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Pope
Pope
Saint
Saint
John XXIII (Latin: Ioannes; Italian: Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Italian pronunciation: [ˈandʒelo dʒuˈzɛppe roŋˈkalli]; 25 November 1881 – 3 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and ruler of the Vatican City
Vatican City
State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014.[7] Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was the fourth of fourteen children born to a family of sharecroppers who lived in a village in Lombardy.[8] He was ordained to the priesthood on 10 August 1904 and served in a number of posts, as nuncio in France and a delegate to Bulgaria, Greece
Greece
and Turkey. In a consistory on 12 January 1953 Pope Pius XII
Pius XII
made Roncalli a cardinal as the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca in addition to naming him as the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice. Roncalli was elected pope on 28 October 1958 at age 76 after 11 ballots. His selection was unexpected, and Roncalli himself had come to Rome
Rome
with a return train ticket to Venice.[dubious – discuss] He was the first pope to take the pontifical name of "John" upon election in more than 500 years, and his choice settled the complicated question of official numbering attached to this papal name. Pope
Pope
John XXIII surprised those who expected him to be a caretaker pope by calling the historic Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
(1962–1965), the first session opening on 11 October 1962. His passionate views on equality were summed up in his famous statement, "We were all made in God's image, and thus, we are all Godly alike."[9] John XXIII made many passionate speeches during his pontificate, one of which was on the night of the day that opened the Second Vatican Council (11 of October, 1962), where he spoke to the crowd gathered in St. Peter's Square: "Dear children, returning home, you will find children: give your children a hug and say: This is a hug from the Pope!".[10] This was known as the "Speech of the Moon". Pope
Pope
John XXIII did not live to see the Vatican Council to completion. He died of stomach cancer on 3 June 1963, four and a half years after his election and two months after the completion of his final and famed encyclical, Pacem in terris. He was buried in the Vatican grottoes beneath Saint
Saint
Peter's Basilica on 6 June 1963 and his cause for canonization was opened on 18 November 1965 by his successor, Pope
Pope
Paul VI, who declared him a Servant of God. In addition to being named Venerable on 20 December 1999, he was beatified on 3 September 2000 by Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
alongside Pope
Pope
Pius IX and three others. Following his beatification, his body was moved on 3 June 2001 from its original place to the altar of Saint
Saint
Jerome where it could be seen by the faithful. On 5 July 2013, Pope Francis – bypassing the traditionally required second miracle – declared John XXIII a saint, after unanimous agreement by a consistory, or meeting, of the College of Cardinals, based on the fact that he was considered to have lived a virtuous, model lifestyle, and because of the good for the Church which had come from his having opened the Second Vatican Council. He was canonised alongside Pope Saint
Saint
John Paul II
John Paul II
on 27 April 2014.[11][12] John XXIII today is affectionately known as the "Good Pope" and in Italian, "il Papa buono". The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
celebrates his feast day not on the date of his death (3 June), as is usual, nor his birth, or even on the day of his papal coronation (as is the case with several canonised popes, such as John Paul II) but on 11 October – the day of the first session of the Second Vatican Council. This is understandable, since the Council was his idea and it was he that had convened it. On Thursday, 11 September 2014, Pope Francis
Pope Francis
added his optional memorial to the worldwide General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
of saints' feast days, in response to global requests. He is, however, commemorated on the date of his death, 3 June, by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
and on the following day, 4 June, by the Anglican Church of Canada
Anglican Church of Canada
and the Episcopal Church (United States).[13]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life and ordination 1.2 Priesthood

2 Episcopate

2.1 Nuncio 2.2 Efforts during the Holocaust

3 Cardinal 4 Papacy

4.1 Papal election 4.2 Visits around Rome 4.3 Relations with Jews 4.4 Calling the Council 4.5 Moral theology

4.5.1 Contraception 4.5.2 Human rights 4.5.3 Divorce

4.6 Pope
Pope
John XXIII and papal ceremonial 4.7 Liturgical reform 4.8 Beatifications and canonization ceremonies

4.8.1 Doctor of the Church

4.9 Vatican II: The first session 4.10 Final months and death

5 Beatification
Beatification
and canonization 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Biography[edit] Early life and ordination[edit]

The young Roncalli.

Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was born on 25 November 1881 in Sotto il Monte, a small country village in the Bergamo
Bergamo
province of the Lombardy region of Italy. He was the eldest son of Giovanni Battista Roncalli (1854 – July 1935) and his wife Marianna Giulia Mazzolla (1855 – 20 February 1939), and fourth in a family of 13. His siblings were:

Maria Caterina (1877–1883) Teresa (1879–1954) Ancilla (1880 – 11 November 1953) Francesco Zaverio (1883–1976) Maria Elisa (1884–1955) Assunta Casilda (Marchesi) (1886 – 23 March 1980)[14] Domenico Giuseppe (22 February 1888 – 14 March 1888) Alfredo (1889–1972) Giovanni Francesco (1891–1956) Enrica (1893–1918) Giuseppe Luigi (1894–1981)[15] Luigi (1896–1898)[16][17]

His family worked as sharecroppers, as did most of the people of Sotto il Monte – a striking contrast to that of his predecessor, Eugenio Pacelli ( Pope
Pope
Pius XII), who came from an ancient aristocratic family long connected to the papacy. Roncalli was nonetheless a descendant of an Italian noble family, albeit from a secondary and impoverished branch.[18] In 1889, Roncalli received both his First Communion
First Communion
and Confirmation at the age of 8.[19] On 1 March 1896, Luigi Isacchi, the spiritual director of his seminary, enrolled him into the Secular Franciscan Order. He professed his vows as a member of that order on 23 May 1897.[20] In 1904, Roncalli completed his doctorate in Canon Law[21] and was ordained a priest in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
of Santa Maria in Monte Santo in Piazza del Popolo in Rome
Rome
on 10 August. Shortly after that, while still in Rome, Roncalli was taken to Saint
Saint
Peter's Basilica to meet Pope
Pope
Pius X. After this, he would return to his town to celebrate mass for the Assumption.[22] Priesthood[edit] In 1905, Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi, the new Bishop of Bergamo, appointed Roncalli as his secretary. Roncalli worked for Radini-Tedeschi until the bishop's death on 22 August 1914, two days after the death of Pope
Pope
Pius X. Radini-Tedeschi's last words to Roncalli were "Angelo, pray for peace". The death of Radini-Tedeschi had a deep effect on Roncalli. [23] During this period Roncalli was also a lecturer in the diocesan seminary in Bergamo. During World War I, Roncalli was drafted into the Royal Italian Army as a sergeant, serving in the medical corps as a stretcher-bearer and as a chaplain. After being discharged from the army in early 1919, he was named spiritual director of the seminary.[24] On 6 November 1921, Roncalli travelled to Rome
Rome
where he was scheduled to meet the Pope. After their meeting, Pope
Pope
Benedict XV appointed him as the Italian president of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith. Roncalli would recall Benedict XV as being the most sympathetic of the popes he had met.[25] Episcopate[edit] In February 1925, the Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri summoned him to the Vatican and informed him of Pope
Pope
Pius XI's decision to appoint him as the Apostolic Visitor to Bulgaria (1925–1935). On 3 March, Pius XI also named him for consecration as titular archbishop of Areopolis,[26] Jordan.[27] Roncalli was initially reluctant about a mission to Bulgaria, but he would soon relent. His nomination as apostolic visitor was made official on 19 March.[28] Roncalli was consecrated by Giovanni Tacci Porcelli in the church of San Carlo alla Corso in Rome. After he was consecrated, he introduced his family to Pope
Pope
Pius XI. He chose as his episcopal motto Obedientia et Pax ("Obedience and Peace"), which became his guiding motto. While he was in Bulgaria, an earthquake struck in a town not too far from where he was. Unaffected, he wrote to his sisters Ancilla and Maria and told them both that he was fine. On 30 November 1934, he was appointed Apostolic Delegate to Turkey
Turkey
and Greece
Greece
and titular archbishop of Mesembria, Bulgaria.[29][30] Thus, he is known as "the Turcophile Pope," by the Turkish society which is predominantly Muslim.[31] Roncalli took up this post in 1935 and used his office to help the Jewish underground in saving thousands of refugees in Europe, leading some to consider him to be a Righteous Gentile (see Pope
Pope
John XXIII and Judaism). In October 1935, he led Bulgarian pilgrims to Rome
Rome
and introduced them to Pope
Pope
Pius XI on 14 October.[32] In February 1939, he received news from his sisters that his mother was dying. On 10 February 1939, Pope
Pope
Pius XI died. Roncalli was unable to see his mother for the end as the death of a pontiff meant that he would have to stay at his post until the election of a new pontiff. Unfortunately, she died on 20 February 1939, during the nine days of mourning for the late Pius XI. He was sent a letter by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, and Roncalli later recalled that it was probably the last letter Pacelli sent until his election as Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
on 2 March 1939. Roncalli expressed happiness that Pacelli was elected, and, on radio, listened to the coronation of the new pontiff. [33] Roncalli remained in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
at the time that World War II
World War II
commenced, optimistically writing in his journal in April 1939, "I don't believe we will have a war". At the time that the war did in fact commence, he was in Rome, meeting with Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
on 5 September 1939. In 1940, Roncalli was asked by the Vatican to devote more of his time to Greece; therefore, he made several visits there in January and May that year.[34] Nuncio[edit] On 22 December 1944, during World War II, Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
named him to be the new Apostolic Nuncio
Nuncio
to recently liberated France.[35] In this capacity he had to negotiate the retirement of bishops who had collaborated with the German occupying power. Roncalli was chosen among several other candidates, one of whom was Archbishop Joseph Fietta. Roncalli met with Domenico Tardini to discuss his new appointment, and their conversation suggested that Tardini did not approve of it. One curial prelate referred to Roncalli as an "old fogey" while speaking with a journalist.[36] Roncalli left Ankara on 27 December 1944 on a series of short-haul flights that took him to several places, such as Beirut, Cairo
Cairo
and Naples. He ventured to Rome
Rome
on 28 December and met with both Tardini and his friend Giovanni Battista Montini. He left for France the next day to commence his newest role.[37] Efforts during the Holocaust[edit] As nuncio, Roncalli made various efforts during the Holocaust
Holocaust
in World War II to save refugees, mostly Jewish people, from the Nazis. Among his efforts were:

Delivery of "immigration certificates" to Palestine through the Nunciature diplomatic courier.[38] Rescue of Jews by means of certificates of "baptism of convenience" sent by Monsignor Roncalli to priests in Europe.[38] Slovakian children managed to leave the country due to his interventions.[39] Jewish refugees whose names were included on a list submitted by Rabbi Markus of Istanbul to Nuncio
Nuncio
Roncalli. Jews held at Jasenovac concentration camp, near Stara Gradiška, were liberated as a result of his intervention.[citation needed] Bulgarian Jews who left Bulgaria, a result of his request to King Boris III of Bulgaria.[40] Romanian Jews from Transnistria
Transnistria
left Romania
Romania
as a result of his intervention.[38] Italian Jews helped by the Vatican as a result of his interventions.[38] Orphaned children of Transnistria
Transnistria
on board a refugee ship that weighed anchor from Constanța
Constanța
to Istanbul, and later arriving in Palestine as a result of his interventions.[citation needed] Jews held at the Sereď
Sereď
concentration camp who were spared from being deported to German death camps as a result of his intervention.[citation needed] Hungarian Jews who saved themselves through their conversions to Christianity through the baptismal certificates sent by Nuncio Roncalli to the Hungarian Nuncio, Monsignor Angelo Rota.[38]

In 1965, the Catholic Herald newspaper quoted Pope
Pope
John XXIII as saying:

We are conscious today that many, many centuries of blindness have cloaked our eyes so that we can no longer see the beauty of Thy chosen people nor recognise in their faces the features of our privileged brethren. We realize that the mark of Cain stands upon our foreheads. Across the centuries our brother Abel has lain in blood which we drew, or shed tears we caused by forgetting Thy love. Forgive us for the curse we falsely attached to their name as Jews. Forgive us for crucifying Thee a second time in their flesh. For we know not what we did.[41][42]

On 7 September 2000, the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation launched the International Campaign for the Acknowledgement of the humanitarian actions undertaken by Vatican Nuncio
Nuncio
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli for people, most of whom were Jewish, persecuted by the Nazi regime. The launching took place at the Permanent Observation Mission of the Vatican to the United Nations, in the presence of Vatican State Secretary Cardinal Angelo Sodano.

Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Patriarch of Venice
Patriarch of Venice
(1953–1958)

The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation
International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation
has carried out exhaustive historical research related to different events connected with interventions of Nuncio
Nuncio
Roncalli in favour of Jewish refugees during the Holocaust. Until now,[when?] three reports have been published compiling different studies and materials of historical research about the humanitarian actions carried out by Roncalli when he was nuncio.[43][44] In 2011, the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation
International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation
submitted a massive file (the Roncalli Dossier) to Yad Vashem, with a strong petition and recommendation to bestow upon him the title of Righteous among the Nations.[45] Cardinal[edit]

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Commander of the Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
received in 1953

Roncalli received a message from Mgr. Montini on 14 November 1952 asking him if he would want to become the new Patriarch of Venice
Patriarch of Venice
in light of the nearing death of Carlo Agostini. Furthermore, Montini said to him via letter on 29 November 1952 that Pius XII
Pius XII
had decided to raise him to the cardinalate. Roncalli knew that he would be appointed to lead the patriarchy of Venice
Venice
due to the death of Agostini, who was to have been raised to the rank of cardinal.[46] On 12 January 1953, he was appointed Patriarch of Venice
Patriarch of Venice
and raised to the rank of Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca
Santa Prisca
by Pope
Pope
Pius XII. Roncalli left France for Venice
Venice
on 23 February 1953 stopping briefly in Milan and then to Rome. On 15 March 1953, he took possession of his new diocese in Venice. As a sign of his esteem, the President of France, Vincent Auriol, claimed the ancient privilege possessed by French monarchs and bestowed the red biretta on Roncalli at a ceremony in the Élysée Palace. It was around this time that he, with the aid of Monsignor Bruno Heim, formed his coat of arms with a lion of Saint Mark on a white ground. Auriol also awarded Roncalli three months later with the award of Commander of the Legion of Honour. Roncalli decided to live on the second floor of the residence reserved for the patriarch, choosing not to live in the first floor room once resided in by Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, who later became Pope
Pope
Pius X. On 29 May 1954, the late Pius X was canonized and Roncalli ensured that the late pontiff's patriarchal room was remodelled into a 1903 (the year of the new saint's papal election) look in his honor. With Pius X's few surviving relatives, Roncalli celebrated a mass in his honor. His sister Ancilla would soon be diagnosed with stomach cancer in the early 1950s. Roncalli's last letter to her was dated on 8 November 1953 where he promised to visit her within the next week. He could not keep that promise, as Ancilla died on 11 November 1953 at the time when he was consecrating a new church in Venice. He attended her funeral back in his hometown. In his will around this time, he mentioned that he wished to be buried in the crypt of Saint
Saint
Mark's in Venice
Venice
with some of his predecessors rather than with the family in Sotto il Monte. Papacy[edit]

Papal styles of Pope
Pope
John XXIII

Reference style His Holiness

Spoken style Your Holiness

Religious style Holy Father

Posthumous style Saint

Ordination
Ordination
history of Pope
Pope
John XXIII

History

Priestly ordination

Ordained by Giuseppe Ceppetelli

Date of ordination 10 August 1904

Place of ordination Santa Maria in Monte Santo in Piazza del Popolo, Rome, Italy

Episcopal consecration

Principal consecrator Giovanni Tacci Card. Porcelli

Co-consecrators Giuseppe Palica Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani

Date of consecration 19 March 1925

Place of consecration San Carlo alla Corso, Rome, Italy

Cardinalate

Elevated by Pope
Pope
Pius XII

Date of elevation 12 January 1953

Episcopal succession

Bishops consecrated by Pope
Pope
John XXIII as principal consecrator

Antonio Gregorio Vuccino 25 July 1937

Alfredo Pacini 11 June 1946

Silvio Angelo Pio Oddi 27 September 1953

Angelo Dell'Acqua 27 December 1958

Pope
Pope
John Paul I 27 December 1958

Domenico Tardini 27 December 1958

James Hagan 8 May 1960

Pericle Felici 28 October 1960

Alfredo Ottaviani 19 April 1962

Alberto di Jorio 19 April 1962

Augustin Bea 19 April 1962

Enrico Dante 21 September 1962

Pietro Palazzini 21 September 1962

Paul-Pierre Philippe 21 September 1962

Papal election[edit] Main article: Papal conclave, 1958 Following the death of Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
on 9 October 1958, Roncalli watched the live funeral on his last full day in Venice
Venice
on 11 October. His journal was specifically concerned with the funeral and the abused state of the late pontiff's corpse. Roncalli left Venice
Venice
for the conclave in Rome
Rome
well aware that he was papabile,[a] and after eleven ballots, was elected to succeed the late Pius XII, so it came as no surprise to him, though he had arrived at the Vatican with a return train ticket to Venice.[citation needed] Many had considered Giovanni Battista Montini, the Archbishop of Milan, a possible candidate, but, although he was the archbishop of one of the most ancient and prominent sees in Italy, he had not yet been made a cardinal.[48] Though his absence from the 1958 conclave did not make him ineligible – under Canon Law any Catholic male who is capable of receiving priestly ordination and episcopal consecration may be elected – the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
usually chose the new pontiff from among the Cardinals who attend the papal conclave. At the time, as opposed to contemporary practice, the participating Cardinals did not have to be below age 80 to vote, there were few Eastern-rite Cardinals,[b] and some Cardinals were just priests at the time of their elevation.[c] Roncalli was summoned to the final ballot of the conclave at 4:00 pm. He was elected pope at 4:30 pm with a total of 38 votes. After the long pontificate of Pope
Pope
Pius XII, the cardinals chose a man who – it was presumed because of his advanced age – would be a short-term or "stop-gap" pope. They wished to choose a candidate who would do little during the new pontificate. Upon his election, Cardinal Eugène Tisserant
Eugène Tisserant
asked him the ritual questions of whether he would accept and if so, what name he would take for himself. Roncalli gave the first of his many surprises when he chose "John" as his regnal name. Roncalli's exact words were "I will be called John". This was the first time in over 500 years that this name had been chosen; previous popes had avoided its use since the time of the Antipope John XXIII
Antipope John XXIII
during the Western Schism
Western Schism
several centuries before. On the choice of his papal name, Pope
Pope
John XXIII said to the cardinals:

I choose John... a name sweet to us because it is the name of our father, dear to me because it is the name of the humble parish church where I was baptized, the solemn name of numberless cathedrals scattered throughout the world, including our own basilica [St. John Lateran]. Twenty-two Johns of indisputable legitimacy have [been Pope], and almost all had a brief pontificate. We have preferred to hide the smallness of our name behind this magnificent succession of Roman Popes.[49]

Upon his choosing the name, there was some confusion as to whether he would be known as John XXIII or John XXIV; in response, he declared that he was John XXIII, thus affirming the antipapal status of antipope John XXIII. Before this antipope, the most recent popes called John were John XXII (1316–34) and John XXI (1276–77). However, there was no Pope
Pope
John XX, owing to confusion caused by medieval historians misreading the Liber Pontificalis
Liber Pontificalis
to refer to another Pope
Pope
John between John XIV and John XV. After his election, he confided in Cardinal Maurice Feltin
Maurice Feltin
that he had chosen the name "in memory of France and in the memory of John XXII who continued the history of the papacy in France".[50] After he answered the two ritual questions, the traditional Habemus Papam announcement was delivered by Cardinal Nicola Canali
Nicola Canali
to the people at 6:08 pm, an exact hour after the white smoke appeared. A short while later, he appeared on the balcony and gave his first Urbi et Orbi
Urbi et Orbi
blessing to the crowds of the faithful below in Saint Peter's Square. That same night, he appointed Domenico Tardini as his Secretary of State. His coronation took place on 4 November 1958, on the feast of Saint Charles Borromeo, and it occurred on the central loggia of the Vatican. He was crowned with the 1877 Palatine Tiara. His coronation ran for the traditional five hours. In John XXIII's first consistory on 15 December of that same year, Montini was created a cardinal and would become John XXIII's successor in 1963, taking the name of Paul VI.

Pope
Pope
John XXIII's coronation on 4 November 1958. He was crowned wearing the 1877 Palatine Tiara.

Visits around Rome[edit]

Monument to Pope
Pope
John XXIII in Porto Viro
Porto Viro
(Rovigo)

On 25 December 1958, he became the first pope since 1870 to make pastoral visits in his Diocese of Rome, when he visited children infected with polio at the Bambino Gesù Hospital
Bambino Gesù Hospital
and then visited Santo Spirito Hospital. The following day, he visited Rome's Regina Coeli prison, where he told the inmates: "You could not come to me, so I came to you." These acts created a sensation, and he wrote in his diary: “...great astonishment in the Roman, Italian and international press. I was hemmed in on all sides: authorities, photographers, prisoners, wardens...”[51] During these visits, John XXIII put aside the normal papal use of the formal "we" when referring to himself, such as when he visited a reformatory school for juvenile delinquents in Rome
Rome
telling them "I have wanted to come here for some time". The media noticed this and reported that "He talked to the youths in their own language".[52] Relations with Jews[edit] Main article: Pope
Pope
John XXIII and Judaism One of the first acts of Pope
Pope
John XXIII, in 1960, was to eliminate the description of Jews as perfidius (Latin for "perfidious" or "faithless") in the prayer for the conversion of the Jews in the Good Friday liturgy. He interrupted the first Good Friday liturgy in his pontificate to address this issue when he first heard a celebrant refer to the Jews with that word. He also made a confession for the Church of the sin of anti-semitism through the centuries.[53] While Vatican II
Vatican II
was being held, John XXIII tasked Cardinal Augustin Bea with the creation of several important documents that pertained to reconciliation with Jewish people. Calling the Council[edit]

John XXIII with Prime Minister of Lebanon Sami as-Solh, 1959.

Far from being a mere "stopgap" pope, to great excitement, John XXIII called for an ecumenical council fewer than ninety years after the First Vatican Council
First Vatican Council
(Vatican I's predecessor, the Council of Trent, had been held in the 16th century). This decision was announced on 29 January 1959 at the Basilica of Saint
Saint
Paul Outside the Walls. Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, who later became Pope
Pope
Paul VI, remarked to Giulio Bevilacqua
Giulio Bevilacqua
that "this holy old boy doesn't realise what a hornet's nest he's stirring up".[54] From the Second Vatican Council came changes that reshaped the face of Catholicism: a comprehensively revised liturgy, a stronger emphasis on ecumenism, and a new approach to the world. Prior to the first session of the council, John XXIII visited Assisi and Loreto on 4 October 1962 to pray for the new upcoming council as well as to mark the feast day of St. Francis of Assisi. He was the first pope to travel outside of Rome
Rome
since Pope
Pope
Pius IX. Along the way, there were several halts at Orte, Narni, Terni, Spoleto, Foligno, Fabriano, Iesi, Falconara and Ancona
Ancona
where the crowds greeted him.[55] Moral theology[edit] Main article: Moral theology of John XXIII Contraception[edit]

John XXIII greets sportsmen for the 1960 Summer Olympics
1960 Summer Olympics
on 28 August 1960.

In 1963, John XXIII established a commission of six non-theologians to investigate questions of birth control.[56][57] Human rights[edit] John XXIII was an advocate for human rights which included the unborn and the elderly. He wrote about human rights in his Pacem in terris. He wrote, "Man has the right to live. He has the right to bodily integrity and to the means necessary for the proper development of life, particularly food, clothing, shelter, medical care, rest, and, finally, the necessary social services. In consequence, he has the right to be looked after in the event of ill health; disability stemming from his work; widowhood; old age; enforced unemployment; or whenever through no fault of his own he is deprived of the means of livelihood."[58] Divorce[edit] In regards to the topic of divorce, John XXIII said that human life is transmitted through the family which is founded on the sacrament of marriage and is both one and indissoluble as a union in God, therefore, it is against the teachings of the church for a married couple to divorce.[59] Pope
Pope
John XXIII and papal ceremonial[edit] Main article: Ceremonial of John XXIII Pope
Pope
John XXIII was the last pope to use full papal ceremony, some of which was abolished after Vatican II, while the rest fell into disuse. His papal coronation ran for the traditional five hours (Pope Paul VI, by contrast, opted for a shorter ceremony, while later popes declined to be crowned). Pope
Pope
John XXIII, like his predecessor Pius XII, chose to have the coronation itself take place on the balcony of Saint
Saint
Peter's Basilica, in view of the crowds assembled in Saint Peter's Square
Saint Peter's Square
below. He wore a number of papal tiaras during his papacy. On the most formal of occasions would he don the 1877 Palatine tiara he received at his coronation, but on other occasions, he used the 1922 tiara of Pope Pius XI, which was used so often that it was associated with him quite strongly. Like those before him, he was bestowed with an expensive silver tiara by the people of Bergamo. John XXIII requested that the number of jewels used be halved and that the money be given to the poor. Liturgical reform[edit] Maintaining continuity with his predecessors, John XXIII continued the gradual reform of the Roman liturgy, and published changes that resulted in the 1962 Roman Missal, the last typical edition containing the Tridentine Mass
Tridentine Mass
established in 1570 by Pope
Pope
Pius V at the request of the Council of Trent. Beatifications and canonization ceremonies[edit] Main article: List of saints canonized by Pope
Pope
John XXIII John XXIII beatified four individuals in his reign: Elena Guerra
Elena Guerra
(26 April 1959), Innocenzo da Berzo
Innocenzo da Berzo
(12 November 1961), Elizabeth Ann Seton (17 March 1963) and Luigi Maria Palazzolo (19 March 1963). He also canonized a small number of individuals: he canonized Charles of Sezze and Joaquina Vedruna de Mas
Joaquina Vedruna de Mas
on 12 April 1959, Gregorio Barbarigo on 26 May 1960, Juan de Ribera
Juan de Ribera
on 12 June 1960, Maria Bertilla Boscardin on 11 May 1961, Martin de Porres
Martin de Porres
on 6 May 1962, and Antonio Maria Pucci, Francis Mary of Camporosso
Francis Mary of Camporosso
and Peter Julian Eymard on 9 December 1962. His final canonization was that of Vincent Pallotti on 20 January 1963. Doctor of the Church[edit] John XXIII proclaimed Saint
Saint
Lawrence of Brindisi
Lawrence of Brindisi
as a Doctor of the Church on 19 March 1959. Vatican II: The first session[edit] On 11 October 1962, the first session of the Second Vatican Council was held in the Vatican. He gave the Gaudet Mater Ecclesia speech, which served as the opening address for the council. The day was basically electing members for several council commissions that would work on the issues presented in the council.[60] On that same night following the conclusion of the first session, the people in Saint Peter's Square chanted and yelled with the sole objective of getting John XXIII to appear at the window to address them. Pope
Pope
John XXIII did indeed appear at the window and delivered a speech to the people below, and told them to return home and hug their children, telling them that it came from the pope. This speech would later become known as the so-called 'Speech of the Moon'.[10] The first session ended in a solemn ceremony on 8 December 1962 with the next session scheduled to occur in 1963 from 12 May to 29 June – this was announced on 12 November 1962. John XXIII's closing speech made subtle references to Pope
Pope
Pius IX, and he had expressed the desire to see Pius IX beatified and eventually canonized. In his journal in 1959 during a spiritual retreat, John XXIII made this remark: "I always think of Pius IX of holy and glorious memory, and by imitating him in his sacrifices, I would like to be worthy to celebrate his canonization". Final months and death[edit] On 23 September 1962, Pope
Pope
John XXIII was diagnosed with stomach cancer. The diagnosis, which was kept from the public, followed nearly eight months of occasional stomach hemorrhages, and reduced the pontiff's appearances. Looking pale and drawn during these events, he gave a hint to his ultimate fate in April 1963, when he said to visitors, "That which happens to all men perhaps will happen soon to the Pope
Pope
who speaks to you today." Pope
Pope
John XXIII offered to mediate between US President John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
during the Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
in October 1962. Both men applauded the pope for his deep commitment to peace. Khrushchev would later send a message via Norman Cousins
Norman Cousins
and the letter expressed his best wishes for the pontiff's ailing health. John XXIII personally typed and sent a message back to him, thanking him for his letter. Cousins, meanwhile, travelled to New York City
New York City
and ensured that John would become Time magazine's 'Man of the Year'. John XXIII became the first Pope
Pope
to receive the title, followed by John Paul II in 1994 and Francis in 2013. During this time, Pope
Pope
John XXIII recorded an address advocating for the reunification of the Catholic and Anglican churches. Administrative errors prevented it from being screened before his death [61]. On 10 February 1963, John XXIII officially opened the process of beatification for the late Cardinal Andrea Carlo Ferrari, Archbishop of Milan from 1894 to 1921. This conferred upon him the title of Servant of God. On 7 March 1963, the feast of the University's patron Saint
Saint
Thomas Aquinas, Pope
Pope
John XXIII visited the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum and with the motu proprio Dominicanus Ordo,[62] raised the Angelicum to the rank of Pontifical University. Thereafter it would be known as the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
in the City.[63][64] On 10 May 1963, John XXIII received the Balzan Prize
Balzan Prize
in private at the Vatican but deflected achievements of himself to the five popes of his lifetime, Pope
Pope
Leo XIII to Pius XII. On 11 May, the Italian President Antonio Segni
Antonio Segni
officially awarded Pope
Pope
John XXIII with the Balzan Prize for his engagement for peace. While in the car en route to the official ceremony, he suffered great stomach pains but insisted on meeting with Segni to receive the award in the Quirinal Palace, refusing to do so within the Vatican. He stated that it would have been an insult to honour a pontiff on the remains of the crucified Saint
Saint
Peter.[65] It was the pope's last public appearance. On 25 May 1963, the pope suffered another haemorrhage and required several blood transfusions, but the cancer had perforated the stomach wall and peritonitis soon set in. The doctors conferred in a decision regarding this matter and John XXIII's aide Loris F. Capovilla broke the news to him saying that the cancer had done its work and nothing could be done for him. Around this time, his remaining siblings arrived to be with him. By 31 May, it had become clear that the cancer had overcome the resistance of John XXIII – it had left him confined to his bed. "At 11 am Petrus Canisius Van Lierde
Petrus Canisius Van Lierde
as Papal Sacristan was at the bedside of the dying pope, ready to anoint him. The pope began to speak for the very last time: "I had the great grace to be born into a Christian family, modest and poor, but with the fear of the Lord. My time on earth is drawing to a close. But Christ lives on and continues his work in the Church. Souls, souls, ut omnes unum sint."[d] Van Lierde then anointed his eyes, ears, mouth, hands and feet. Overcome by emotion, Van Lierde forgot the right order of anointing. John XXIII gently helped him before bidding those present a last farewell.[65] John XXIII died of peritonitis caused by a perforated stomach at 19:49 local time on 3 June 1963 at the age of 81, ending a historic pontificate of four years and seven months. He died just as a Mass for him finished in Saint Peter's Square
Saint Peter's Square
below, celebrated by Luigi Traglia. After he died, his brow was ritually tapped to see if he was dead, and those with him in the room said prayers. Then the room was illuminated, thus informing the people of what had happened. He was buried on 6 June in the Vatican grottos. Two wreaths, placed on the two sides of his tomb, were donated by the prisoners of the Regina Coeli prison and the Mantova jail in Verona. On 22 June 1963, one day after his friend and successor Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
was elected, the latter prayed at his tomb. On 3 December 1963, US President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
posthumously awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian award, in recognition of the good relationship between Pope
Pope
John XXIII and the United States of America. In his speech on 6 December 1963, Johnson said: "I have also determined to confer the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
posthumously on another noble man whose death we mourned 6 months ago: His Holiness, Pope
Pope
John XXIII. He was a man of simple origins, of simple faith, of simple charity. In this exalted office he was still the gentle pastor. He believed in discussion and persuasion. He profoundly respected the dignity of man. He gave the world immortal statements of the rights of man, of the obligations of men to each other, of their duty to strive for a world community in which all can live in peace and fraternal friendship. His goodness reached across temporal boundaries to warm the hearts of men of all nations and of all faiths". The citation for the medal reads: His Holiness Pope
Pope
John XXIII, dedicated servant of God. He brought to all citizens of the planet a heightened sense of the dignity of the individual, of the brotherhood of man, and of the common duty to build an environment of peace for all human kind.

Beatification
Beatification
and canonization[edit] Main article: Canonization
Canonization
of Pope
Pope
John XXIII and Pope
Pope
John Paul II

The body of John XXIII in the altar of Saint
Saint
Jerome

The canonization ceremony of John XXIII and John Paul II

He was known affectionately as "Good Pope
Pope
John".[66] His cause for canonization was opened under Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
during the final session of the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
on 18 November 1965,[67] along with the cause of Pope
Pope
Pius XII. On 3 September 2000, John XXIII was declared "Blessed" alongside Pope
Pope
Pius IX by Pope
Pope
John Paul II, the penultimate step on the road to sainthood after a miracle of curing an ill woman was discovered. He was the first pope since Pope
Pope
Pius X to receive this honour. Following his beatification, his body was moved from its original burial place in the grottoes below the Vatican to the altar of St. Jerome
St. Jerome
and displayed for the veneration of the faithful.[citation needed] At the time, the body was observed to be extremely well preserved—a condition which the Church ascribes to embalming[68] and the lack of air flow in his sealed triple coffin rather than a miracle. When John XXIII's body was moved in 2001, the original vault above the floor was removed and a new one built beneath the ground; it was here that the body of Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
was entombed from 9 April 2005 to April 2011, before being moved for his beatification on 1 May 2011.[69] The 50th anniversary of his death was celebrated on 3 June 2013 by Pope
Pope
Francis, who visited his tomb and prayed there, then addressing the gathered crowd and spoke about the late pope. The people that gathered there at the tomb were from Bergamo, the province where the late pope came from. A month later, on 5 July 2013, Francis approved Pope
Pope
John XXIII for canonization, along with Pope
Pope
John Paul II without the traditional second miracle required. Instead, Francis based this decision on John XXIII's merits for the Second Vatican Council.[70] On Sunday, 27 April 2014, John XXIII and Pope
Pope
John Paul II were declared saints on Divine Mercy Sunday.[71] The date assigned for the liturgical celebration of John XXIII is not 3 June, the anniversary of his death as would be usual, but 11 October, the anniversary of his opening of the Second Vatican Council.[72] He is also commemorated in the Anglican Church of Canada, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, and some other organizations with a feast day of 4 June, changed originally from 3 June.[73][74][75][76] Legacy[edit]

Statue of John XXIII in Portugal

From his teens when he entered the seminary, he maintained a diary of spiritual reflections that was subsequently published as the Journal of a Soul. The collection of writings charts Roncalli's goals and his efforts as a young man to "grow in holiness" and continues after his election to the papacy; it remains widely read.[77] The opening titles of Pier Paolo Pasolini's film The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964) dedicate the film to the memory of John XXIII.[78] John XXIII College (Perth) in Western Australia, is a Catholic school named after John XXIII, Pope
Pope
John Senior High School and Junior Seminary in Koforidua, Ghana and the Catholic Learning Community of John XXIII, a primary school in Sydney. Roncalli College
Roncalli College
is located in Timaru, New Zealand. There are also Roncalli High Schools in Indianapolis, Indiana, Aberdeen, South Dakota, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, and Omaha, Nebraska. See also[edit]

Biography portal Christianity portal History portal

Cardinals created by John XXIII Central Preparatory Commission Eastern Catholic Churches Eastern Orthodox Church List of Catholic saints List of encyclicals of Pope
Pope
John XXIII List of meetings between the Pope
Pope
and the President of the United States List of popes List of Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
by country

Notes[edit]

^ William Doino is one of the commentators who claim that Roncalli was papabile and argue that "[b]y the time of Pius XII’s death, in 1958, Cardinal Roncalli 'contrary to the idea he came out of nowhere to become pope' was actually one of those favored to be elected. He was well known, well liked and trusted."[47] ^ At the 1958 conclave, the two Eastern Catholic cardinal-electors were Gregorio Pietro Agagianian, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Cilicia of the Armenian Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Ignatius Gabriel
Gabriel
I Tappouni, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch of the Syrian Catholic Church ^ At the 1958 conclave, Nicola Canali
Nicola Canali
the Cardinal protodeacon was only an ordained priest and Alfredo Ottaviani, the Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica had not yet been consecrated as a bishop. ^ ‘...that all may be one.’

References[edit]

^ "Patrons of Papal Delegates", Saints, SQPN  ^ "St. John XXIII, patron saint of Christian unity?". Vatican Insider. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2015.  ^ " Saint
Saint
October 11: Saint
Saint
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Saint
John XXIII for the first time becomes the patron". Retrieved 4 January 2016.  ^ Marco Roncalli (6 September 2017). "San Giovanni XXIII sarà patron dell'Esercito". La Stampa. Retrieved 7 September 2017.  ^ United States Conference of Bishops, The Canonization
Canonization
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Pope
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Pope
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Pope
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John Paul II
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Catholic Church
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Pope Francis
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of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, pp. 76–77  ^ " Pope
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David
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of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, p. 220  ^ Hebblethwaite, Peter (1987). " Pope
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John XXIII: Shepherd of the Modern World". Image Books: 303.  ^ "Look Ahead, Pontiff Advises Young Inmates". St Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 12 November 1962.  ^ Schulweis, Harold. "Catholic-Jewish Relations: Post- Holocaust
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of the Council (rev ed.), Glasgow: Harper Collins, p. 425  ^ Shannon, William Henry (1970). "VII. The Papal Commission on Birth Control". The lively debate: response to Humanae vitae. New York: Sheed & Ward. pp. 76–104. ISBN 0-8362-0374-7.  ^ McClory, Robert (1995). Turning point: the inside story of the Papal Birth Control Commission, and how Humanae vitae changed the life of Patty Crowley and the future of the church. New York: Crossroad. ISBN 0-8245-1458-0.  ^ " Encyclical
Encyclical
Pacem in terris
Pacem in terris
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Giovanni XXIII came to the Angelicum to celebrate the passage from Ateneo Angelicum to University: Pontificia Universitas Studiorum Sancti Tomae Aquinatis in Urbe.  ^ a b Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope
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Further reading[edit]

Hebblethwaite, Peter & Hebblethwaite, Margaret (2000). John XXIII: Pope
Pope
of the Council. Continuum International. ISBN 0-8264-4995-6.  Martin, Malachi
Malachi
(1972), Three Popes and the Cardinal: The Church of Pius, John and Paul in its Encounter with Human History', Farrar, Straus & Giroux, ISBN 0-374-27675-7 . ——— (1986). Vatican: a novel. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-015478-0.  ——— (1990). The Keys of this Blood. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-69174-0.  Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe (1965), Giovanni XXIII Il Giornale dell' Anima [Journal of a Soul], White, Dorothy trans, Geoffrey Chapman, ISBN 0-225-66895-5 . Williams, Paul L. (2003). The Vatican Exposed. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-59102-065-4.  Riebs, Gunnar
Gunnar
(2011). John XXIII Simple and Humble A Blessed Man. Privileged testimonies. ISBN 978-93-5015-077-1. 

External links[edit]

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John XXIII at Internet Archive Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe, Opera Omnia [Complete works] (in Latin), EU: Documenta catholica omnia . Rockwell, Lew, John XXIII was embalmed; Vatican denies he is subject of miracle of incorruptibility . Wojtyła, Karol Józef (3 September 2000), Pope
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John XXIII beatification mass (homily), Rome, IT: Vatican, archived from the original on 26 October 2006 . "John XXIII", Pope
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John XXIII (biography), Rome, IT: Vatican . "John XXIII", Everything2 . " Pope
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John XXIII", Atheism (biography), About . "John XXIII (pope)", Britannica (encyclopedia) (online ed.) . Advocating John XXIII as Righteous Among the Nations, Raoul Wallenberg . "John XXIII", Monuments, St Peter’s basilica . John XXIII (memorial), Find a grave . Pope
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John XXIII (11 October 1962 – 3 June 1963) interregnum (3 June 1963 – 21 June 1963) Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
(21 June 1963 – 8 December 1965)

Historiography

Hermenutic of rupture (Bologna) vs. hermenutic of continuity (Roman)

General

Catholic ecumenical councils Central Preparatory Commission Aggiornamento Sign of the times Gaudet Mater Ecclesia Peritus Nouvelle Théologie Coetus Internationalis Patrum Subsistit in History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
since 1962 Catholic–Orthodox Joint Declaration of 1965 Modern Ecumenism Spirit of Vatican II Mass of Paul VI Wreckovation

Criticism

Traditionalist Catholicism Sedevacantism

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Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal

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Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God (Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

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History of the Catholic Church

General

History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
Catholic Church
art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint
Saint
Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint
Saint
Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration
Consecration
to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
Consecration
Consecration
to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portal

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Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope
Pope
John XXIII (1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David
David
Ho (1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

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Franciscans

General

Rule of St. Francis Rule of St. Clare Tau Cross Custodian of the Holy Land Minister Generals Basilica of Saint
Saint
Francis of Assisi Assisi Monte di Pietá Franciscan missions to the Maya Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Franciscans
Franciscans
International Franciscan orders in Protestantism

Orders and groups

Order of Friars Minor Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Conventual Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Capuchin Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate Poor Clares Capuchin Poor Clares Colettine Poor Clares Conceptionists Secular Franciscan Order Third Order of Saint
Saint
Francis Order of Minims Militia Immaculatae

Popes

Nicholas IV Sixtus IV Sixtus V Clement XIV Pius X John XXIII

  Category Catholicism portal

Stages of canonization in the Catholic Church

Servant of God   →   Venerable   →   Blessed   →   Saint

Authority control

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