed to fight with him.
Albert Speer, Reich minister for arms and munition since 1942, was,
since 2 September 1943 as Reich minister for armament and wartime
economy, responsible for all German armament production. This used
Jewish forced labourers who were partly exempted from being deported
to their extermination until 1943. After 1945, Speer always maintained
that he left the conference before
Himmler made his speech and knew
nothing of the Holocaust. Historians cite Himmler's direct reference
to Speer as proof of his presence.
Statements from five further secret speeches by
Himmler confirm the
sentiment he expressed in Posen on the "final solution to the Jewish
question". On 16 December 1943, he said to Kriegsmarine
[...] Thus I have basically given the order to also kill the wives and
children of these partisans, and commissars. I would be a weakling and
a criminal to our descendants if I allowed the hate-filled sons of the
sub-humans we have liquidated in this struggle of humanity against
subhumanity to grow up.
A handwritten memo from Himmler's speech on 26 January 1944 in Posen
to Generals of fighting troops reads:
Largest stabilisation in the G.G. since the solution to the Jewish
question. – Race war. Total solution. Not allowing avengers to rise
against our children.
5 May 1944 - Himmler's Posen Speeches excerpt
Problems playing this file? See media help.
On 5 May 1944
Himmler explained to Generals in Sonthofen that
perseverance in the bombing war has only been possible because the
Jews in Germany have been discarded.
Jewish question has been solved within Germany itself and in
general within the countries occupied by Germany. [...] You can
understand how difficult it was for me to carry out this military
order which I was given and which I implemented out of a sense of
obedience and absolute conviction. If you say: 'we can understand as
far as the men are concerned but not about the children', then I must
remind you of what I said at the beginning. [...] In my view, we as
Germans, however deeply we may feel in our hearts, are not entitled to
allow a generation of avengers filled with hatred to grow up with whom
our children and grandchildren will have to deal because we, too weak
and cowardly, left it to them.
1944-05-25 - Heinrich
Himmler - Rede vor Vertretern der deutschen
Justiz in Kochem 1h 44m
Problems playing this file? See media help.
Applause can be heard on a recording of another speech given to
Generals in Sonthofen on 24 May 1944, when
Another question which was decisive for the inner security of the
Reich and Europe, was the Jewish question. It was uncompromisingly
solved after orders and rational recognition. I believe, gentleman,
that you know me well enough to know that I am not a bloodthirsty
person; I am not a man who takes pleasure or joy when something rough
must be done. However on the other hand, I have such good nerves and
such a developed sense of duty – I can say that much for myself –
that when I recognise something as necessary I can implement it
without compromise. I have not considered myself entitled – this
concerns especially the Jewish women and children – to allow the
children to grow into the avengers who will then murder our children
and our grandchildren. That would have been cowardly. Consequently the
question was uncompromisingly resolved.
On 21 June 1944
Himmler spoke to Generals educated in the Nazi world
view in Sonthofen, mentioning the
Jewish question again:
It was the most terrible task and the most terrible order which could
have been given to an organisation: the order to solve the Jewish
question. In this circle, I may say it frankly with a few sentences.
It is good that we had the severity to exterminate the
Jews in our
The destruction of the
Jews was to be kept secret from those outside
the Nazi regime, but could only be organised and carried out with the
participation of all relevant state and party executives. The Posen
speeches offer a retrospective look at the mass killings already
carried out, and show how these and further killings were
ideologically justified by the Party. The extermination of the
"internal enemy" (innerer Feind), the Jewish race, had become an
objective of the war, and success in this field was to compensate for
other defeats accrued in the course of the war.
Saul Friedländer highlights Himmler's self-image as an
unconditionally obedient executor of Hitler's plans for the Germanic
Lebensraum in the east".
The Reichsführer frequently describes the extermination of the Jews
as a heavy responsibility assigned by the Führer. There is thus no
debate: this task calls for unremitting devotion and a spirit of
continual self-sacrifice of him and his men.
Konrad Kwiet comments on Himmler's association of the "heaviest task"
the SS ever had to perform with the Anständigkeit (decency) that had
been preserved of it:
It is precisely this monstrous combination of murder and morality, of
crime and decency at the core of the perpetrator's mentality. In the
scope of the Nazi ethic, an entirely new concept of decency was
created and made as a duty.
Hannah Arendt coined the term "banality of
evil", other authors emphasize the "normality of crime". Almost all
perpetrators were characterized by their ability to return to the
routine of every day life, and to lead a "normal" life after
perpetrating murder. Most reacted with surprise, confusion and anger
when they were prosecuted and reminded of the past. Ignorance and
innocence were stressed before the court. The murderers were – with
exceptions – spared from the traumatic experiences that survivors
were left with.
Hans Buchheim comments that the accused perpetrators very probably
lacked a mens rea. Himmler's revaluation of soldierly virtues was not
a total negation of moral norms, but a suspension of them for the
exceptional situation of the extermination of the Jews, which had been
passed off as a historical necessity. Therefore,
Himmler endorsed the
murder of the
Jews not by instruction, but via the "correct"
ideological motives, while letting similar murders committed out of
sadism or selfishness be prosecutable.
Historian Dieter Pohl states:
Traditional institutions of the Nazi state secretly began the search
for a defence strategy for the post-war period in 1943: one had not
been informed, and the SS was exclusively to blame.
The unsparing portrayal of the genocide in Himmler's secret speech is
thus interpreted as a means to formally render senior SS and Nazi
functionaries as co-conspirators and accomplices in the perpetration
of the Holocaust.
Joseph Goebbels alludes to this view in his diary entry of 2 March
As always in the circles of the party, it is the duty of the Führer's
closest friends to gather around him in such times of need [...] Above
all with the Jewish question, we are so fixed on it that there is no
longer any escape. And that's good. A movement and a people that have
broken the bridges behind them fight from experience much more
unreservedly than those that still have the possibility to retreat.
In an entry dated 9 October 1943,
Goebbels commented on Himmler's
second speech, at which he was present:
Regarding the Jewish question, he [Himmler] gives a very unadorned and
frank picture. He is of the conviction that the
Jewish question can be
solved by the end of this year. He advocates the most radical and most
severe solution, namely to exterminate Jewry, bag and baggage. Of
course, if brutal, this is a consistent solution. Because we must take
on the responsibility of entirely solving this question in our time.
Subsequent generations will doubtlessly no longer dare address this
problem with the courage and obsession as we are able to do today.
See also: Criticism of
Holocaust denial § Himmler's speeches and
"Ausrottung", and Responsibility for the Holocaust § Other Nazi
Holocaust deniers have frequently attempted to negate Himmler's
speeches as proof of the Holocaust. In particular, where
in his speech of 4 October 1943 – refers to the "Ausrottung des
jüdischen Volkes" (extermination of the Jewish people), they will
read the verb ausrotten (literally to "root out", aus = out; rott =
root) and its related noun Ausrottung to offer a much more benign
Himmler was merely referring to the deportation
Jews and a desire to "root them out", as opposed to their mass
Ausrotten can mean "to stamp out/to root out", but only figuratively,
e.g., in contexts of concepts or ideals. In the context of living
things (such as a people or race), ausrotten accordingly means
destroying something so that it cannot return. David Irving
considers the usage of the word "Ausrotten" vitally important and also
agrees that the term was referring to eradication. He confirms this in
an interview from 2007 when he compares its usage with Goebbels
half-word "Ausrott..." during the
Sportpalast speech from February
1943. In the subsequent paragraph,
Himmler compares his disdain
for individuals gaining personally (e.g. stealing) from Jewish
victims, and the necessity to prevent this personal gain, to becoming
sick and dying "from the same bacillus that we have exterminated"
(weil wir den Bazillus ausrotten, an dem Bazillus krank werden und
sterben). This use of ausrotten can be read as killing or
extermination in the context of living things, because arguing for the
deportation of bacteria would make no sense. The reference to a
bacillus in this statement is figurative, however, in line with Nazi
rhetoric that encouraged dehumanizing concepts of
Jews as a pathogen
or malignant presence, rather than people.
In the "Ausrottung des jüdischen Volkes" paragraph,
... wir hatten die Pflicht unserem Volk gegenüber das zu tun, dieses
Volk, das uns umbringen wollte, umzubringen.
... we had the duty to our people to do it, to kill this people who
wanted to kill us.
Himmler thus confirms that the context is explicitly physical
extermination, since umbringen simply has no meaning other than "to
kill". Because of this, critics explain that Holocaust deniers
will arbitrarily select words from the dictionary that have nothing to
do with the given context, such as cherry-picking the definition for
Unkraut (weeds) and erroneously applying it to Volk (people).
In the second speech in Posen, critics point to the fact that he
defines the meaning of ausrotten, where the operative word is
Es trat an uns die Frage heran: Wie ist es mit den Frauen und Kindern?
Ich habe mich entschlossen, auch hier eine ganz klare Lösung zu
finden. Ich hielt mich nämlich nicht für berechtigt, die Männer
auszurotten- sprich also, umzubringen oder umbringen zu lassen – und
die Rächer in Gestalt der Kinder für unsere Söhne und Enkel groß
werden zu lassen. Es mußte der schwere Entschluß gefaßt werden,
dieses Volk von der Erde verschwinden zu lassen.
We came to the question: How is it with the women and children? I
decided to find a clear solution here as well. I did not consider
myself justified to exterminate the men – in other words, to kill
them or have them killed – and allow the avengers of our sons and
grandsons in the form of their children to grow up. The difficult
decision had to be taken to make this people disappear from the earth.
Holocaust deniers will also offer erroneous translations of ausrotten
by analysing the word's compounds, on the basis that "aus" and
"rotten" are cognate with the English "out" and "root". To native
German speakers, this is simply wrong. Critics compare this
attempted etymological explanation to an attempt to cite the Latin
origins of "ex" (out of) and "terminus" (borders) and on that basis,
claim that "exterminate" means deportation, which would be equally
nonsensical to native English speakers.
Critics point out that German Holocaust deniers do not dare suggest a
translation to a German audience where ausrotten does not mean
physical extermination, citing instances of German deniers
dismissing failed etymological analysis by English speakers by
responding to confirm that ausrotten means complete destruction, and
material written by German deniers where, in the context of people,
ausrotten and vernichten are used synonymously.
Germar Rudolf and
Udo Walendy have claimed that the recording of the
first speech is a forgery: Himmler's voice was actually that of a 1945
Allied voice imitator. However, the discovery of the second Posen
speech in the Koblenz
Bundesarchiv rendered allegations of
falsification completely irrelevant. Himmler's explicit statements,
such as making the decision to make the
Jews "disappear from the
earth", leave no room for alternative interpretation.
In Romuald Karmakar's 2000 film The
Himmler Project, the actor Manfred
Zapatka reads the entire speech of 4 October 1943 word for word
according to the recording, including all the nuances and incidents
also recorded and the repetitions where
Himmler loses his place while
reading from a prepared manuscript. During the film, Zapatka wears no
uniform and simply stands in front of a grey wall.
Heinrich Breloers multipart television film
Speer und Er contains a
debate as to whether
Albert Speer was present during Himmler's speech
on 6 October 1943.
In Jonathan Littell's The Kindly Ones, the first-person narrator,
Maximilian Aue, cannot remember whether Speer was present or not, but
does cite Speer's remark that he (Speer) remembered many officers
being terribly drunk. As Speer only arrived in the morning for his
speech, this would actually mean Speer was present during the
evening's dinner, after Himmler's second Posen speech.
New Order (political system)
^ Smith, Peterson: Heinrich
Himmler Geheimreden, Speech index, pp.
^ Richard Breitman: Heinrich Himmler. Der Architekt der
„Endlösung“. Pendo Verlag, Zürich et al 2000,
^ Joachim Fest, Einführung zu Smith, Peterson: Heinrich Himmler
Geheimreden, p. 15 ff.
^ Raul Hilberg: Die Quellen des Holocaust, Frankfurt/Main 2002,
ISBN 3-10-033626-7, Kapitel Drastische und verschleiernde Sprache
^ Original transcript – see literature
^ a b Willi Frischauer (2013). Himmler: The Evil Genius of the Third
Reich. Unmaterial Books. ISBN 1783012544. Also in: James S.
Pacy, Alan Wertheimer (1995). Perspectives on the Holocaust: essays in
honor of Raul Hilberg. Westview Press. ISBN 0813320348. CS1
maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ Peter Longerich: Der ungeschriebene Befehl, Munich 2001, pp.
^ Smith, Peterson: Heinrich Himmler, p. 251 f.
^ IMT Volume 29, p. 110-173
^ IMT: Band 4 (Verhandlungsniederschriften, December 1945), p. 197
^ "Text of Himmler's Speech, 4 October 1943".
The Holocaust History
Project. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved
^ Heinrich Schwendemann, Wolfgang Dietsche: Hitlers Schloß. Die
'Führerresidenz' in Posen, Berlin 2003, p. 133
^ "Anwesende SS-Generäle bei der "Posener Rede"" (in German). 3sat. 2
November 2001. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
^ IMT: Volume 29 (Urkunden und anderes Beweismaterial), p. 123
^ IMT: Volume 29, p. 145f
^ Stefan Krebs, Werner Tschacher: Speer und Er. Und Wir? Deutsche
Geschichte in gebrochener Erinnerung. In: Geschichte in Wissenschaft
und Unterricht, Book 3, 58 (2007), p. 164.
^ Smith, Peterson: Heinrich
Himmler Geheimreden p. 267 (Edition
notes), p. 273 (Nr. 85) and p. 300, Note 1
^ Gitta Sereny: Albert Speer: Sein Ringen mit der Wahrheit. Munich
2001, ISBN 3-442-15141-4, p. 468ff
^ Smith, Peterson: Heinrich
Himmler pp. 162–183
^ Smith, Peterson: Heinrich
Himmler p. 169 f.
^ Smith, Peterson: Heinrich
Himmler p. 170
^ Smith, Peterson: Heinrich
Himmler p. 183
^ Krebs, Tschacher:
Speer und Er pp. 163–173
^ a b Smith, Peterson: Heinrich
Himmler p. 201
^ Smith, Peterson: Heinrich
Himmler p. 202
^ a b Smith, Peterson: Heinrich
Himmler p. 203
^ Peter Longerich: Der ungeschriebene Befehl p. 191
^ Saul Friedländer: Das Dritte Reich und die Juden 2. Band: Die Jahre
der Vernichtung 1939–1945, C.H. Beck, Munich 2006,
ISBN 3-406-54966-7, p. 570.
^ Konrad Kwiet: Rassenpolitik und Völkermord, in: Enzyklopädie des
Nationalsozialismus, dtv, 2nd edition, Munich 1998, p. 64.
^ Hans Buchheim: Anatomie des SS-Staates Volume 1: Die SS – das
Herrschaftsinstrument. Befehl und Gehorsam. dtv (1. edition 1967) 2.
edition Munich 1979, ISBN 3-423-02915-3, pp. 247–253 and p.
^ Frank Bajohr, Dieter Pohl: Der Holocaust als offenes Geheimnis.
Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54978-0, p. 126.
^ Peter Longerich: Heinrich
Himmler – Biographie. Munich 2008,
ISBN 978-3-88680-859-5, p. 710 / q. v. Gitta Sereny: Albert
Speer…, p. 468.
^ Joseph Goebbels. Tagebücher, Band 5: 1943–1945, Piper Verlag,
Munich 2003, ISBN 3-492-21415-0, p. 1905.
^ Cited according to Saul Friedländer: Das Dritte Reich und die Juden
Volume 2: Die Jahre der Vernichtung 1939–1945, I.c. p. 572.
^ a b c d e f g h i "'Ausrotten' in Translation". The Holocaust
History Project. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
^ Irving, David. "
David Irving Interview Part Two". Alan Heath.
Retrieved 18 December 2012.
^ "'Ausrotten', to Native German Speakers".
The Holocaust History
Project. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
Himmler in Posen" (in German). www.h-ref.de. Retrieved
^ Smith, Peterson: Heinrich Himmler…, p. 301 and footnote 16.
^ "Das Himmler-Projekt" (in German). www.3sat.de. Retrieved
Internationaler Militärgerichtshof Nürnberg (IMT): Der Nürnberger
Prozess gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher. Delphin Verlag, Nachdruck
München 1989, ISBN 3-7735-2523-0, Band 29: Urkunden und anderes
Bradley F. Smith, Agnes F. Peterson (Hrsg.): Heinrich Himmler.
Geheimreden 1933–1945, Propyläen Verlag, Frankfurt am Main,
Berlin/Wien 1974, ISBN 3-549-07305-4
Peter Longerich: Der ungeschriebene Befehl, Munich 2001,
Himmler und die Vernichtung der europäischen Juden.
Schöningh, Sammlung zur Geschichte und Gegenwart, 1996,
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Posen speeches.
Clip of the Posen Speech with side by side translation (Standard
YouTube License) on YouTube
Full text of Himmler's speech (in German)
Holocaust History Project: Text of the Quick Time excerpt of Poznan
Speech in German and English
Nizkor: Himmler's October 4, 1943 Posen Speech, 5 minute excerpt
Chief of German Police
Minister of the Interior
Himmler's service record
Ideology of the SS
Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS ("Circle of Friends of the
Reinhard Heydrich (Chief of the RSHA)
Ernst Kaltenbrunner (successor as Chief of the RSHA)
Karl Wolff (Chief of Personal Staff)
Hedwig Potthast (secretary)
Rudolf Brandt (Personal Administrative Officer to RFSS)
Hermann Gauch (adjutant)
Werner Grothmann (aide-de-camp)
Heinz Macher (second personal assistant)
Walter Schellenberg (personal aide)
Karl Maria Wiligut (occultist)
Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion
Crimes against Poles
Crimes against Soviet POWs
Persecution of Slavs in Eastern Europe
Persecution of homosexuals
Persecution of Serbs
Suppression of Freemasonry
Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses
Persecution of black people
Gudrun Burwitz (daughter)
Hedwig Potthast (mistress)
Gebhard Ludwig (older brother)
Ernst (younger brother)
Heinz Kokott (brother-in-law)
Richard Wendler (brother-in-law)
Army Group Oberrhein
Army Group Vistula
Claus von Stauffenberg
Henning von Tresckow
Erhard Heiden (predecessor as Reichsführer-SS)
Karl Hanke (successor as Reichsführer-SS)
Falk Zipperer (closest friend)
Karl Gebhardt (personal physician)
Felix Kersten (personal masseur)
Hugo Blaschke (dentist)
Sidney Excell (man who arrested Himmler)
Old Town Hall
St. John's Church
Morasko meteorite reserve
History of Poznań
Poland uprising (1918–1919)