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Pope
Pope
Urban II (Latin: Urbanus II; c. 1042 – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery,[1][A] was Pope
Pope
from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099. Before his papacy he was the Bishop of Ostia under the name Eudes.[2] He is best known for initiating the First Crusade
First Crusade
(1096–99) and setting up the modern-day Roman Curia
Roman Curia
in the manner of a royal ecclesiastical court to help run the Church.[3] He promised forgiveness and pardon for all of the sins of those who would fight to reclaim the holy land, and free the eastern churches.[4] Pope
Pope
Urban II was a native of France. He was a descendant of a noble family in Châtillon-sur-Marne.[5][6] Reims was the nearby cathedral school that Urban, at that time Eudes, began his studies at 1050.[7]

Contents

1 Bishop of Ostia 2 Papacy

2.1 Struggle for authority 2.2 First Crusade 2.3 Sicily

3 Veneration 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 References

6.1 Bibliography

7 External links

Bishop of Ostia[edit] Urban, baptized Eudes (Odo), was born to a family of Châtillon-sur-Marne.[8][9] He was prior of the abbey of Cluny,[8] later Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII
named him cardinal-bishop of Ostia c. 1080. He was one of the most prominent and active supporters of the Gregorian reforms, especially as legate in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1084. He was among the four whom Gregory VII nominated as papabile (possible successors). Desiderius, the abbot of Monte Cassino, was chosen to follow Gregory in 1085 but, after his short reign as Victor III, Odo was elected by acclamation at a small meeting of cardinals and other prelates held in Terracina
Terracina
in March 1088. Papacy[edit] Struggle for authority[edit] Main articles: Investiture Controversy, Gregorian Reforms, Anselm of Canterbury, and Bertrade de Montfort From the outset, Urban had to reckon with the presence of Guibert, the former bishop of Ravenna who held Rome
Rome
as the antipope "Clement III". Gregory had repeatedly clashed with the emperor Henry IV over papal authority. Despite the Walk to Canossa, Gregory had backed the rebel Duke of Swabia and again excommunicated the emperor. Henry finally took Rome
Rome
in 1084 and installed Clement III in his place.

A 19th-century stained-glass depiction of Urban receiving St Anselm, exiled from England by William the Red
William the Red
amid the Investiture Controversy

Urban took up the policies of Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII
and, while pursuing them with determination, showed greater flexibility and diplomatic finesse. Usually kept away from Rome,[10] Urban toured northern Italy and France. A series of well-attended synods held in Rome, Amalfi, Benevento, and Troia supported him in renewed declarations against simony, lay investitures, clerical marriages (partly via the cullagium tax), and the emperor and his antipope. He facilitated the marriage of Matilda, countess of Tuscany, with Welf II, duke of Bavaria. He supported the rebellion of Prince Conrad against his father and receiving the office of the groom from him at Cremona
Cremona
in 1095.[11] While there, he helped arrange the marriage between Conrad and Maximilla, the daughter of Count Roger of Sicily, which occurred later that year at Pisa; her large dowry helped finance Conrad's continued campaigns.[11] The Empress Adelaide was encouraged in her charges of sexual coercion against her husband. He supported the theological and ecclesiastical work of Anselm, negotiating a solution to the cleric's impasse with King William II of England and finally receiving England's support against the Imperial pope in Rome. Urban maintained vigorous support for his predecessors' reforms, however, and did not shy from supporting Anselm when the new archbishop of Canterbury fled England. Likewise, despite the importance of French support for his cause, he upheld his legate Hugh of Die's excommunication of King Philip over his doubly bigamous marriage with Bertrade de Montfort, wife of the Count of Anjou. (The ban was repeatedly lifted and reimposed as the king promised to forswear her and then repeatedly returned to her. A public penance in 1104 ended the controversy,[12] although Bertrade remained active in attempting to see her sons succeed Philip instead of Louis.[13]) First Crusade[edit]

Statue of Urban II in Clermont-Ferrand

Main article: First Crusade

This article contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally-worded summary with appropriate citations. Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote. (September 2016)

The Pope's movement took its first public shape at the Council of Piacenza, where, in March 1095,[14] Urban II received an ambassador from the Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
asking for help against Muslim (Seljuk) Turks who had taken over most of formerly Byzantine Anatolia.[15] A great council met, attended by numerous Italian, Burgundian, and French bishops in such vast numbers it had to be held in the open air outside[citation needed] the city of Clermont. Though the Council of Clermont
Council of Clermont
held in November of the same year was primarily focused on reforms within the church hierarchy, Urban II gave a speech on 27 November 1095 to a broader audience.[16] Urban II's sermon proved highly effective, as he summoned the attending nobility and the people to wrest the Holy Land, and the eastern churches generally from the control of the Seljuk Turks.[17] There exists no exact transcription of the speech that Urban delivered at the Council of Clermont
Council of Clermont
on 27 November 1095. The five extant versions of the speech were written down some time later, and they differ widely from one another.[18] All versions of the speech except that by Fulcher of Chartres were probably influenced by the chronicle account of the First Crusade
First Crusade
called the Gesta Francorum (written c. 1101), which includes a version of it.[19] Fulcher of Chartres was present at the Council, though he did not start writing his history of the crusade, including a version of the speech until c. 1101.[20] Robert the Monk
Robert the Monk
may have been present,[21] but his version dates from about 1106. The five versions of Urban's speech reflect much more clearly what later authors thought Urban II should have said to launch the First Crusade
First Crusade
than what Urban II himself actually did say. As a better means of evaluating Urban's true motivations in calling for a crusade to the Holy Lands, there are four extant letters written by Pope
Pope
Urban II himself: one to the Flemish (dated December 1095);[22] one to the Bolognese (dated September 1096); one to Vallombrosa
Vallombrosa
(dated October 1096); and one to the counts of Catalonia
Catalonia
(dated either 1089 or 1096–1099). However, whereas the three former letters were concerned with rallying popular support for← and establishing the objectives of the Crusades, his letters to the Catalonian lords instead beseeched them to continue the fight against the Moors, assuring them that doing so would offer the same divine rewards as a conflict against the Seljuks.[23] It is Urban II's own letters, rather than the paraphrased versions of his speech at Clermont, that reveal his actual thinking about crusading. Nevertheless, the versions of the speech have had a great influence on popular conceptions and misconceptions about the Crusades, so it is worth comparing the five composed speeches to Urban's actual words. Fulcher of Chartres has Urban say this:

I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to perse all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends. I say this to those who are present, it is meant also for those who are absent. Moreover, Christ commands it.[24]

The chronicler Robert the Monk
Robert the Monk
put this into the mouth of Urban II:

... this land which you inhabit, shut in on all sides by the seas and surrounded by the mountain peaks, is too narrow for your large population; nor does it abound in wealth; and it furnishes scarcely food enough for its cultivators. Hence it is that you murder one another, that you wage war, and that frequently you perish by mutual wounds. Let therefore hatred depart from among you, let your quarrels end, let wars cease, and let all dissensions and controversies slumber. Enter upon the road to the Holy Sepulchre; wrest that land from the wicked race, and subject it to yourselves ... God has conferred upon you above all nations great glory in arms. Accordingly undertake this journey for the remission of your sins, with the assurance of the imperishable glory of the Kingdom of Heaven.

Robert continued:

When Pope
Pope
Urban had said these ... things in his urbane discourse, he so influenced to one purpose the desires of all who were present, that they cried out "It is the will of God! It is the will of God!". When the venerable Roman pontiff heard that, [he] said: "Most beloved brethren, today is manifest in you what the Lord says in the Gospel, 'Where two or three are gathered together in my name there am I in the midst of them.' Unless the Lord God had been present in your spirits, all of you would not have uttered the same cry. For, although the cry issued from numerous mouths, yet the origin of the cry was one. Therefore I say to you that God, who implanted this in your breasts, has drawn it forth from you. Let this then be your war-cry in combats, because this word is given to you by God. When an armed attack is made upon the enemy, let this one cry be raised by all the soldiers of God: It is the will of God! It is the will of God!"[25]

Pope
Pope
Urban II preaching the First Crusade
First Crusade
at the Council of Clermont

Within Fulcher of Chartres account of pope Urban’s speech there was a promise of remission of sins for whoever took part in the crusade.

All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested. O what a disgrace if such a despised and base race, which worships demons, should conquer a people which has the faith of omnipotent God and is made glorious with the name of Christ! With what reproaches will the Lord overwhelm us if you do not aid those who, with us, profess the Christian religion! Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have been begun long ago. Let those who for a long time, have been robbers, now become knights. Let those who have been fighting against their brothers and relatives now fight in a proper way against the barbarians. Let those who have been serving as mercenaries for small pay now obtain the eternal reward. Let those who have been wearing themselves out in both body and soul now work for a double honor. Behold! on this side will be the sorrowful and poor, on that, the rich; on this side, the enemies of the Lord, on that, his friends. Let those who go not put off the journey, but rent their lands and collect money for their expenses; and as soon as winter is over and spring comes, let them eagerly set out on the way with God as their guide.[24]

It is disputed whether the famous slogan "God wills it" or "It is the will of God" (deus vult in Latin, Dieu le veut in French) in fact was established as a rallying cry during the council. While Robert the Monk
Monk
says so,[26] it is also possible that the slogan was created as a catchy propaganda motto afterward. Urban II's own letter to the Flemish confirms that he granted "remission of all their sins" to those undertaking the enterprise to liberate the eastern churches.[4] One notable contrast with the speeches recorded by Robert the Monk, Guibert of Nogent and Baldric of Dol is the lesser emphasis on Jerusalem itself, which Urban only once mentions as his own focus of concern: in the letter to the Flemish he writes, "they [the Turks] have seized the Holy City of Christ, embellished by his passion and resurrection, and blasphemy to say—have sold her and her churches into abominable slavery." In the letters to Bologna
Bologna
and Vallombrosa
Vallombrosa
he refers to the crusaders' desire to set out for Jerusalem rather than to his own desire that Jerusalem be freed from Muslim rule. Urban II refers to liberating the church as a whole or the eastern churches generally rather than to reconquering Jerusalem itself. The phrases used are "churches of God in the eastern region" and "the eastern churches" (to the Flemish), "liberation of the Church" (to Bologna), "liberating Christianity [Lat. Christianitatis]" (to Vallombrosa), and "the Asian church" (to the Catalan counts). Coincidentally or not, Fulcher of Chartres's version of Urban's speech makes no explicit reference to Jerusalem. Rather it more generally refers to aiding the crusaders' Christian "brothers of the eastern shore," and to their loss of Asia Minor to the Turks.[27] The most important effect of the First Crusade
First Crusade
for Urban himself was the removal of Clement III from Rome
Rome
in 1097 by one of the French armies.[28] His restoration there was supported by Matilda of Tuscany.[29] Urban II died on 29 July 1099, fourteen days after the fall of Jerusalem to the Crusaders, but before news of the event had reached Italy; his successor was Pope
Pope
Paschal II. Sicily[edit] Urban received vital support in his conflict with the Byzantine Empire, Romans and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from the Norman of Campania and Sicily. In return he granted Roger I the freedom to appoint bishops as a right of ("lay investiture"), to collect Church revenues before forwarding to the papacy, and the right to sit in judgment on ecclesiastical questions.[30] Roger I virtually became a legate of the Pope
Pope
within Sicily.[31] In 1098 these were extraordinary prerogatives that Popes were withholding from temporal sovereigns elsewhere in Europe and later to led to bitter confrontations with Roger's Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
heirs. Veneration[edit] Pope
Pope
Urban was beatified in 1881 by Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII
with his feast day on 29 July.[32][33] See also[edit]

House of Châtillon House of Natoli Beauvais Cathedral Milo of Nanteuil Concordat of Worms Gregorian Reforms Investiture Controversy

Footnotes[edit]

^ Alternatively, Otto, Odo, or Eudes.

References[edit]

^ Celli-Fraentzel 1932, p. 97. ^ Becker & 1:24–90. ^ McBrien 2000, p. 182. ^ a b Peters 1971, p. 16. ^ Key Figures in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia - Page 641 ^ Kleinhenz,Ch.Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia ^ Gabriele, p. 796. ^ a b McBrien 2000, p. 190. ^ Kleinhenz 2004, p. 1112. ^ Peters 1971, p. 33. ^ a b Robinson, I.S., Henry IV of Germany, 1056–1106, p. 291 . ^ Philip I of France
Philip I of France
and Bertrade, Dissolving Royal Marriages: A Documentary History, 860–1600, ed. David d'Avray, (Cambridge University Press, 2014), 47. ^ Orderic Vitalis. ^ The synod took place on 1–7 March 1095; the Pope
Pope
stayed in Piacenza until the second week in April: P. Jaffé, Regesta pontificum Romanorum, editio secunda, I (Leipzig 1885), p. 677. ^ Peters 1971, p. xiv. ^ Peters 1971, p. 1. ^ Peters 1971, p. xvi, 1-15. ^ Peters 1971, p. 1-15. ^ Peters 1971, p. 2-10. ^ Peters 1971, p. 23. ^ Peters 1971, p. 2. ^ Peters 1971, p. 15-16. ^ H.E.J. Cowdrey, " Pope
Pope
Urban II's Preaching of the First Crusade," History, 55 (1970), p. 185-7. ^ a b Fulcher of Chartres' account of Urban's speech, Urban II: Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095, Five versions of the Speech (available as part of the Internet Medieval Sourcebook). ^ Robert the Monk's account of Urban's speech, Urban II: Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095, Five versions of the Speech (available as part of the Internet Medieval Sourcebook). ^ Peters 1971, p. xix. ^ Quotes from Urban II's letters taken from "Crusades, Idea and Reality, 1095–1274"; Documents of Medieval History 4; eds. Louise and Johnathan Riley-Smith, London 1981, 37–40. ^ Peters 1971, p. 33-34. ^ Peters 1971, p. 34. ^ Loud 2013, p. 231-232. ^ Matthew 1992, p. 28. ^ McBrien 2000, p. 192. ^ http://saints.sqpn.com/saintu05.htm

Bibliography[edit]

Becker, Alfons (1988). Papst Urban II. (1088-1099) (in German). Stuttgart: A. Hiersemann.  Celli-Fraentzel, Anna (January 1932). "Contemporary Reports on the Mediaeval Roman Climate". Speculum. 7 (1).  Crozet, R. (1937). "Le voyage d'Urbain II et ses arrangements avec le clergé de France (1095-1096)" : Revue historique 179 (1937) 271-310. Gossman, Francis Joseph (1960. Pope
Pope
Urban II and Canon Law (The Catholic University of America Canon Law Studies 403) Washington 1960. Loud, Graham (2013). The Age of Robert Guiscard: Southern Italy and the Northern Conquest. Routledge.  [a reedition of Pearson Educational Ltd. 2000] Matthew, Donald (1992). The Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge University Press.  McBrien, Robert P. (2000). Lives of the Popes. HarperCollins.  Peters, Edward, ed. (1971). The First Crusade. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812210174.  Rubenstein, Jay (2011). Armies of Heaven: The First Crusade
First Crusade
and the Quest for Apocalypse. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01929-3.  Kleinhenz, Christopher (2004). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.  Somerville, Robert (1970). "The French Councils of Pope
Pope
Urban II: Some Basic Considérations," Annuarium historiae conciliorum 2 (1970) 56-65. Somerville, Robert (1974). "The Council of Clermont
Council of Clermont
(1095), and Latin Christian Society". Archivum Historiae Pontificiae. 12: 55–90. JSTOR 23563638. Retrieved 2017-01-09. (Registration required (help)). </ Somerville, Robert (2011). Pope
Pope
Urban II's Council of Piacenza. OUP Oxford. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-19-925859-8. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pope
Pope
Urban II.

Five versions of his speech for the First Crusade
First Crusade
from Medieval Sourcebook. Medieval Lands Project on Eudes de Châtillon, Bishop of Ostia, Pope Urban II, the son of Milon the seigneur of Châtillon in the 11th century Urban's call for the 1095 crusade " Pope
Pope
Urban II". Repertorium "Historical Sources of the German Middle Ages" (Geschichtsquellen des deutschen Mittelalters).  Literature by and about Pope
Pope
Urban II in the German National Library catalogue Works by and about Pope
Pope
Urban II in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek (German Digital Library) Publications about Urban II in the OPAC of the Regesta Imperii Gabriele, M. (2012, December 11). The Last Carolingian Exegete: Pope Urban II, the Weight of Tradition, and Christian Reconquest. Retrieved November 24, 2017, from https://doi-org.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/10.1017/S0009640712001904

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of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 152552697 LCCN: n84187025 ISNI: 0000 0001 0225 3069 GND: 118763873 SUDOC: 028062043 BNF: cb11997244k (data) NDL: 001180

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