Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training. It stands in contrast to both art music and traditional or "folk" music. Art music
Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is also disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences. The original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States. Although popular music sometimes is known as "pop music", the two terms are not interchangeable. Popular music
Popular music is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population, whereas pop music usually refers to a specific musical genre within popular music. Popular music
Popular music songs and pieces typically have easily singable melodies. The song structure of popular music commonly involves repetition of sections, with the verse and chorus or refrain repeating throughout the song and the bridge providing a contrasting and transitional section within a piece. In the 2000s, with songs and pieces available as digital sound files, it has become easier for music to spread from one country or region to another. Some popular music forms have become global, while others have a wide appeal within the culture of their origin. Through the mixture of musical genres, new popular music forms are created to reflect the ideals of a global culture. The examples of Africa, Indonesia, and the Middle East
Middle East show how Western pop music styles can blend with local musical traditions to create new hybrid styles.[clarification needed]
1 Definition 2 Form of Western popular music 3 Development in North America and Europe
3.1 Industry 3.2 Criticism
4 Global perspective
4.1 Africa 4.2 Asia
4.2.1 Indonesia 4.2.2 China 4.2.3 Middle East
5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links
Further information: Folk music
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The 19th century singer
"The most significant feature of the emergent popular music industry of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was the extent of its focus on the commodity form of sheet music". The availability of inexpensive, widely available sheet music versions of popular songs and instrumental music pieces made it possible for music to be disseminated to a wide audience of amateur, middle-class music-makers, who could play and sing popular music at home. Amateur music-making in the 19th century often centred around the piano, as this instrument could play melodies, chords and basslines, thus enabling a pianist to reproduce popular songs and pieces. In addition to the influence of sheet music, another factor was the increasing availability during the late 18th and early 19th century of public popular music performances in "pleasure gardens and dance halls, popular theatres and concert rooms". The early popular music performers worked hand-in-hand with the sheet music industry to promote popular sheet music. One of the early popular music performers to attain widespread popularity was a Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind, who toured the US in the mid-19th century. In addition to living room amateur music-making during the 19th century, more people began getting involved in music during this era by participating in amateur choirs, joining brass bands or playing in amateur orchestras. The centre of the music publishing industry in the US during the late 19th century was in New York's 'Tin Pan Alley' district. The Tin Pan Alley music publishers developed a new method for promoting sheet music: incessant promotion of new songs. One of the technological innovations that helped to spread popular music around the turn of the century was player pianos. A player piano could be used to record a skilled pianist's rendition of a piano piece. This recorded performance could be "played back" on another player piano. This allowed a larger number of music lovers to hear the new popular piano tunes. By the early 1900s, the big trends in popular music were the increasing popularity of vaudeville theaters and dance halls and a new invention—the gramophone player. The record industry grew very rapidly; "By 1920 there were almost 80 record companies in Britain, and almost 200 in the USA". The availability of records enabled a larger percentage of the population to hear the top singers and bands. Radio broadcasting of music, which began in the early 1920s, helped to spread popular songs to a huge audience, enabling a much larger proportion of the population to hear songs performed by professional singers and music ensembles, including individuals from lower income groups who previously would not have been able to afford concert tickets. Radio broadcasting increased the ability of songwriters, singers and bandleaders to become nationally known. Another factor which helped to disseminate popular music was the introduction of "talking pictures"—sound films—in the late 1920s, which also included music and songs. In the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s, there was a move towards consolidation in the recording industry, which led several major companies to dominate the record industry. In the 1950s and 1960s, the new invention of television began to play an increasingly important role in disseminating new popular music. Variety shows regularly showcased popular singers and bands. In the 1960s, the development of new technologies in recording, such as multitrack recorders gave sound engineers and record producers an increasingly important role in popular music. By using multitrack recording techniques, sound engineers could create new sounds and sound effects that were not possible using traditional "live" recording techniques, such as singers performing their own backup vocals or having lead guitarists play rhythm guitars behind their guitar solo. During the 1960s era of psychedelic music, the recording studio was used to create even more unusual sounds, in order to mimic the effect of taking hallucinogenic drugs, some songs used tapes of instruments played backwards or panned the music from one side to the other of the stereo image. In the 1970s, the trend towards consolidation in the recording industry continued to the point that the "... dominance was in the hands of five huge transnational organizations, three American-owned (WEA, RCA, CBS) and two European-owned companies (EMI, Polygram)".[according to whom?] In the 1990s, the consolidation trend took a new turn: inter-media consolidation. This trend saw music recording companies being consolidated with film, television, magazines, and other media companies, an approach which facilitated cross-marketing promotion between subsidiaries. For example, a record company's singing star could be cross-promoted by the conglomerate's television talk shows and magazine arms. The "introduction of digital equipment (mixing desks, synthesizers, samplers, sequencers)" in the 1990s resulted in what Grove Dictionary of Music dubbed the creation of "new sound worlds", as well as facilitating DIY music production by amateur musicians and "tiny independent record labels". In the 1990s, the availability of sound recording software and effects units software meant that an amateur indie band could record an album—which required a fully equipped recording studio in previous decades—using little more than a laptop and a good quality microphone. That said, the audio quality of modern recording studios still outstrips what an amateur can produce. Criticism Main article: Music journalist See also: Rockism and poptimism Global perspective In contrast to Western popular music, a genre of music that is popular outside of a Western nation, is categorized into World music. This label turns otherwise popular styles of music into an exotic and unknown category. The Western concept of 'World Music' homogenizes many different genres of popular music under one accessible term for Western audiences. New media technology has led urban music styles to filter into distant rural areas across the globe. The rural areas, in turn, are able to give feedback to the urban centers about the new styles of music. Urbanization, modernization, exposure to foreign music and mass media have contributed to hybrid urban pop styles. The hybrid styles have also found a space within Western popular music through the expressions of their national culture. Recipient cultures borrow elements from host cultures and alter the meaning and context found in the host culture. Many Western styles, in turn, have become international styles through multinational recording studios. Africa See also: African popular music
Senegalese rapper, Didier Awadi
Popular African music styles have stemmed from traditional
entertainment genres, rather than evolving from music used with
certain traditional ceremonies like weddings, births, or funerals.
African popular music
KRAS, also known as Heavy Metal Punk Machine, is an Indonesian heavy metal band
Iranian rock band Kiosk, live in 2007
Modernization of music in the Arab world involved borrowing inspiration from Turkish music and Western musical styles. The late Egyptian singer, Umm Kulthum, stated,
"We must respect ourselves and our art. The Indians have set a good example for us - they show great respect for themselves and their arts. Wherever they are, they wear their native dress and their music is known throughout the world. This is the right way."
She discussed this to explain why Egypt and the Arab world needed to
take pride in the popular music styles originating in their culture so
the styles were not lost in the modernization. Local musicians
learned Western instrumental styles to create their own popular styles
including their native languages and indigenous musical features.
Communities in throughout the Arab world place high value on their
indigenous musical identities while assimilating to new musical styles
from neighboring countries or mass media. Through the 1980s and
1990s, popular music has been seen as a problem for the Iranian
government because of the non-religious meanings within the music and
the bodily movements of dancing or headbanging. During this time
period, metal became a popular underground subculture through the
Middle East. Just like their Western counterparts, Middle Eastern
metal followers expressed their feelings of alienation. But their
thoughts came from war and social restrictions on youth.
In interviews of Iranian teenagers between 1990 and 2004, the youth
overall preferred Western popular music, even though it was banned by
the government. Iranian underground rock bands are composed of
members who are young, urban-minded, educated, relatively well-off,
and global beings. Iranian rock is described by the traits that these
band members possess. The youth who take part in underground music
List of popular music performers
List of popular music genres
^ a b c Popular Music. (2015). Funk & Wagnalls New World dedicace
l fadda Aloumari et Hamane Encyclopedia
^ a b c Middleton, Richard; Manuel, Peter (2001). "Popular Music".
Grove Music Online. Oxford Index. ISBN 9781561592630.
^ "Definition of "popular music" Collins English Dictionary".
www.collinsdictionary.com. Retrieved 2015-11-15.
^ a b Arnold, Denis (1983). The New Oxford Companion Music, Volume 1:
A-J. Oxford University Press. p. 111.
^ a b Arnold, Denis (1983). The New Oxford Companion to Music, Volume
2: K-Z. Oxford University Press. p. 1467.
^ a b c Tagg, Philip (1982). "Analysing popular music: theory, method
and practice". Popular Music. doi:10.1017/S0261143000001227.
^ Lamb, Bill. "Pop Music Defined". About Entertainment. About.com.
Retrieved 13 November 2015.
^ Allen, Robert. "Popular music". Pocket Fowler's Modern English
^ Laurie, Timothy (2014). "Music Genre As Method". Cultural Studies
Review. 20 (2), pp. 283-292.
^ a b c d e Sadie, Stanley, ed. (2001). "Popular Music: Form". The New
Grove Dictionary of Music
T.W. Adorno with G. Simpson: ‘On Popular Music’, Studies in
Philosophy and Social Science, ix (1941), 17–48
R. Iwaschkin: Popular Music: a Reference Guide (New York, 1986)
P. Hardy and D. Laing: The Faber Companion to 20th-Century Popular
Music (London, 1990/R)
Larry Freeman: The
Library resources about Popular music
Resources in your library Resources in other libraries
Genres of popular music - Interactive relationships diagram
Famous Music Videos - Music Video Databases I have not seen a thing of
my favorite song base - YouTube, Google Video, MySpace TV, MetaCafe,
DailyMotion, Veoh, Current.com, ClipFish.de, MyVideo.de, Break.com and
The 1950s-2000's Week-By-Week - Looks at pop music/albums/radio and
music news through these decades.
Pop Culture Madness Features the most requested pop songs 1920s
The Daily Vault music reviews
Yale Music Library Guide to Pop Music Research
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Popular music Pop music
General forms of Western popular music
Adult contemporary Avant-pop Christmas music Contemporary Christian music Crossover music Easy listening Orchestral pop Traditional
Country Folk (contemporary) Hip hop Jazz R&B Pop Rock
Car song Cover version Illustrated song Jingle Novelty song Pocket symphony Sentimental ballad Slow jam Standard Three-minute
Topics specific to pop music style
Subgenres (by style)
Cultural impact of ...
The Beach Boys The Beatles Madonna Elvis Presley
Best-selling albums Best-selling artists
Best-selling singles Genres Honorific nicknames Glossary of terms
Arabic Assyrian Chinese
Mandarin Taiwanese Cantopop Hong Kong English pop
Indian Iranian Japanese Korean
Pakistani Indonesian Lao Malaysian Philippine Thai Vietnamese Turkish
Popular music Pop music
Azerbaijani British Europop
Austropop French Greek Hungarian Italian Nederpop Serbian Scandipop
Russian SFR Yugoslavia Ukraine
v t e
History of music
Prehistoric Ancient Religious
Medieval Renaissance Baroque Classical period Romantic Impressionist 20th century Contemporary 21st century
Heavy metal Punk rock Alternative
Band (rock and pop)
Backup band All-female band Rhythm section
Big band Choir Concert band Conducting Disc jockey Musician Orchestra Singing
Lead vocalist Backing vocalist
Form Genre Notation Composer Improvisation Songwriter Lyrics Song
Education and study
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Musicology Ethnomusicology Music archaeology Ecomusicology
A-side and B-side Extended play
Compilation Live Remix
Music technology (electric)
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