The POSEN SPEECHES were two secret speeches made by _Reichsführer
Himmler on 4 and 6 October 1943 in the town hall of
Posen (Polish : _Poznań_), in German Nazi -occupied
Poland . The
recordings are the first known documents in which a high-ranking
German member of the Nazi government spoke of the ongoing
extermination of the
Jews in extermination camps . They demonstrate
that the German government wanted, planned and carried out the
* 1 Overview
* 2 Historical context
* 3 Speech of 4 October 1943
* 3.1 Addressees, reason and purpose
* 3.2 On the course of war
* 3.3 On the Holocaust
* 4 Speech of 6 October 1943
* 4.1 Beginning of the speech
* 4.2 On the
* 5 Further speeches
* 5.1 Historical reception
* 5.3 Artistic references
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 7.1 Bibliography
* 8 External links
Posen speeches of October 1943 are two of 132 speeches obtained
in various forms, which
Himmler conducted before officials of the Nazi
party. The first speech was given before 92 SS officers, the second
before Reichsleiters and Gauleiters , as well as other government
representatives. They constitute some of the most important of
Himmler's speeches during the war, as they demonstrate Himmler's role
as "Architect of the Final Solution" and a visionary of an elite race
to be henceforth supported by the SS state.
Although the genocide of the
Jews was not the central topic in either
of them, both carry historical significance in reference to it.
Himmler did away with the usual camouflage terms and spoke explicitly
of the extermination of the
Jews via mass murder, which he depicted as
a historical mission of the Nazis. This connection became clear in
five further speeches made between December 1943 and June 1944 to
commanders of the Wehrmacht.
In the literature, only the first speech was known as the "Posen
Speech" until 1970. The second speech, uncovered at that time, is
often mistaken as the first or equated with it.
Himmler gave the speeches at a time when the German war effort
sustained constant setbacks, which the Nazi leaders found increasingly
disconcerting. At the
Casablanca Conference in January, 1943, the
Allies had decided that the only acceptable outcome of the war was
Germany's unconditional surrender. The Soviet victory in the Battle of
Stalingrad on 2 February 1943 was a turning point in the war. US
President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the prosecution of those
mainly responsible for war and genocide on 12 February, which the US
Congress agreed to on 18 March. US and British troops landed on Sicily
on 7 July 1943 and, after the
Italian armistice on 8 September,
gradually advanced northward. On 1 October,
Naples was freed from
The Red Army also ran a successful summer offensive on 17 July,
during which partisans blew up many railway connections behind the
Eastern Front on 3 August. In the week 27 July – 3 August 1943,
Allied air raids attacked Hamburg in Operation Gomorrah , and the
armament centre of
Peenemünde was destroyed also on 18 August. At the
same time resistance against occupying German forces grew, and a state
of emergency was declared in
Norway (17 August) and
August). Nazi dissidents planned Germany's reorganisation (the Kreisau
Circle ) and assassination attempts on
Adolf Hitler (which led to
Operation Walküre ", 20 July 1944), on which basis the scorched
earth policy was brought in on 4 September for the foreseeable retreat
of the Eastern Front, and martial law against those in the armed
forces who refused to follow orders, initially introduced by the
General Government on 2 October.
In the same period, the destruction of the
Jews became the most
important goal. In the spring of 1943,
Sonderaktion 1005 was ordered,
demanding the exhumation and incineration of those murdered by the
Einsatzgruppen across the whole Eastern Front in order to hide the
ongoing genocide, whose death toll had so far reached 1.8 million
Himmler ordered the liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in German
Poland on 11 June, and all Soviet ones on 21 June. As of 25
June, four new crematoria and gas chamber installations were completed
in Auschwitz-II Birkenau at
Auschwitz concentration camp . On 1 July
Jews in the Reich were placed under police law. On 24 August
Himmler was appointed as minister of the interior, and thus all police
forces in the Reich and occupied territories were subordinated to him.
By 19 October,
Operation Reinhard was to be terminated and the
affiliated extermination camps dismantled.
Nonetheless, acts of resistance against the destruction of the Jews
occurred. There were prisoner rebellions in Treblinka (2 August 1943,)
and Sobibor (14 October 1943).
Jews of the
Białystok ghetto mounted
an insurrection against their liquidation (16–23 August), and the
Danes helped most of the Danish
Jews planned for arrest to escape.
SPEECH OF 4 OCTOBER 1943
Himmler did not prepare most of his speeches beforehand, but used
terse handwritten notes instead. Since the end of 1942 his verbal
lectures were no longer documented in shorthand, but recorded via
phonograph onto wax master plates . These recordings were then typed
up by SS-_
Untersturmführer _ Werner Alfred Wenn, who corrected
obvious grammatical errors and supplemented missing words. Himmler
then added his own handwritten corrections, and the thus authorised
version was copied up via typewriter in large characters and then
Of Himmler's three-hour speech of 4 October 1943, 115 pages of the
final typewritten edition (one page was lost) were discovered among SS
files and submitted to the
Nuremberg Trials as document 1919-PS. On
day 23 of the hearing, a passage (which however did not concern the
Holocaust) was read out. A live recording of this speech survives,
allowing for the differences between the spoken and the copyedited
version to be examined. They are minor, and in no case distortionary.
ADDRESSEES, REASON AND PURPOSE
Posen's town hall, where the conference took place (the building
no longer exists today)
Himmler gave the first speech in the town hall, and not in the
imperial palace as is often erroneously assumed. Of the SS's
leadership cadre, 33 Obergruppenführers , 51 Gruppenführers and
eight Brigadeführers from the whole of the Reich were present. Many
of these came from areas of occupied eastern Europe. Large parts of
the speech therefore concerned the increasingly precarious situation
on the Eastern Front, while attempting to explain Soviet military
successes as being due to a claimed combination of Communist
ruthlessness and the weaknesses of Germany's allies.
Only about two minutes of the speech concerns the destruction of the
Himmler postulates his audience's experiences with mass
shootings, ghetto liquidations and extermination camps, and
accordingly, their knowledge of them. The speech is to justify the
crimes already perpetrated, and to commit its listeners to the "higher
purpose" bestowed upon them. Around 50 officers not present were sent
a copy of the speech and had to confirm their acknowledgment of it.
ON THE COURSE OF WAR
After a tribute to the war dead,
Himmler gave his view of the war so
far. The tough Soviet resistance could be attributed to the political
commissars , a Soviet attack was only just anticipated, and due to
failure by Germany's allies, a chance for victory in 1942 was wasted.
Himmler speculated over the Soviet army's potential, spoke
disparagingly of the "Vlasov shivaree" (_der Wlassow-Rummel_),
expatiated on the inferiority of the Slavic race, and included
thoughts as to how a German minority can prevail over it.
In later passages,
Himmler claimed Italy's army had been contaminated
with communism and was sympathetic to the
Western allies . He also
touches upon the situation in the Balkans and other occupied
territories, whose acts of resistance he disregards as irritating
pinpricks. The war in the air and sea is also mentioned, as well as
the domestic front (_die innere Front_) and factors from it such as
enemy radio broadcasters and defeatism stemming from air raids.
Himmler turns to the situation on the enemy's side,
speculating over the relationship between the
United Kingdom and the
United States and their resilience and readiness for war. He goes into
extensive detail about variances in the SS, individual divisions,
police organisations, and outlines his duties regarding economic
operations of the SS and being a minister of the Reich.
ON THE HOLOCAUST
"Die Ausrottung des jüdischen Volkes_"
An excerpt of this speech where
Himmler discusses the on-going
extermination of the Jews.
_Problems playing this file? See media help ._
In his outline of the course of the war in the east,
on the deaths of millions of Soviet prisoners of war and forced
labourers . Like in pre-war speeches, and in accordance with Hitler's
Mein Kampf , he speaks of how the eradication of the Slavic
_Untermensch_ is a historical and natural necessity. There is to be no
place for sentiment:
One basic principle must be the absolute rule for the SS men: We must
be honest, decent, loyal and comradely to members of our own blood and
to nobody else. What happens to a Russian, to a Czech, does not
interest me in the slightest. What other nations can offer in the way
of good blood of our type, we will take , if necessary, by kidnapping
their children and raising them here with us . Whether nations live in
prosperity or starve to death interests me only so far as we need them
as slaves for our culture; otherwise, it is of no interest to me.
Whether 10,000 Russian females fall down from exhaustion while digging
an antitank ditch interests me only insofar as the anti-tank ditch for
Germany is finished.
Himmler explicitly speaks of the genocide of the Jews, something
which had not been previously done by a representative of the Nazi
party up until this point:
I am now referring to the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination
of the Jewish people. It's one of those things that is easily said:
'The Jewish people are being exterminated', says every party member,
'this is very obvious, it's in our program, elimination of the Jews,
extermination, we're doing it, hah, a small matter.' And then they
turn up, the upstanding 80 million Germans, and each one has his
decent Jew. They say the others are all swines, but this particular
one is a splendid Jew. But none has observed it, endured it. Most of
you here know what it means when 100 corpses lie next to each other,
when there are 500 or when there are 1,000. To have endured this and
at the same time to have remained a decent person — with exceptions
due to human weaknesses — has made us tough, and is a glorious
chapter that has not and will not be spoken of. Because we know how
difficult it would be for us if we still had
Jews as secret saboteurs,
agitators and rabble-rousers in every city, what with the bombings,
with the burden and with the hardships of the war. If the
still part of the German nation, we would most likely arrive now at
the state we were at in 1916 and 17
Himmler then praises the mindset of the SS man, devoting
approximately 30 of the 116 pages to their virtues as well as their
duty of becoming Europe's ruling class in 20 to 30 years.
SPEECH OF 6 OCTOBER 1943
Of the second Posen speech, Himmler's terse notes are available, as
well as a version recorded via shorthand then typed up and corrected
in detail, and the final version as authorised by
Himmler himself. The
speech in each of these stages resided in the files of the Personal
Staff of the Reichsführer (_Persönlichen Stabes Reichsführer-SS_),
which were seized in their entirety by U.S. authorities in 1945. The
text of the speech was recorded into microfilm by the U.S. and
released to the
Bundesarchiv . Analysis of these previously
unavailable documents by historian Erich Goldhagen in 1970 in Koblenz
revealed a speech hitherto unknown. It was printed in its entireity
for the first time in 1974 in Bradley Smith's and Agnes Peterson's
book of selected
At the end of September 1943, the party chancellery invited all
Reichsleiters and Gauleiters, the head of the
Hitler Youth Artur
Axmann and Reich ministers
Albert Speer and
Alfred Rosenberg to a
Posen Conference began on 6 October at 9 o'clock in
the morning with Speer's reports, his speakers, and four big
industries for armament production. Talks from
Karl Dönitz and Erhard
Himmler held his speech from 17:30 to 19:00. The
second speech is shorter than the first, but contains a slightly
longer and more explicit passage regarding the genocide of the Jews.
BEGINNING OF THE SPEECH
Himmler begins by discussing partisans in Russia and support from
Vlasov's auxiliary forces. The widespread idea that there would be a
300 kilometre wide belt dominated by partisans behind the German front
is considered false. Frequently expressed is the view that Russia can
only be conquered by Russians. This view is considered to be dangerous
and wrong. Slavs are to be considered unreliable on a matter of
principle, and for that reason, Russian Hiwis may only be employed as
combatants in mixed units.
The danger of infiltrated parachutists, fugitive POWs and forced
labourers is considered marginal, since the German population is in an
impeccable way and grants the opponent no shelter, and the police have
such dangers under control. A request by Gauleiters for a special
force against the insurgency in the country is considered to be
unnecessary and unacceptable.
ON THE JEWISH QUESTION
Himmler then reveals to "this most secret circle" his thoughts on the
Jewish question , which he describes as "the most difficult decision
of my life".
Stroop Report original caption: "Forcibly pulled
out of dug-outs". Captured
Jews are led by German troops to the
assembly point for deportation after the
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising , 1943
I ask of you that that which I say to you in this circle be really
only heard and not ever discussed. We were faced with the question:
what about the women and children? – I decided to find a clear
solution to this problem too. I did not consider myself justified to
exterminate the men – in other words, to kill them or have them
killed and allow the avengers of our sons and grandsons in the form of
their children to grow up. The difficult decision had to be made to
have this people disappear from the earth. For the organisation which
had to execute this task, it was the most difficult which we had ever
had. I felt obliged to you, as the most superior dignitary, as the
most superior dignitary of the party, this political order, this
political instrument of the Führer, to also speak about this question
quite openly and to say how it has been. The
Jewish question in the
countries that we occupy will be solved by the end of this year. Only
remainders of odd
Jews that managed to find hiding places will be left
Himmler then discusses the
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (19 April – 16
May 1943) and the heavy battles during it:
This entire ghetto was producing fur coats, dresses, and the like.
Whenever we tried to get at it in the past we were told: Stop!
Armaments factory! Of course, this has nothing to do with Party
Comrade Speer. It wasn't your doing. It is this portion of alleged
armaments factories that Party Comrade Speer and I intend to clear out
in the next few weeks.
Himmler discusses the dismissal of
Benito Mussolini , which is to
have led to defeatism. A few death sentences imposed on the basis of
making corrosive remarks are to serve as dissuasive warnings for
thousands of others, and party members must display exemplary
Himmler then discusses his duties as Reich minister of the
interior. By Hitler's volition, party organisation and administrative
organisation are henceforth two separate pillars. Decentralized
decisions are considered important, but centralised arrangements take
precedence in the strained war situation. As a result,
broad criticism of the personal politics of Gauleiters. In the last
part of his speech, he goes into the benefits of the
Himmler closes by discussing how the German national boundary will be
pushed 500 km eastwards with 120 million people being relocated, and
ends with the appeal: _
Albert Speer awarded an Organisation Todt
_ ring by
Adolf Hitler – May 1943
Albert Speer , Reich minister for arms and munition since 1942, was,
since 2 September 1943 as Reich minister for armament and wartime
economy, responsible for all German armament production. This used
Jewish forced labourers who were partly exempted from being deported
to their extermination until 1943. After 1945, Speer always maintained
that he left the conference before
Himmler made his speech and knew
nothing of the Holocaust. Historians cite Himmler's direct reference
to Speer as proof of his presence.
Statements from five further secret speeches by
Himmler confirm the
sentiment he expressed in Posen on the "final solution to the Jewish
question". On 16 December 1943, he said to
Thus I have basically given the order to also kill the wives and
children of these partisans, and commissars. I would be a weakling and
a criminal to our descendants if I allowed the hate-filled sons of the
sub-humans we have liquidated in this struggle of humanity against
subhumanity to grow up.
A handwritten memo from Himmler's speech on 26 January 1944 in Posen
to Generals of fighting troops reads:
Largest stabilisation in the G.G. since the solution to the Jewish
Race war . Total solution. Not allowing avengers to rise
against our children.
5 May 1944 - Himmler\'s Posen Speeches excerpt
Problems playing this file? See media help ._
On 5 May 1944
Himmler explained to Generals in Sonthofen that
perseverance in the bombing war has only been possible because the
Germany have been discarded.
Jewish question has been solved within
Germany itself and in
general within the countries occupied by Germany. You can understand
how difficult it was for me to carry out this military order which I
was given and which I implemented out of a sense of obedience and
absolute conviction. If you say: 'we can understand as far as the men
are concerned but not about the children', then I must remind you of
what I said at the beginning. In my view, we as Germans, however
deeply we may feel in our hearts, are not entitled to allow a
generation of avengers filled with hatred to grow up with whom our
children and grandchildren will have to deal because we, too weak and
cowardly, left it to them.
1944-05-25 - Heinrich
Himmler - Rede vor Vertretern der deutschen
Justiz in Kochem 1h 44m
Problems playing this file? See media help ._
Applause can be heard on a recording of another speech given to
Generals in Sonthofen on 24 May 1944, when
Another question which was decisive for the inner security of the
Reich and Europe, was the Jewish question. It was uncompromisingly
solved after orders and rational recognition. I believe, gentleman,
that you know me well enough to know that I am not a bloodthirsty
person; I am not a man who takes pleasure or joy when something rough
must be done. However on the other hand, I have such good nerves and
such a developed sense of duty – I can say that much for myself –
that when I recognise something as necessary I can implement it
without compromise. I have not considered myself entitled – this
concerns especially the Jewish women and children – to allow the
children to grow into the avengers who will then murder our children
and our grandchildren. That would have been cowardly. Consequently the
question was uncompromisingly resolved.
On 21 June 1944
Himmler spoke to Generals educated in the Nazi world
view in Sonthofen, mentioning the
Jewish question again:
It was the most terrible task and the most terrible order which could
have been given to an organisation: the order to solve the Jewish
question. In this circle, I may say it frankly with a few sentences.
It is good that we had the severity to exterminate the
Jews in our
The destruction of the
Jews was to be kept secret from those outside
the Nazi regime, but could only be organised and carried out with the
participation of all relevant state and party executives. The Posen
speeches offer a retrospective look at the mass killings already
carried out, and show how these and further killings were
ideologically justified by the Party. The extermination of the
"internal enemy" (_innerer Feind_), the Jewish race, had become an
objective of the war, and success in this field was to compensate for
other defeats accrued in the course of the war.
Saul Friedländer highlights Himmler's self-image as an
unconditionally obedient executor of Hitler's plans for the Germanic
Lebensraum in the east".
The Reichsführer frequently describes the extermination of the Jews
as a heavy responsibility assigned by the Führer. There is thus no
debate: this task calls for unremitting devotion and a spirit of
continual self-sacrifice of him and his men.
Konrad Kwiet comments on Himmler's association of the "heaviest task"
the SS ever had to perform with the _Anständigkeit_ (decency) that
had been preserved of it:
It is precisely this monstrous combination of murder and morality, of
crime and decency at the core of the perpetrator's mentality. In the
scope of the Nazi ethic, an entirely new concept of decency was
created and made as a duty.
Hannah Arendt coined the term "banality of
evil ", other authors emphasize the "normality of crime". Almost all
perpetrators were characterized by their ability to return to the
routine of every day life, and to lead a "normal" life after
perpetrating murder. Most reacted with surprise, confusion and anger
when they were prosecuted and reminded of the past. Ignorance and
innocence were stressed before the court. The murderers were – with
exceptions – spared from the traumatic experiences that survivors
were left with.
Hans Buchheim comments that the accused perpetrators very probably
lacked a _mens rea _. Himmler's revaluation of soldierly virtues was
not a total negation of moral norms, but a suspension of them for the
exceptional situation of the extermination of the Jews, which had been
passed off as a historical necessity. Therefore,
Himmler endorsed the
murder of the
Jews not by instruction, but via the "correct"
ideological motives, while letting similar murders committed out of
sadism or selfishness be prosecutable.
Historian Dieter Pohl states:
Traditional institutions of the Nazi state secretly began the search
for a defence strategy for the post-war period in 1943: one had not
been informed, and the SS was exclusively to blame.
The unsparing portrayal of the genocide in Himmler's secret speech is
thus interpreted as a means to formally render senior SS and Nazi
functionaries as co-conspirators and accomplices in the perpetration
of the Holocaust.
Joseph Goebbels alludes to this view in his diary entry of 2 March
As always in the circles of the party, it is the duty of the
Führer's closest friends to gather around him in such times of need
Above all with the Jewish question, we are so fixed on it that there
is no longer any escape. And that's good. A movement and a people that
have broken the bridges behind them fight from experience much more
unreservedly than those that still have the possibility to retreat.
In an entry dated 9 October 1943,
Goebbels commented on Himmler's
second speech, at which he was present:
Regarding the Jewish question, he gives a very unadorned and frank
picture. He is of the conviction that the
Jewish question can be
solved by the end of this year. He advocates the most radical and most
severe solution, namely to exterminate Jewry, bag and baggage. Of
course, if brutal, this is a consistent solution. Because we must take
on the responsibility of entirely solving this question in our time.
Subsequent generations will doubtlessly no longer dare address this
problem with the courage and obsession as we are able to do today.
See also: Criticism of
Holocaust denial § Himmler\'s speeches and
"Ausrottung" , and Responsibility for the Holocaust § Other Nazi
Holocaust deniers have frequently attempted to negate Himmler's
speeches as proof of the Holocaust. In particular, where
in his speech of 4 October 1943 – refers to the "_Ausrottung des
jüdischen Volkes_" (extermination of the Jewish people), they will
read the verb _ausrotten_ (literally to "root out", aus = out; rott =
root) and its related noun _Ausrottung_ to offer a much more benign
Himmler was merely referring to the deportation
Jews and a desire to "root them out", as opposed to their mass
_Ausrotten_ can mean "to stamp out/to root out", but only
figuratively, e.g., in contexts of concepts or ideals. In the context
of living things (such as a people or race), _ausrotten_ accordingly
means destroying something so that it cannot return. David Irving
considers the usage of the word "Ausrotten" vitally important and also
agrees that the term was referring to eradication. He confirms this in
an interview from 2007 when he compares its usage with Goebbels
half-word "Ausrott..." during the
Sportpalast speech from February
1943. In the subsequent paragraph,
Himmler compares his disdain for
individuals gaining personally (e.g. stealing) from Jewish victims,
and the necessity to prevent this personal gain, to becoming sick and
dying "from the same bacillus that we have exterminated" (_weil wir
den Bazillus ausrotten, an dem Bazillus krank werden und sterben_).
This use of _ausrotten_ can be read as killing or extermination in the
context of living things, because arguing for the deportation of
bacteria would make no sense. The reference to a bacillus in this
statement is figurative, however, in line with Nazi rhetoric that
encouraged dehumanizing concepts of
Jews as a pathogen or malignant
presence, rather than people.
In the "Ausrottung des jüdischen Volkes" paragraph,
_... wir hatten die Pflicht unserem Volk gegenüber das zu tun,
dieses Volk, das uns umbringen wollte, umzubringen._
... we had the duty to our people to do it, to kill this people who
wanted to kill us.
Himmler thus confirms that the context is explicitly physical
extermination, since _umbringen_ simply has no meaning other than "to
kill". Because of this, critics explain that Holocaust deniers will
arbitrarily select words from the dictionary that have nothing to do
with the given context, such as cherry-picking the definition for
_Unkraut_ (weeds) and erroneously applying it to _Volk_ (people).
In the second speech in Posen, critics point to the fact that he
defines the meaning of _ausrotten_, where the operative word is
_Es trat an uns die Frage heran: Wie ist es mit den Frauen und
Kindern? Ich habe mich entschlossen, auch hier eine ganz klare Lösung
zu finden. Ich hielt mich nämlich nicht für berechtigt, DIE MäNNER
AUSZUROTTEN- SPRICH ALSO, UMZUBRINGEN ODER UMBRINGEN ZU LASSEN – und
die Rächer in Gestalt der Kinder für unsere Söhne und Enkel groß
werden zu lassen. Es mußte der schwere Entschluß gefaßt werden,
dieses Volk von der Erde verschwinden zu lassen._
We came to the question: How is it with the women and children? I
decided to find a clear solution here as well. I did not consider
myself justified TO EXTERMINATE THE MEN – IN OTHER WORDS, TO KILL
THEM OR HAVE THEM KILLED – and allow the avengers of our sons and
grandsons in the form of their children to grow up. The difficult
decision had to be taken to make this people disappear from the earth.
Holocaust deniers will also offer erroneous translations of
_ausrotten_ by analysing the word's compounds, on the basis that
"_aus_" and "_rotten_" are cognate with the English "out" and "root".
To native German speakers, this is simply wrong. Critics compare this
attempted etymological explanation to an attempt to cite the Latin
origins of "ex" (out of) and "terminus" (borders) and on that basis,
claim that "exterminate" means deportation, which would be equally
nonsensical to native English speakers.
Critics point out that German Holocaust deniers do not dare suggest a
translation to a German audience where _ausrotten_ does not mean
physical extermination, citing instances of German deniers dismissing
failed etymological analysis by English speakers by responding to
confirm that _ausrotten_ means complete destruction, and material
written by German deniers where, in the context of people, _ausrotten_
and _vernichten_ are used synonymously.
Germar Rudolf and
Udo Walendy have claimed that the recording of the
first speech is a forgery: Himmler's voice was actually that of a 1945
Allied voice imitator. However, the discovery of the second Posen
speech in the Koblenz
Bundesarchiv rendered allegations of
falsification completely irrelevant. Himmler's explicit statements,
such as making the decision to make the
Jews "disappear from the
earth", leave no room for alternative interpretation.
In Romuald Karmakar's 2000 film _The
Himmler Project_, the actor
Manfred Zapatka reads the entire speech of 4 October 1943 word for
word according to the recording, including all the nuances and
incidents also recorded and the repetitions where
Himmler loses his
place while reading from a prepared manuscript. During the film,
Zapatka wears no uniform and simply stands in front of a grey wall.
Heinrich Breloers multipart television film _
Speer und Er _ contains
a debate as to whether
Albert Speer was present during Himmler's
speech on 6 October 1943.
Jonathan Littell 's _The Kindly Ones _, the first-person narrator,
Maximilian Aue, cannot remember whether Speer was present or not, but
does cite Speer's remark that he (Speer) remembered many officers
being terribly drunk. As Speer only arrived in the morning for his
speech, this would actually mean Speer was present during the
evening's dinner, after
Himmler 's second Posen speech.
New Order (political system)
* ^ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich
Himmler Geheimreden_, Speech index,
pp. 268–277 f.
* ^ Richard Breitman: _Heinrich Himmler. Der Architekt der
„Endlösung“._ Pendo Verlag, Zürich et al 2000, ISBN
* ^ Joachim Fest, Einführung zu Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich Himmler
Geheimreden_, p. 15 ff.
* ^ Raul Hilberg: _Die Quellen des Holocaust_, Frankfurt/Main 2002,
ISBN 3-10-033626-7 , Kapitel _Drastische und verschleiernde Sprache_
* ^ Original transcript – see literature
* ^ _A_ _B_ Willi Frischauer (2013). _Himmler: The Evil Genius of
the Third Reich_. Unmaterial Books. ISBN 1783012544 . Also in: James
S. Pacy, Alan Wertheimer (1995). _Perspectives on the Holocaust:
essays in honor of Raul Hilberg_. Westview Press. ISBN 0813320348 .
CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link )
* ^ Peter Longerich: Der ungeschriebene Befehl, Munich 2001, pp.
* ^ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich Himmler_, p. 251 f.
* ^ IMT Volume 29, p. 110-173
* ^ IMT: Band 4 (Verhandlungsniederschriften, December 1945), p.
* ^ "Text of Himmler\'s Speech, 4 October 1943". The Holocaust
History Project . Retrieved 2009-01-09.
* ^ Heinrich Schwendemann, Wolfgang Dietsche: _Hitlers Schloß. Die
'Führerresidenz' in Posen_, Berlin 2003, p. 133
* ^ "Anwesende SS-Generäle bei der "Posener Rede"" (in German).
3sat . 2 November 2001. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
* ^ IMT: Volume 29 (Urkunden und anderes Beweismaterial), p. 123
* ^ IMT: Volume 29, p. 145f
* ^ Stefan Krebs, Werner Tschacher: _Speer und Er. Und Wir?
Deutsche Geschichte in gebrochener Erinnerung._ In: _Geschichte in
Wissenschaft und Unterricht_, Book 3, 58 (2007), p. 164.
* ^ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich
Himmler Geheimreden_ p. 267 (Edition
notes), p. 273 (Nr. 85) and p. 300, Note 1
* ^ Gitta Sereny: _Albert Speer: Sein Ringen mit der Wahrheit._
Munich 2001, ISBN 3-442-15141-4 , p. 468ff
* ^ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich Himmler_ pp. 162–183
* ^ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich Himmler_ p. 169 f.
* ^ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich Himmler_ p. 170
* ^ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich Himmler_ p. 183
* ^ Krebs, Tschacher: _Speer und Er_ pp. 163–173
* ^ _A_ _B_ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich Himmler_ p. 201
* ^ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich Himmler_ p. 202
* ^ _A_ _B_ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich Himmler_ p. 203
* ^ Peter Longerich: _Der ungeschriebene Befehl_ p. 191
* ^ Saul Friedländer: Das Dritte Reich und die Juden 2. Band: Die
Jahre der Vernichtung 1939–1945, C.H. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN
3-406-54966-7 , p. 570.
* ^ Konrad Kwiet: _Rassenpolitik und Völkermord_, in:
_Enzyklopädie des Nationalsozialismus_, dtv, 2nd edition, Munich
1998, p. 64.
* ^ Hans Buchheim: _Anatomie des SS-Staates_ Volume 1: _Die SS –
das Herrschaftsinstrument. Befehl und Gehorsam._ dtv (1. edition 1967)
2. edition Munich 1979, ISBN 3-423-02915-3 , pp. 247–253 and p.
* ^ Frank Bajohr, Dieter Pohl: _Der Holocaust als offenes
Geheimnis._ Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54978-0 , p. 126.
* ^ Peter Longerich: _Heinrich
Himmler – Biographie._ Munich
2008, ISBN 978-3-88680-859-5 , p. 710 / q. v. Gitta Sereny: _Albert
Speer…_, p. 468.
* ^ Joseph Goebbels. Tagebücher, Band 5: 1943–1945, Piper
Verlag, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-492-21415-0 , p. 1905.
* ^ Cited according to Saul Friedländer: _Das Dritte Reich und die
Juden_ Volume 2: _Die Jahre der Vernichtung 1939–1945_, I.c. p. 572.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ "\'Ausrotten\' in
The Holocaust History Project . Retrieved 2009-07-17.
* ^ Irving, David. "
David Irving Interview Part Two". Alan Heath.
Retrieved 18 December 2012.
* ^ "\'Ausrotten\', to Native German Speakers". The Holocaust
History Project . Retrieved 2009-07-18.
* ^ "Heinrich
Himmler in Posen" (in German). www.h-ref.de.
* ^ Smith, Peterson: _Heinrich Himmler_…, p. 301 and footnote 16.
* ^ "Das Himmler-Projekt" (in German). www.3sat.de. Retrieved
* Internationaler Militärgerichtshof Nürnberg (IMT): _Der
Nürnberger Prozess gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher._ Delphin Verlag,
Nachdruck München 1989, ISBN 3-7735-2523-0 , Band 29: _Urkunden und
* Bradley F. Smith, Agnes F. Peterson (Hrsg.): _Heinrich Himmler.
Geheimreden 1933–1945_, Propyläen Verlag, Frankfurt am Main,
Berlin/Wien 1974, ISBN 3-549-07305-4
Peter Longerich : _Der ungeschriebene Befehl_, Munich 2001, ISBN
* Richard Breitman: _