HOME
The Info List - Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority





Transport
Transport
or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport
Modes of transport
include air, land (rail and road), water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport
Transport
is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations. Transport
Transport
infrastructure consists of the fixed installations including roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refueling depots (including fueling docks and fuel stations) and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, people, helicopters, watercraft, spacecraft and aircraft. Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing, legalities, and policies. In the transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode. Passenger
Passenger
transport may be public, where operators provide scheduled services, or private. Freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport
Transport
plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. While it is heavily subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow and restrain urban sprawl.

Contents

1 History 2 Mode

2.1 Human-powered 2.2 Animal-powered 2.3 Air 2.4 Land

2.4.1 Rail 2.4.2 Road

2.5 Water 2.6 Other modes

3 Elements

3.1 Infrastructure 3.2 Vehicles 3.3 Operation

4 Functions

4.1 Passenger 4.2 Medical transport 4.3 Freight

5 Impact

5.1 Economic 5.2 Planning 5.3 Environment

6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of transport

Bronocice pot
Bronocice pot
with the earliest known image of a wheeled vehicle in the world, found in Poland

A bullock team hauling wool in Australia

Humans' first means of transport involved walking, running and swimming. The domestication of animals introduced a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing the hauling of heavier loads, or humans riding animals for greater speed and duration. Inventions such as the wheel and the sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, and was the only efficient way to transport large quantities or over large distances prior to the Industrial Revolution. The first forms of road transport involved animals, such as horses (domesticated in the 4th or 3rd millennium BCE), oxen (from about 8000 BCE)[1] or humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that often followed game trails. Many early civilizations, including Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the Indus Valley Civilization, constructed paved roads. In classical antiquity, the Persian and Roman empires built stone-paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep roadbeds of crushed stone underneath kept such roads dry. The medieval Caliphate
Caliphate
later built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two. The importance of water has led to most cities that grew up as sites for trading being located on rivers or on the sea-shore, often at the intersection of two bodies of water. Until the Industrial Revolution, transport remained slow and costly, and production and consumption gravitated as close to each other as feasible.

The Wright brothers' first flight in 1903

The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in the 19th century saw a number of inventions fundamentally change transport. With telegraphy, communication became instant and independent of the transport of physical objects. The invention of the steam engine, closely followed by its application in rail transport, made land transport independent of human or animal muscles. Both speed and capacity increased rapidly, allowing specialization through manufacturing being located independently of natural resources. The 19th century also saw the development of the steam ship, which sped up global transport. With the development of the combustion engine and the automobile around 1900, road transport became more competitive again, and mechanical private transport originated. The first "modern" highways were constructed during the 19th century[citation needed] with macadam. Later, tarmac and concrete became the dominant paving materials. In 1903 the Wright brothers
Wright brothers
demonstrated the first successful controllable airplane, and after World War I (1914–1918) aircraft became a fast way to transport people and express goods over long distances.[2] After World War II (1939–1945) the automobile and airlines took higher shares of transport, reducing rail and water to freight and short-haul passenger services.[3] Scientific spaceflight began in the 1950s, with rapid growth until the 1970s, when interest dwindled. In the 1950s the introduction of containerization gave massive efficiency gains in freight transport, fostering globalization.[4] International air travel became much more accessible in the 1960s with the commercialization of the jet engine. Along with the growth in automobiles and motorways, rail and water transport declined in relative importance. After the introduction of the Shinkansen
Shinkansen
in Japan in 1964, high-speed rail in Asia and Europe started attracting passengers on long-haul routes away from airlines.[3] Early in U.S. history,[when?] private joint-stock corporations owned most aqueducts, bridges, canals, railroads, roads, and tunnels. Most such transportation infrastructure came under government control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in the nationalization of inter-city passenger rail-service with the establishment of Amtrak. Recently,[when?] however, a movement to privatize roads and other infrastructure has gained some[quantify] ground and adherents.[5] Further information: Timeline of transportation technology Mode[edit] Main article: Mode of transport A mode of transport is a solution that makes use of a particular type of vehicle, infrastructure, and operation. The transport of a person or of cargo may involve one mode or several of the modes, with the latter case being called intermodal or multimodal transport. Each mode has its own advantages and disadvantages, and will be chosen for a trip on the basis of cost, capability, and route. Human-powered[edit] Main article: Human-powered transport

Human-powered transport
Human-powered transport
remains common in developing countries.

Human
Human
powered transport, a form of sustainable transportation, is the transport of people and/or goods using human muscle-power, in the form of walking, running and swimming. Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance human power. Human-powered transport
Human-powered transport
remains popular for reasons of cost-saving, leisure, physical exercise, and environmentalism; it is sometimes the only type available, especially in underdeveloped or inaccessible regions. Although humans are able to walk without infrastructure, the transport can be enhanced through the use of roads, especially when using the human power with vehicles, such as bicycles and inline skates. Human-powered vehicles have also been developed for difficult environments, such as snow and water, by watercraft rowing and skiing; even the air can be entered with human-powered aircraft. Animal-powered[edit] Main article: Animal-powered transport Animal-powered transport
Animal-powered transport
is the use of working animals for the movement of people and commodities. Humans may ride some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles. Air[edit] Main article: Aviation

An Air France
Air France
Airbus
Airbus
A318 lands at London Heathrow Airport.

A fixed-wing aircraft, commonly called airplane, is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the air in relation to the wings is used to generate lift. The term is used to distinguish this from rotary-wing aircraft, where the movement of the lift surfaces relative to the air generates lift. A gyroplane is both fixed-wing and rotary wing. Fixed-wing aircraft
Fixed-wing aircraft
range from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners and military cargo aircraft. Two things necessary for aircraft are air flow over the wings for lift and an area for landing. The majority of aircraft also need an airport with the infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking, refueling and for the loading and unloading of crew, cargo, and passengers. While the vast majority of aircraft land and take off on land, some are capable of take-off and landing on ice, snow, and calm water. The aircraft is the second fastest method of transport, after the rocket. Commercial jets can reach up to 955 kilometres per hour (593 mph), single-engine aircraft 555 kilometres per hour (345 mph). Aviation
Aviation
is able to quickly transport people and limited amounts of cargo over longer distances, but incurs high costs and energy use; for short distances or in inaccessible places helicopters can be used.[6] As of April 28, 2009, The Guardian article notes that, "the WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time."[7] Land[edit] Main article: Ground transportation Land transport
Land transport
covers all land-based transportation systems that provide for the movement of people, goods and services. Land transport plays a vital role in linking communities to each other. Land transport is a key factor in urban planning. It consists of 2 kinds, rail and road. Rail[edit] Main article: Rail transport

InterCityExpress, a German high-speed passenger train

The New York City Subway
New York City Subway
is the world's largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.

Rail transport
Rail transport
is where a train runs along a set of two parallel steel rails, known as a railway or railroad. The rails are anchored perpendicular to ties (or sleepers) of timber, concrete or steel, to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge. The rails and perpendicular beams are placed on a foundation made of concrete or compressed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast. Alternative methods include monorail and maglev. A train consists of one or more connected vehicles that operate on the rails. Propulsion is commonly provided by a locomotive, that hauls a series of unpowered cars, that can carry passengers or freight. The locomotive can be powered by steam, diesel or by electricity supplied by trackside systems. Alternatively, some or all the cars can be powered, known as a multiple unit. Also, a train can be powered by horses, cables, gravity, pneumatics and gas turbines. Railed vehicles move with much less friction than rubber tires on paved roads, making trains more energy efficient, though not as efficient as ships. Intercity trains are long-haul services connecting cities;[8] modern high-speed rail is capable of speeds up to 350 km/h (220 mph), but this requires specially built track. Regional and commuter trains feed cities from suburbs and surrounding areas, while intra-urban transport is performed by high-capacity tramways and rapid transits, often making up the backbone of a city's public transport. Freight trains
Freight trains
traditionally used box cars, requiring manual loading and unloading of the cargo. Since the 1960s, container trains have become the dominant solution for general freight, while large quantities of bulk are transported by dedicated trains. Road[edit] Main article: Road
Road
transport

The Harbor Freeway
Harbor Freeway
is often heavily congested at rush hour in Downtown Los Angeles.

A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places.[9] Roads
Roads
are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel;[10] though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance.[11] In urban areas, roads may pass through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route.[12] The most common road vehicle is the automobile; a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Other users of roads include buses, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles and pedestrians. As of 2010, there were 1.015 billion automobiles worldwide. Road transport
Road transport
offers a complete freedom to road users to transfer the vehicle from one lane to the other and from one road to another according to the need and convenience. This flexibility of changes in location, direction, speed, and timings of travel is not available to other modes of transport. It is possible to provide door to door service only by road transport. Automobiles provide high flexibility with low capacity, but require high energy and area use, and are the main source of noise and air pollution in cities; buses allow for more efficient travel at the cost of reduced flexibility.[13] Road transport
Road transport
by truck is often the initial and final stage of freight transport. Water[edit] Main article: Ship
Ship
transport

Built by the Dutch to transport spices, now used by the local fishermen to get to the sea, Negombo
Negombo
Dutch canal, Sri Lanka

Automobile
Automobile
ferry in Croatia

Water
Water
transport is movement by means of a watercraft—such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat—over a body of water, such as a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. The need for buoyancy is common to watercraft, making the hull a dominant aspect of its construction, maintenance and appearance. In the 19th century, the first steam ships were developed, using a steam engine to drive a paddle wheel or propeller to move the ship. The steam was produced in a boiler using wood or coal and fed through a steam external combustion engine. Now most ships have an internal combustion engine using a slightly refined type of petroleum called bunker fuel. Some ships, such as submarines, use nuclear power to produce the steam. Recreational or educational craft still use wind power, while some smaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers, or in the case of jet boats, an inboard water jet. In shallow draft areas, hovercraft are propelled by large pusher-prop fans. (See Marine propulsion.) Although it is slow compared to other transportation, modern sea transport is a highly efficient method of transporting large quantities of goods. Commercial vessels, nearly 35,000 in number, carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2007.[14] Transport
Transport
by water is significantly less costly than air transport for transcontinental shipping;[15] short sea shipping and ferries remain viable in coastal areas.[16][17] Other modes[edit]

Trans-Alaska Pipeline
Trans-Alaska Pipeline
for crude oil

Pipeline transport
Pipeline transport
sends goods through a pipe; most commonly liquid and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes can also send solid capsules using compressed air. For liquids/gases, any chemically stable liquid or gas can be sent through a pipeline. Short-distance systems exist for sewage, slurry, water and beer, while long-distance networks are used for petroleum and natural gas. Cable transport
Cable transport
is a broad mode where vehicles are pulled by cables instead of an internal power source. It is most commonly used at steep gradient. Typical solutions include aerial tramway, elevators, escalator and ski lifts; some of these are also categorized as conveyor transport. Spaceflight
Spaceflight
is transport out of Earth's atmosphere into outer space by means of a spacecraft. While large amounts of research have gone into technology, it is rarely used except to put satellites into orbit, and conduct scientific experiments. However, man has landed on the moon, and probes have been sent to all the planets of the Solar System. Suborbital spaceflight
Suborbital spaceflight
is the fastest of the existing and planned transport systems from a place on Earth to a distant "other place" on Earth. Faster transport could be achieved through part of a low Earth orbit, or following that trajectory even faster using the propulsion of the rocket to steer it. Elements[edit] Infrastructure[edit] Main article: Infrastructure

Bridges, such as Golden Gate Bridge, allow roads and railways to cross bodies of water.

Infrastructure
Infrastructure
is the fixed installations that allow a vehicle to operate. It consists of a roadway, a terminal, and facilities for parking and maintenance. For rail, pipeline, road and cable transport, the entire way the vehicle travels must be constructed. Air and watercraft are able to avoid this, since the airway and seaway do not need to be constructed. However, they require fixed infrastructure at terminals. Terminals such as airports, ports, and stations, are locations where passengers and freight can be transferred from one vehicle or mode to another. For passenger transport, terminals are integrating different modes to allow riders, who are interchanging between modes, to take advantage of each mode's benefits. For instance, airport rail links connect airports to the city centers and suburbs. The terminals for automobiles are parking lots, while buses and coaches can operate from simple stops.[18] For freight, terminals act as transshipment points, though some cargo is transported directly from the point of production to the point of use. The financing of infrastructure can either be public or private. Transport
Transport
is often a natural monopoly and a necessity for the public; roads, and in some countries railways and airports are funded through taxation. New infrastructure projects can have high costs and are often financed through debt. Many infrastructure owners, therefore, impose usage fees, such as landing fees at airports, or toll plazas on roads. Independent of this, authorities may impose taxes on the purchase or use of vehicles. Because of poor forecasting and overestimation of passenger numbers by planners, there is frequently a benefits shortfall for transport infrastructure projects.[19] Vehicles[edit] Main article: Vehicle

A Fiat Uno
Fiat Uno
in 2008

A vehicle is a non-living device that is used to move people and goods. Unlike the infrastructure, the vehicle moves along with the cargo and riders. Unless being pulled/pushed by a cable or muscle-power, the vehicle must provide its own propulsion; this is most commonly done through a steam engine, combustion engine, electric motor, a jet engine or a rocket, though other means of propulsion also exist. Vehicles also need a system of converting the energy into movement; this is most commonly done through wheels, propellers and pressure. Vehicles are most commonly staffed by a driver. However, some systems, such as people movers and some rapid transits, are fully automated. For passenger transport, the vehicle must have a compartment, seat, or platform for the passengers. Simple vehicles, such as automobiles, bicycles or simple aircraft, may have one of the passengers as a driver. Operation[edit]

Incheon International Airport, South Korea

Private transport
Private transport
is only subject to the owner of the vehicle, who operates the vehicle themselves. For public transport and freight transport, operations are done through private enterprise or by governments. The infrastructure and vehicles may be owned and operated by the same company, or they may be operated by different entities. Traditionally, many countries have had a national airline and national railway. Since the 1980s, many of these have been privatized. International shipping remains a highly competitive industry with little regulation,[20] but ports can be public-owned.[21] Functions[edit] Relocation of travelers and cargo are the most common uses of transport. However, other uses exist, such as the strategic and tactical relocation of armed forces during warfare, or the civilian mobility construction or emergency equipment. Passenger[edit] Main articles: Travel
Travel
and Public transit

A local transit bus operated by ACTION
ACTION
in Canberra, Australia

Passenger
Passenger
transport, or travel, is divided into public and private transport. Public transport
Public transport
is scheduled services on fixed routes, while private is vehicles that provide ad hoc services at the riders desire. The latter offers better flexibility, but has lower capacity, and a higher environmental impact. Travel
Travel
may be as part of daily commuting, for business, leisure or migration. Short-haul transport is dominated by the automobile and mass transit. The latter consists of buses in rural and small cities, supplemented with commuter rail, trams and rapid transit in larger cities. Long-haul transport involves the use of the automobile, trains, coaches and aircraft, the last of which have become predominantly used for the longest, including intercontinental, travel. Intermodal passenger transport is where a journey is performed through the use of several modes of transport; since all human transport normally starts and ends with walking, all passenger transport can be considered intermodal. Public transport
Public transport
may also involve the intermediate change of vehicle, within or across modes, at a transport hub, such as a bus or railway station. Taxis and buses can be found on both ends of the public transport spectrum. Buses
Buses
are the cheaper mode of transport but are not necessarily flexible, and taxis are very flexible but more expensive. In the middle is demand-responsive transport, offering flexibility whilst remaining affordable. International travel
International travel
may be restricted for some individuals due to legislation and visa requirements. Medical transport[edit]

An ambulance from World War I

An ambulance is a vehicle used to transport people from or between places of treatment,[22] and in some instances will also provide out-of-hospital medical care to the patient. The word is often associated with road-going "emergency ambulances", which form part of emergency medical services, administering emergency care to those with acute medical problems. Air medical services is a comprehensive term covering the use of air transportation to move patients to and from healthcare facilities and accident scenes. Personnel provide comprehensive prehospital and emergency and critical care to all types of patients during aeromedical evacuation or rescue operations, aboard helicopters, propeller aircraft, or jet aircraft.[23][24] Freight[edit] Main article: Shipping Freight transport, or shipping, is a key in the value chain in manufacturing.[25] With increased specialization and globalization, production is being located further away from consumption, rapidly increasing the demand for transport.[26] Transportation creates place utility by moving the goods from the place of production to the place of consumption. While all modes of transport are used for cargo transport, there is high differentiation between the nature of the cargo transport, in which mode is chosen.[27] Logistics
Logistics
refers to the entire process of transferring products from producer to consumer, including storage, transport, transshipment, warehousing, material-handling, and packaging, with associated exchange of information.[28] Incoterm
Incoterm
deals with the handling of payment and responsibility of risk during transport.[29]

Freight train
Freight train
with shipping containers in the United Kingdom

Containerization, with the standardization of ISO containers on all vehicles and at all ports, has revolutionized international and domestic trade, offering huge reduction in transshipment costs. Traditionally, all cargo had to be manually loaded and unloaded into the haul of any ship or car; containerization allows for automated handling and transfer between modes, and the standardized sizes allow for gains in economy of scale in vehicle operation. This has been one of the key driving factors in international trade and globalization since the 1950s.[4] Bulk transport is common with cargo that can be handled roughly without deterioration; typical examples are ore, coal, cereals and petroleum. Because of the uniformity of the product, mechanical handling can allow enormous quantities to be handled quickly and efficiently. The low value of the cargo combined with high volume also means that economies of scale become essential in transport, and gigantic ships and whole trains are commonly used to transport bulk. Liquid products with sufficient volume may also be transported by pipeline. Air freight has become more common for products of high value; while less than one percent of world transport by volume is by airline, it amounts to forty percent of the value. Time has become especially important in regards to principles such as postponement and just-in-time within the value chain, resulting in a high willingness to pay for quick delivery of key components or items of high value-to-weight ratio.[30] In addition to mail, common items sent by air include electronics and fashion clothing. Impact[edit] Main article: Sustainable transport Economic[edit] Main article: Transport
Transport
economics

Transport
Transport
is a key component of growth and globalization, such as in Seattle, Washington, United States.

Transport
Transport
is a key necessity for specialization—allowing production and consumption of products to occur at different locations. Transport has throughout history been a spur to expansion; better transport allows more trade and a greater spread of people. Economic growth
Economic growth
has always been dependent on increasing the capacity and rationality of transport.[31] But the infrastructure and operation of transport has a great impact on the land and is the largest drainer of energy, making transport sustainability a major issue. Due to the way modern cities and communities are planned and operated, a physical distinction between home and work is usually created, forcing people to transport themselves to places of work, study, or leisure, as well as to temporarily relocate for other daily activities. Passenger
Passenger
transport is also the essence of tourism, a major part of recreational transport. Commerce requires the transport of people to conduct business, either to allow face-to-face communication for important decisions or to move specialists from their regular place of work to sites where they are needed. Planning[edit] Main article: Transport
Transport
planning Transport planning
Transport planning
allows for high utilization and less impact regarding new infrastructure. Using models of transport forecasting, planners are able to predict future transport patterns. On the operative level, logistics allows owners of cargo to plan transport as part of the supply chain. Transport
Transport
as a field is also studied through transport economics, a component for the creation of regulation policy by authorities. Transport
Transport
engineering, a sub-discipline of civil engineering, must take into account trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice and route assignment, while the operative level is handled through traffic engineering.

The engineering of this roundabout in Bristol, United Kingdom, attempts to make traffic flow free-moving.

Because of the negative impacts incurred, transport often becomes the subject of controversy related to choice of mode, as well as increased capacity. Automotive transport can be seen as a tragedy of the commons, where the flexibility and comfort for the individual deteriorate the natural and urban environment for all. Density of development depends on mode of transport, with public transport allowing for better spatial utilization. Good land use keeps common activities close to people's homes and places higher-density development closer to transport lines and hubs, to minimize the need for transport. There are economies of agglomeration. Beyond transportation some land uses are more efficient when clustered. Transportation facilities consume land, and in cities, pavement (devoted to streets and parking) can easily exceed 20 percent of the total land use. An efficient transport system can reduce land waste. Too much infrastructure and too much smoothing for maximum vehicle throughput means that in many cities there is too much traffic and many—if not all—of the negative impacts that come with it. It is only in recent years that traditional practices have started to be questioned in many places, and as a result of new types of analysis which bring in a much broader range of skills than those traditionally relied on—spanning such areas as environmental impact analysis, public health, sociologists as well as economists—the viability of the old mobility solutions is increasingly being questioned.

Environment[edit]

Traffic congestion
Traffic congestion
persists in São Paulo, Brazil, despite the no-drive days based on license numbers.

Main article: Transport
Transport
and the environment Transport
Transport
is a major use of energy and burns most of the world's petroleum. This creates air pollution, including nitrous oxides and particulates, and is a significant contributor to global warming through emission of carbon dioxide,[32] for which transport is the fastest-growing emission sector.[33] By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to global warming.[34] Environmental regulations in developed countries have reduced individual vehicles' emissions; however, this has been offset by increases in the numbers of vehicles and in the use of each vehicle.[32] Some pathways to reduce the carbon emissions of road vehicles considerably have been studied.[35][36] Energy use and emissions vary largely between modes, causing environmentalists to call for a transition from air and road to rail and human-powered transport, as well as increased transport electrification and energy efficiency. Other environmental impacts of transport systems include traffic congestion and automobile-oriented urban sprawl, which can consume natural habitat and agricultural lands. By reducing transportation emissions globally, it is predicted that there will be significant positive effects on Earth's air quality, acid rain, smog and climate change.[37] See also[edit]

Transport
Transport
portal

Environmental impact of aviation Fuel efficiency in transportation IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society List of emerging transportation technologies Journal of Transport
Transport
and Land Use Outline of transport Public transport Rail transport
Rail transport
by country Speed record Taxicabs by country Transportation engineering Books: Transport

References[edit]

^ Watts, Martin (1999). Working Oxen. Shire Album. 342. Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire: Osprey Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 9780747804154. Retrieved 2016-02-08. [...] tamed aurochs became the first domestic oxen. The earliest evidence for domestication is found in the Middle East around ten thousand years ago.  ^ Bardi, Coyle and Novack, 2006: 158 ^ a b Cooper et al., 1998: 277 ^ a b Bardi, Coyle and Novack, 2006: 211–14 ^ Clifford Winston, Last Exit: Privatization and Deregulation of the U.S. Transportation System (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2010). ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 281 ^ Swine flu prompts EU warning on travel to US. The Guardian. April 28, 2009. ^ Cooper et al, 1998: 279 ^ "Major Roads
Roads
of the United States". United States Department of the Interior. 2006-03-13. Archived from the original on 13 April 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2007.  ^ " Road
Road
Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Strategic Framework for South Africa". National Department of Transport
Transport
(South Africa). Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2007.  ^ Lay, 1992: 6–7 ^ "What is the difference between a road and a street?". Word FAQ. Lexico Publishing Group. 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2007.  ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 278 ^ The United Nations Conference on Trade
Trade
and Development (UNCTAD) 2007, p. x and p. 32. ^ Stopford, 1997: 4–6 ^ Stopford, 1997: 8–9 ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 280 ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 275–76 ^ Bent Flyvbjerg, Mette K. Skamris Holm, and Søren L. Buhl, "How (In)Accurate Are Demand Forecasts in Public Works Projects", Journal of the American Planning Association 71:2, pp. 131–46. ^ Stopford, 1997: 422 ^ Stopford, 1997: 29 ^ Skinner, Henry Alan. 1949, "The Origin of Medical Terms". Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins ^ Branas CC, MacKenzie EJ, Williams JC, Schwab CW, Teter HM, Flanigan MC, et al. (2005). "Access to trauma centers in the United States". JAMA. 293 (21): 2626–33. doi:10.1001/jama.293.21.2626. PMID 15928284.  ^ Burney RE, Hubert D, Passini L, Maio R (1995). "Variation in air medical outcomes by crew composition: a two-year follow-up". Ann Emerg Med. 25 (2): 187–92. doi:10.1016/s0196-0644(95)70322-5 . PMID 7832345.  ^ Chopra and Meindl, 2007: 3 ^ Chopra and Meindl, 2007: 63–64 ^ Chopra and Meindl, 2007: 54 ^ Bardi, Coyle and Novack, 2006: 4 ^ Bardi, Coyle and Novack, 2006: 473 ^ Chopra and Meindl, 2007: 328 ^ Stopford, 1997: 2 ^ a b Fuglestvet et al., Center for International Climate and Environmental Research (2007). "Climate forcing from the transport sectors" (PDF).  ^ Worldwatch Institute (16 January 2008). "Analysis: Nano Hypocrisy?".  ^ Climate forcing from the transport sectors, Jan Fuglestvedt, Terje Berntsen, Gunnar Myhre, Kristin Rypdal, and Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, January 15, 2008, vol. 105, no. 2, PNAS.org ^ "Claverton-Energy.com". Claverton-Energy.com. 2009-02-17. Retrieved 2010-05-23.  ^ Data on the barriers and motivators to more sustainable transport behaviour is available in the UK Department for Transport
Transport
study "Climate Change and Transport
Transport
Choices" published in December 2010. ^ Environment Canada. "Transportation". Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2008. 

Bibliography[edit]

Bardi, Edward; John Coyle & Robert Novack (2006). Management of Transportation. Thomson South-Western. ISBN 0-324-31443-4.  Chopra, Sunil & Peter Meindl (2007). Supply Chain Management. Pearson. ISBN 0-13-208608-5.  Christopher P. Cooper; Rebecca Shepherd (1998). Tourism: Principles and Practice. Financial Times Prent.Int. ISBN 978-0-582-31273-9. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  Lay, Maxwell G (1992). Ways of the World: A History of the World's Roads
Roads
and of the Vehicles that Used Them. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2691-4.  Stopford, Martin (1997). Maritime Economics. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15310-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Transport.

Look up transport or transportation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Transport

Wikivoyage
Wikivoyage
has travel related information for Transportation.

Transportation from UCB Libraries GovPubs Transportation at Curlie (based on DMOZ) America On the Move An online transportation exhibition from the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution World Transportation Organization The world transportation organization (The Non-Profit Advisory Organization)

v t e

Public transport

Bus
Bus
service

Bus

list

Bus
Bus
rapid transit Charabanc Express bus Guided bus Intercity bus

driver

Open top bus Public light bus Rail replacement bus Shuttle bus Transit bus Trolleybus

Rail

Cable car Commuter rail Funicular Heavy rail Heritage railway Heritage streetcar High-speed rail Horsecar Inter-city rail Interurban Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Monorail Rapid transit Regional rail Rubber-tyred metro Street
Street
running Tram Tram-train

Vehicles for hire

Auto rickshaw Boda-boda Cycle rickshaw Gondola Hackney carriage Limousine Motorcycle taxi Paratransit Personal rapid transit Pulled rickshaw Share taxi Taxicab

Carpooling

Car jockey Flexible carpooling Real-time ridesharing Slugging Vanpool

Ship

Cable ferry Ferry Hovercraft Hydrofoil Ocean
Ocean
liner Water
Water
taxi

Other transport

Aerial tramway Airline Airliner Bicycle-sharing Carsharing Elevator Escalator Gondola
Gondola
lift Horse-drawn vehicle Maglev Moving walkway People mover Trackless train

Locations

Airport Bus
Bus
bulb Bus
Bus
garage (bus depot) Bus
Bus
lane Bus
Bus
stand Bus
Bus
station Bus
Bus
stop Bus
Bus
terminus Bus
Bus
turnout (bus bay) Dry dock Hangar Harbor Interchange station Kassel kerb Layover Metro station Park and ride Port Queue jump Taxicab
Taxicab
stand Train
Train
station Tram
Tram
stop Transit mall Transport
Transport
hub

Ticketing and fares

Automated fare collection Bus
Bus
advertising Contract of carriage Dead mileage Exit fare Fare
Fare
avoidance Fare
Fare
evasion Farebox recovery ratio Free public transport Free travel pass Integrated ticketing Manual fare collection Money train Paid area Proof-of-payment Reduced fare program Smart cards Ticket machine Transfer Transit pass

Routing

Circle route Cross-city route Network length Non-revenue track Radial route Transport
Transport
network

Facilities

Checked baggage First class Sleeper Standing passenger Travel
Travel
class

Scheduling

Bus
Bus
bunching Clock-face scheduling Headway On-time performance Public transport
Public transport
timetable Short turn

Politics

Airport
Airport
security Rail subsidies Security Transit district Transit police Transit-oriented development
Transit-oriented development
(TOD) Transportation authority

Other topics

Boarding Crush load Destination sign Hail and ride Prohibited activities Request stop Passenger
Passenger
load factor Transit map

v t e

Tourism

Types

Accessible Adventure Agritourism Alternative Atomic Birth Business Culinary

Enotourism

Cultural

Archaeological Bookstore Heritage

Militarism heritage

Literary

Tolkien

Music Pop-culture

Dark

Holocaust

Disaster Domestic Drug Ecotourism

Shark

Extreme Factory Tourism Garden Genealogy Geotourism Honeymoon Jihadi Jungle Justice LGBT Medical

Dental

Moon Nautical Rail Religious

Christian Halal Kosher

Rural Sacred Safaris Sex

Child sex Female sex

Slum Space Sports Stag party Suicide Sustainable Vacation Volunteer travel War Water Wellness Wildlife

Hospitality industry

Bed and breakfast Boutique hotel Conference and resort hotels Convention center Destination spa Front desk General manager Homestay Hospitality management studies Hospitality services Hostel Hotel Hotel
Hotel
manager Inn Island resort Motel Referral chain Resort Resort
Resort
town Restaurant Seaside resort Ski resort

Terminology

Campus tour Convention (meeting) Gift shop Grand Tour Holiday (vacation) Hypermobility Package tour Passport Perpetual traveler Road
Road
trip Roadside attraction Souvenir Staycation Sunday drive Tour guide Tour operator Tourism
Tourism
geography Tourism
Tourism
minister Tourism
Tourism
region Tourist attraction Tourist gateway Tourist trap Touron Transport Travel Travel
Travel
agency Travel
Travel
behavior Travel
Travel
document Travel
Travel
insurance Travel
Travel
literature Travel
Travel
medicine Travel
Travel
survey Travel
Travel
technology Travel
Travel
warning Travel
Travel
website Trip planner Visa Visitor center

Industry organizations, rankings and events

American Bus
Bus
Association American Hotel
Hotel
and Lodging Association American Hotel
Hotel
& Lodging Educational Institute BEST Education
Education
Network Caribbean Tourism
Tourism
Organization Destination marketing organization European Travel
Travel
Commission Historical archive on tourism South-East Asian Tourism
Tourism
Organisation Tourism
Tourism
Radio Travel
Travel
and Tourism
Tourism
Competitiveness Report Wikivoyage World Tourism
Tourism
Day World Tourism
Tourism
Organization World Tourism
Tourism
rankings World Travel
Travel
and Tourism
Tourism
Council World Travel
Travel
Monitor

Lists

Adjectival tourisms Attractions Bibliography Casino hotels Casinos Convention and exhibition centers Hotels Largest hotels in the world Motels Travel
Travel
magazines UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists World Heritage Sites by country

Category Commons Portal WikiProject

v t e

Supply chain
Supply chain
performance drivers

Facilities Information Inventory Pricing Sourcing Transportation

Authority control

GND: 4062901-6 N

.