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Pope
Pope
Pius II (Latin: Pius PP. II, Italian: Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini
Piccolomini
(Latin: Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464) was Pope
Pope
from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464. He was born at Corsignano
Corsignano
in the Sienese territory of a noble but impoverished family. His longest and most enduring work is the story of his life, the Commentaries, which is the only autobiography ever written by a reigning pope.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Election to Papacy 3 Papal policies and initiatives 4 Slavery 5 Illness and death 6 Reputation and legacy 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Notes 8.2 Citations

9 Bibliography 10 External links

Early life[edit] Aeneas was born to Silvio, a soldier and member of the House of Piccolomini, and Vittoria Forteguerri, who had 18 children including several twins, though most died at a young age.[1] He worked with his father in the fields for some years and at age 18 left to study at the universities of Siena
Siena
and Florence. He settled in the former city as a teacher, but in 1431 accepted the post of secretary to Domenico Capranica, bishop of Fermo, then on his way to the Council of Basel (1431–39). Capranica was protesting against the new Pope
Pope
Eugene IV's refusal of a cardinalate for him, which had been designated by Pope Martin V. Arriving at Basel
Basel
after enduring a stormy voyage to Genoa and then a trip across the Alps, he successively served Capranica, who ran short of money, and then other masters.[2] In 1435 he was sent by Cardinal Albergati, Eugenius IV's legate at the council, on a secret mission to Scotland, the object of which is variously related even by himself.[3] He visited England as well as Scotland, underwent many perils and vicissitudes in both countries, and left an account of each. The journey to Scotland
Scotland
proved so tempestuous that Piccolomini
Piccolomini
swore that he would walk barefoot to the nearest shrine of Our Lady from their landing port. This proved to be Dunbar; the nearest shrine was 10 miles distant at Whitekirk. The journey through the ice and snow left Aeneas afflicted with pain in his legs for the rest of his life. Only when he arrived at Newcastle, he felt he had returned to "a civilised part of the world and the inhabitable face of the Earth", Scotland
Scotland
and the far north of England being "wild, bare and never visited by the sun in winter".[4] In Scotland, he fathered a child but it died.[5] Upon his return to Basel, Aeneas sided actively with the council in its conflict with the Pope, and, although still a layman, eventually obtained a share in the direction of its affairs. He supported the creation of the Antipope Felix V
Antipope Felix V
(Amadeus, Duke of Savoy) and participated in his coronation. Aeneas then was sent to Strasbourg where he sired a child with a Breton woman called Elizabeth. The baby died 14 months later.[5] He then withdrew to the court of Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
Emperor
Emperor
Frederick III in Vienna. He had been crowned imperial poet laureate in 1442, and he obtained the patronage of the emperor's chancellor, Kaspar Schlick. Some identify the love adventure at Siena that Aeneas related in his romance The Tale of the Two Lovers
The Tale of the Two Lovers
with an escapade of the chancellor. Aeneas' character had hitherto been that of an easy and democratic-minded man of the world with no pretense to strictness in morals or consistency in politics. He now began to be more regular in the former respect, and in the latter adopted a decided line by making his peace between the Empire and Rome.[citation needed] Being sent on a mission to Rome in 1445, with the ostensible object of inducing Pope Eugene to convoke a new council, he was absolved from ecclesiastical censures and returned to Germany
Germany
under an engagement to assist the Pope. This he did most effectually by the diplomatic dexterity with which he smoothed away differences between the papal court of Rome and the German imperial electors. He played a leading role in concluding a compromise in 1447 by which the dying Pope
Pope
Eugene accepted the reconciliation tendered by the German princes. As a result, the council and the antipope were left without support. He had already taken orders, and one of the first acts of Pope
Pope
Eugene's successor, Pope
Pope
Nicholas V (1447–1455), was to make him Bishop of Trieste. He later served as Bishop of Siena. In 1450 Aeneas was sent as ambassador by the Emperor
Emperor
Frederick III to negotiate his marriage with Princess Eleonore of Portugal. In 1451 he undertook a mission to Bohemia
Bohemia
and concluded a satisfactory arrangement with the Hussite
Hussite
leader George of Poděbrady. In 1452 he accompanied Frederick III to Rome, where Frederick wedded Eleanor and was crowned emperor by the pope. In August 1455 Aeneas again arrived in Rome on an embassy to proffer the obedience of Germany
Germany
to the new pope, Calixtus III. He brought strong recommendations from emperor Frederick and Ladislaus V of Hungary (also King of Bohemia) for his nomination to the cardinalate, but delays arose from the Pope's resolution to promote his own nephews first, and he did not attain the object of his ambition until December of the following year. He did acquire temporarily the bishopric of Warmia
Warmia
(Ermeland). Election to Papacy[edit] Main article: Papal conclave, 1458

Papal styles of Pope
Pope
Pius II

Reference style His Holiness

Spoken style Your Holiness

Religious style Holy Father

Calixtus III died on 6 August 1458. On 10 August, the cardinals entered into a papal conclave. According to Aeneas' account, the wealthy cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville
Guillaume d'Estouteville
of Rouen, though a Frenchman and of apparently exceptionable character, seemed certain to be elected. In a passage of his own history of his times, long excerpted from that work and printed clandestinely in the Conclavi de' Pontifici Romani, Aeneas explained how he frustrated the ambitions of d'Estouteville. It seemed appropriate to Aeneas that the election should fall upon himself: although the sacred college included a few men of higher moral standards, he believed that his abilities made him most worthy of the papal tiara. It was the peculiar faculty of Aeneas to accommodate himself perfectly to whatever position he might be called upon to occupy, and he now believed that he could exploit this adaptability to assume the papacy with appropriate success and personal character. After a minimum of intrigue among the cardinals, he was able to secure enough votes for his candidacy after the second ballot to be elected unanimously. He was crowned Pope
Pope
on 3 September 1458. According to Michael de la Bédoyère, "The new Pope, Pius II, was expected to inaugurate an even more liberal and paganised era in the Vatican. He had led the dissipated life of a gentleman of the day and complained of the difficulty of practicing continency, a difficulty he did not surmount. But he had reformed and his reign was noted for his interest in the Crusade and his insistence that the doctrine holding General Councils of the Church to be superior to the Pope
Pope
was heretical."[6] Papal policies and initiatives[edit]

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After allying himself with Ferdinand, the Aragonese claimant to the throne of Naples, his next important act was to convene a congress of the representatives of Christian princes at Mantua
Mantua
for joint action against the Turks. On 26 September 1459 he called for a new crusade against the Ottomans and on 14 January 1460 he proclaimed the official crusade that was to last for three years. His long progress to the place of assembly resembled a triumphal procession, and the Council of Mantua
Mantua
of 1459, a complete failure as regards its ostensible object of mounting a crusade, at least showed that the impotence of Christendom was not owing to the Pope. The Pope
Pope
did, however, influence Vlad III Dracula — whom the Pope
Pope
held in high regard — in starting a war against Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
of Turkey.[7] This conflict at its peak involved the Wallachians trying to assassinate the Sultan (see The Night Attack). On his return from the congress, Pius II spent a considerable time in his native district of Siena, where he was joined by his erstwhile host in Mantua
Mantua
Ludovico Gonzaga. Pius described his delight with country life in very pleasing language. Passages such as those and others where he marvels at landscapes and other natural beauties, or stories about his dog Musetta, were to be expurged from the first edition of his Commentaries published in 1584 as embarrassingly unfitting, coming from the pen of a Pope.[8] He was recalled to Rome by the disturbances occasioned by Tiburzio di Maso, who was ultimately seized and executed. In the struggle for the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
between the supporters of the House of Aragon
Aragon
and the House of Anjou, the Papal States
Papal States
were at this time troubled by rebellious barons and marauding condottieri, whom he gradually, though momentarily, quelled. The Neapolitan War was also concluded by the success of the Pope's ally the Aragonese Ferdinand. In particular, the Pope
Pope
engaged for most of his reign in what looked like a personal war against Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, with the result of the almost complete submission of that condottiero. Pius II also tried mediation in the Thirteen Years' War of 1454–66 between Poland
Poland
and the Teutonic Knights, but, when he failed to achieve success, cast an anathema over Polish and Prussians both. Pius II was also engaged in a series of disputes with the Bohemian King George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady
and the Sigismund of Austria (who was excommunicated for having arrested Nicholas of Cusa, Bishop of Brixen). In July 1461, Pius II canonized Saint Catherine of Siena, and in October of the same year he gained what at first appeared to be a brilliant success by inducing the new King of France, Louis XI, to abolish the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, by which the Pope's authority in France had been grievously impaired. But Louis XI had expected that Pius II would in return espouse the French cause in Naples, and when he found himself disappointed he virtually re-established the Pragmatic Sanction by royal ordinances. Pius II built a fortress in Tivoli called Rocca Pia in 1461. In September 1462, he confirmed the Diocese of Laibach, established in December 1462 by Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor.

Monument of Pius II located in Otočac, Croatia

The crusade for which the Congress of Mantua
Mantua
had been convoked made no progress. In November 1463, Pope
Pope
Pius II tried to organize the crusade against the Ottomans, similar to what Pope
Pope
Nicholas V and Pope Calixtus III had tried to do before him. Pius II invited all the Christian nobility to join, and the Venetians immediately answered the appeal. So did George Kastriot Skanderbeg the leader of Albanian resistance, who on 27 November 1463, declared war on the Ottomans and attacked their forces near Ohrid. Pius II's planned crusade envisioned assembling 20,000 soldiers in Taranto, while another 20,000 would be gathered by Skanderbeg. They would have been marshaled in Durazzo under Skanderbeg's leadership and would have formed the central front against the Ottomans. The Pope
Pope
did his best: he addressed an eloquent letter to the Emperor
Emperor
of Turkey
Turkey
Mehmet II
Mehmet II
urging him to become a Christian, a letter that probably never was sent. However, there are some important historians like Prof. Dr. Halil Inalcik[9] who believes that the mentioned letter was sent to the Sublime Porte. Not surprisingly, if it was delivered, this invitation was not successful. A public ceremony was staged to receive the relics of the head of Saint Andrew
Saint Andrew
when it was brought from the East to Rome. Pius II succeeded in reconciling the Emperor
Emperor
and the King of Hungary and derived great encouragement as well as pecuniary advantage from the discovery of mines of alum in the papal territory at Tolfa. But France was estranged; the Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy
broke his positive promises; Milan was engrossed with the attempt to seize Genoa; Florence cynically advised the Pope
Pope
to let the Turks and the Venetians wear each other out. Pius II was unaware he was nearing his end, and his malady probably prompted the feverish impatience with which on 18 June 1464 he assumed the cross and departed for Ancona
Ancona
to conduct the crusade in person. Slavery[edit] Pius condemned slavery of newly baptized Christians as a "great crime" in an address of 1462 to the local ruler of the Canary Islands.[10] Pius instructed bishops to impose penalties on transgressors.[11] Pius did not condemn the concept of trading in slaves, only the enslavement of the recently baptised, who represented a very small minority of those captured and taken to Portugal.[12] Pope
Pope
Urban VIII, in his bull dated 22 April 1639, described these grave warnings of Pius (7 October 1462, Apud Raynaldum in Annalibus Ecclesiasticis ad ann n.42) as relating to "neophytes".[13] According to British diplomatic papers, Pius' letter was addressed to Bishop Rubeira and confirms Urban's observation that the condemnation relates to new converts being enslaved.[14] Illness and death[edit] In spite of suffering from a fever, Pope
Pope
Pius II left Rome for Ancona in the hope of increasing the morale of the crusading army. However, the crusading army melted away at Ancona
Ancona
for want of transport, and when at last the Venetian fleet arrived, the dying Pope
Pope
could only view it from a window. He died two days later, on 14 August 1464, and was succeeded by Pope
Pope
Paul II. Pius II's body was interred in the church of Sant'Andrea della Valle
Sant'Andrea della Valle
in Rome, while an empty cenotaph was built in St. Peter's Basilica. Later, the cenotaph was moved to Sant'Andrea as well. Reputation and legacy[edit]

One of the many frescoes of Pius II located in the 'Piccolomini library' in the Duomo in Siena

Pius II was one of the most prominent authors of his period. His most important and longest work is his autobiography Commentaries in 13 books, first published in 1584 by Cardinal Francesco Bandini Piccolomini, a distant relative. Piccolomini
Piccolomini
altered it to some extent, removing words, phrases and whole passages that were unflattering to his relative. Piccolomini
Piccolomini
published it under the name of scribe Gobellinus, who was then misattributed as the author, a natural mistake because Pius II chose to write Commentaries from the third-person perspective. Pius II was greatly admired as a poet by his contemporaries, but his reputation in belles lettres rests principally upon his The Tale of the Two Lovers, which continues to be read to this day, partly from its truth to nature, and partly from the singularity of an erotic novel being written by a future Pope. He also composed some comedies, one of which (titled Chrysis) alone is extant. All of these works are in Latin. Pius II was the author of numerous erotic poems.[15] However, such scandalous material was written before his election and a deep personal change.[16][17] His Epistles, which were collected by himself, are also an important source of historical information. The most valuable of his minor historical writings are his histories of Bohemia
Bohemia
and of the Emperor Frederick III, the latter partly autobiographical. He sketched biographical treatises on Europe
Europe
and Asia, and in early and middle life produced numerous tracts on the political and theological controversies of his day, as well as on ethical subjects. The pontiff even wrote an exhaustive refutation of Islam.[18][19] Pius was not an eminent scholar. His Latin
Latin
was fluent,[20] but he knew little Greek. Still, his writings have many good qualities. Pope
Pope
Pius II inaugurated an unusual urban project, perhaps the first city planning exercise in modern Europe. He refurbished his home town of Corsignano
Corsignano
(province of Siena, Tuscany) and renamed it Pienza, after himself. A cathedral and palaces were built in the best style of the day to decorate the city.[21] They survive to this day. See also[edit]

Cardinals created by Pius II Gregory of Heimburg, secretary to Pius II Pope
Pope
Pius III, nephew of Pius II Bishops of Warmia Pienza List of sexually active Popes

References[edit] Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

^ Mémoires d'un Pape de la Renaissance. Les Commentarii de Pie II, Ivan Cloutas and Vito Castiglione Minischetti, ed., Tallandier, 2001, p. 43. ^ Mémoires, pp. 44, 46–47. ^ In his Commentaries, he briefly mentions that he was sent to Scotland
Scotland
"to help a prelate come back into the King's favour" and later mentions that once in the presence of the King (James I) he was granted everything he had come to Scotland
Scotland
for. Mémoires, pp. 49-50. ^ Mémoires, p. 53. ^ a b Nigel Cawthorne (1996). "Sex Lives of the Popes". Prion. p. 154.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Michael de la Bedoyere, The Meddlesome Friar
Friar
and the Wayward Pope, p. 59-60 ^ Dracula: Prince of many faces – His life and his times p. 129 ^ Mémoires d'un Pape de la Renaissance. Les Commentarii de Pie II, p. 8. ^ "İnalcık: Fatih'i Hıristiyan yapmak istedi". NTV. 14 November 2009.  ^ "The Historical encyclopedia of world slavery", Juan Manuel de le Serna, p. 153. ^ "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", P. 281 ^ "The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440–1870", Hugh Thomas, p. 72, Picador, 1997, ISBN 0-330-35437-X, see also "Slavery and the Catholic Church", John Francis Maxwell, p. 52, Barry Rose Publishers, 1975 ^ "The Catholic Tradition of the Law of Nations", p. 425 ^ "British and foreign state papers", p. 494 ^ John Julius Norwich, Absolute Monarchs, p. 254. Quote: "For the next three years he worked in the royal chancery in Vienna, turning out in his spare time not only a quantity of mildly pornographic poetry but also a novel in much the same vein, Lucretia and Euryalus, celebrating the amorous adventures of his friend, the Chancellor Caspar Schlick." ^ John Julius Norwich, Absolute Monarchs, p. 254. Quote: "But such an existence could not continue indefinitely, and in 1445 Aeneas's life underwent a dramatic change. First, he broke with the antipope and was formally reconciled with Eugenius IV; then, in March 1446, he was ordained a priest. Thereafter he was a genuinely reformed character.." ^ Charles A. Coulombe, Vicars of Christ, p. 324. Quote: "Whenever chided with his past immoral life and writings, he would reply, 'Ignore Aeneas, but listen to Pius.'" ^ John Julius Norwich, Absolute Monarchs, p. 255. Quote: "If he could not defeat Sultan Mehmet in battle, perhaps he could persuade him by force of reason to see the error of his ways. In 1461 he drafted an extraordinary letter to the sultan in which he included a detailed refutation of the teachings of the Koran, an equally thorough exposition of the Christian faith, and a final appeal to renounce Islam
Islam
and submit to baptism. It seems that the letter may never have been sent; if it was, it not surprisingly received no reply." ^ Charles A. Coulombe, Vicars of Christ, p. 324. Quote: "One rumor stated that the Sultan himself had lost faith in Islam. Pius sent an eloquent letter setting forth the Catholic faith, urging him to convert. Instead of converting, the Sultan assuaged his opposition to Islamic law by drinking." ^ "Reject Aeneas, Accept Pius", p. ix (available here Archived 26 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine.). Quote: "Pius wrote and spoke Latin
Latin
with consummate facility. But since the end of the Renaissance, fewer and fewer educated persons understand his Latin, let alone share in that facility." ^ John Julius Norwich, Absolute Monarchs, p. 255-256. Quote: "In just five years between 1449 [1459?] and 1464 he transformed his birthplace, the little village of Corsignano, redesigning it on classical lines according to all the latest theories of urban planning, giving it a cathedral and a magnificent palazzo for the use of his family, and renaming it after himself: Pienza."

Bibliography[edit]

Text from the 9th edition (1885) of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Original article author was Richard Garnett, LLD. Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, Europe
Europe
(c. 1400–1458). Ed. Nancy Bisaha. Trans. Robert Brown. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2013. Meserve, Margaret; Marcello Simonetta (2007) [2003]. Pius II: Commentaries. The I Tatti Renaissance Library. ISBN 0-674-01164-3. . Creighton, Mandell (1934). History of the Papacy. Vols I and II. Moscow: SWB Publications.  Izbicki, Thomas; Gerald Christianson; Philip Krey
Philip Krey
(2006). Reject Aeneas, Accept Pius: Selected Letters of Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, Pope
Pope
Pius II. Catholic University of America Press. ISBN 0-8132-1442-4. . "The Historical Encyclopedia of World slavery", Editor Junius P. Rodriguez, ABC-CLIO, 1997, ISBN 0-87436-885-5 "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", Thomas Foster Earle, K. J. P. Lowe, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-81582-7 "The Catholic Tradition of the Law of Nations", John Eppstein, The Lawbook Exchange, 2008, ISBN 1-58477-822-9 British and Foreign State Papers", Foreign and Commonwealth Office, H.M.S.O. 1857.  John Julius Norwich, Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy, Random House, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4000-6715-2 Charles A. Coulombe, Vicars of Christ: A History of the Popes, Citadel Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8065-2370-0 Andrić, Stanko (2016). "Saint John Capistran and Despot George Branković: An Impossible Compromise". Byzantinoslavica. 74 (1-2): 202–227. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pius II.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Pius II

Tomb of Pius II Commentarii rerum memorabilium (1584 edition) at Google Books Works by or about Pope
Pope
Pius II at Internet Archive Stefan Bauer, Enea Silvio Piccolomini, in Il contributo italiano alla storia del pensiero: storia e politica, ed. Giuseppe Galasso et al. (Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 2013) (Ottava appendice della Enciclopedia italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti), pp. 137–43.

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Preceded by Antonio Cerdà i Lloscos Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals 1457 Succeeded by Giacomo Tebaldi

Preceded by Callixtus III Pope 19 August 1458 – 14 August 1464 Succeeded by Paul II

Preceded by Franz Kuhschmalz Prince-Bishop of Warmia
Warmia
(Ermland) 1457–1458 Succeeded by Paul von Legendorf

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the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin
Latin
Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

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History of the Catholic Church

General

History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
Catholic Church
art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
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Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin
Latin
Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
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Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
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Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
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John Paul I Pope
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John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100571068 LCCN: n50081908 ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 1321 GND: 118594702 SELIBR: 196937 SUDOC: 028332202 BNF: cb12018968p (data) ULAN: 500257557 HDS: 12792 NLA: 35424796 NKC: jn20011019066 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV19671 BNE: XX1067

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