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Pope
Pope
Benedict XV (Latin: Benedictus; Italian: Benedetto), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa[a] (21 November 1854 – 22 January 1922) was head of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
from 3 September 1914 until his death in 1922. His pontificate was largely overshadowed by World War I
World War I
and its political, social, and humanitarian consequences in Europe. Between 1846 and 1903, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
had experienced two of its longest pontificates in history up to that point. Together Pius IX
Pius IX
and Leo XIII
Leo XIII
ruled for a total of 57 years. In 1914, the College of Cardinals chose della Chiesa at the young age of 59, indicating their desire for another long-lasting pontificate at the outbreak of World War I, which he labeled “the suicide of civilized Europe.”[3] The war and its consequences were the main focus of Benedict XV. He immediately declared the neutrality of the Holy See
Holy See
and attempted from that perspective to mediate peace in 1916 and 1917. Both sides rejected his initiatives. German Protestants rejected any “Papal Peace” as insulting. The French politician Georges Clemenceau regarded the Vatican initiative as being anti-French.[4] Having failed with diplomatic initiatives, Benedict XV focused on humanitarian efforts to lessen the impacts of the war, such as attending prisoners of war, the exchange of wounded soldiers and food deliveries to needy populations in Europe. After the war, he repaired the difficult relations with France, which re-established relations with the Vatican in 1921. During his pontificate, relations with Italy improved as well, as Benedict XV now permitted Catholic politicians led by Don Luigi Sturzo
Luigi Sturzo
to participate in national Italian politics. In 1917, Benedict XV promulgated the Code of Canon Law
Canon Law
which was released on May 27, the creation of which he had prepared with Pietro Gasparri and Eugenio Pacelli
Eugenio Pacelli
(future Pope
Pope
Pius XII) during the pontificate of Pope
Pope
Pius X. The new Code of Canon Law
Canon Law
is considered to have stimulated religious life and activities throughout the Church.[5] He named Pietro Gasparri
Pietro Gasparri
to be his Cardinal Secretary of State and personally consecrated Nuncio
Nuncio
Eugenio Pacelli
Eugenio Pacelli
(the future Pope
Pope
Pius XII) on 13 May 1917 as Archbishop. World War I
World War I
caused great damage to Catholic missions throughout the world. Benedict XV revitalized these activities, asking in Maximum Illud for Catholics throughout the world to participate. For that, he has been referred to as the " Pope
Pope
of Missions". His last concern was the emerging persecution of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Soviet Russia and the famine there after the revolution. Benedict XV was devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary and authorized the Feast of Mary, Mediatrix of all Graces.[6] After seven years in office, Pope
Pope
Benedict XV died on 22 January 1922 after battling pneumonia since the start of that month. He was buried in the grottos of Saint Peter's Basilica. With his diplomatic skills and his openness towards modern society, "he gained respect for himself and the papacy."[5]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Bologna

2.1 Archbishop 2.2 Cardinal

3 Pontificate

3.1 Peace efforts 3.2 Humanitarian efforts 3.3 After the war

4 Diplomatic agenda

4.1 Italy 4.2 France 4.3 Soviet Union 4.4 Lithuania and Estonia 4.5 Poland 4.6 Israel

5 Church affairs

5.1 Theology 5.2 Canon law reform 5.3 Catholic missions 5.4 Mariology

6 Writings

6.1 Ad beatissimi Apostolorum 6.2 Humani generis redemptionem 6.3 Quod iam diu 6.4 Maximum illud

7 Beatifications and canonizations

7.1 Doctor of the Church

8 Personality and appearance 9 Death and legacy 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

Early life[edit]

Giacomo in 1866 at age twelve

Giacomo della Chiesa was born at Pegli, a suburb of Genoa, Italy, third son of Marchese
Marchese
Giuseppe della Chiesa and his wife Marchesa Giovanna Migliorati. Genealogy findings report that his father's side produced Pope Callixtus II and also claimed descent from Berengar II of Italy and that his maternal family produced Pope
Pope
Innocent VII.[7] He is also a descendant of Blessed Antonio della Chiesa. His wish to become a priest was rejected early on by his father who insisted on a legal career for his son.[8] At age 21 he acquired a doctorate in Law on 2 August 1875. He had attended the University of Genoa, which after the unification of Italy, was largely dominated by anti-Catholic and anti-clerical politics. With his doctorate in Law and at legal age, he again asked his father for permission to study for the priesthood, which was now reluctantly granted. He insisted however, that his son conduct his theological studies in Rome
Rome
not in Genoa, so that he would not end up as a village priest or provincial Monsignore.[9] Della Chiesa entered the Collegio Capranica
Collegio Capranica
and was there in Rome when, in 1878, Pope
Pope
Pius IX
Pius IX
died and was followed by Pope
Pope
Leo XIII. The new pope received the students of the Capranica in private audience only a few days after his coronation. Shortly thereafter, della Chiesa was ordained a priest by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta on 21 December 1878.[10] From 1878 until 1883 he studied at the Pontificia Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici in Rome. It was there, on every Thursday, that students were required to defend a research paper, to which cardinals and high members of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
were invited. Cardinal Mariano Rampolla took note of him and furthered his entry in the diplomatic service of the Vatican in 1882, where he was employed by Rampolla as a secretary and soon to be posted to Madrid.[11] When Rampolla subsequently was appointed Cardinal Secretary of State, della Chiesa followed him. During these years, della Chiesa helped negotiate the resolution of a dispute between Germany and Spain over the Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
as well as organising relief during a cholera epidemic. His ambitious mother, Marchesa
Marchesa
della Chiesa, is said to have been discontented with the career of her son, cornering Rampolla with the words, that in her opinion, Giacomo was not properly recognised in the Vatican. Rampolla allegedly replied, Signora, your son will take only a few steps, but they will be gigantic ones.[12] Just after Leo XIII's death in 1903, Rampolla tried to make della Chiesa the secretary of the conclave, but the Holy College elected Rafael Merry del Val, a conservative young prelate, the first sign that Rampolla would not be the next Pope. When Cardinal Rampolla had to leave his post with the election of his opponent Pope
Pope
Pius X, and was succeeded by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, della Chiesa was retained in his post. Bologna[edit]

Pope
Pope
Pius X
Pius X
consecrates his future successor Pope
Pope
Benedict XV as Archbishop
Archbishop
Giacomo della Chiesa in the Vatican on 22 December 1907

Archbishop[edit] Della Chiesa's association with Rampolla, the architect of Pope
Pope
Leo XIII's (1878–1903) foreign policy, made his position in the Secretariat of State under the new pontificate somewhat uncomfortable. Italian papers announced that on 15 April 1907 the papal nuncio Aristide Rinaldini
Aristide Rinaldini
in Madrid
Madrid
would be replaced by della Chiesa, who had worked there before. Pius X, chuckling over the journalist's knowledge, commented, "Unfortunately, the paper forgot to mention whom I nominated as the next Archbishop
Archbishop
of Bologna."[13] The Vatican had supposedly "gone so far as to make out the papers naming him the papal nuncio, but [della Chiesa] refused to accept them".[14] On 18 December 1907, in the presence of his family, the diplomatic corps, numerous bishops and cardinals, and his friend Rampolla, he received the episcopal consecration from Pope
Pope
Pius X
Pius X
himself. The Pope
Pope
donated his own episcopal ring and crosier to the new bishop and spent much time with the della Chiesa family on the following day.[15] On 23 February 1908, della Chiesa took possession of his new dioceses, which included 700,000 persons, 750 priests, as well as 19 male and 78 female religious institutes. In the episcopal seminary, some 25 teachers educated 120 students preparing for the priesthood.[16] As bishop, he visited all parishes, making a special effort to see the smaller ones in the mountains which could only be accessed by horse. He always saw preaching as the main obligation of a bishop. He usually gave two or more sermons a day during his visitations. His emphasis was on cleanliness inside all churches and chapels and on saving money wherever possible, for he said, "Let us save to give to the poor."[17] A meeting of all priests in a synod had to be postponed at the wish of the Vatican considering ongoing changes in Canon Law. Numerous churches were built or restored. He personally originated a major reform of the educational orientation of the seminary, adding more science courses and classic education to the curriculum.[18] He organized pilgrimages to Marian shrines in Loreto and Lourdes at the 50th anniversary of the apparition.[19] The unexpected death of his friend, supporter and mentor Rampolla on 16 December 1913[20] was a major blow to della Chiesa, who was one of the beneficiaries of his will.[19] Cardinal[edit]

Archbishop
Archbishop
della Chiesa on pastoral visit in 1910

It was a custom that the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Bologna
Bologna
would be made a cardinal in one of the coming consistories. In Bologna
Bologna
this was surely expected of della Chiesa as well, since, in previous years, either cardinals were named as archbishops, or archbishops as cardinals soon thereafter.[21] Pius X
Pius X
did not follow this tradition and left della Chiesa waiting for almost seven years. When a delegation from Bologna visited him to ask for della Chiesa's promotion to the College of Cardinals, he jokingly replied by making fun of his own family name, Sarto (meaning "tailor"), for he said, "Sorry, but a Sarto has not been found yet to make the cardinal's robe."[21] Some suspected that Pius X
Pius X
or persons close to him did not want to have two Rampollas in the College of Cardinals.

Benedict XV as Cardinal Della Chiesa in 1914

Cardinal Rampolla died 16 December 1913. On 25 May 1914, della Chiesa was created a cardinal, becoming Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of the titulus Santi Quattro Coronati, which before him was occupied by Pietro Respighi. When the new cardinal tried to return to Bologna
Bologna
after the consistory in Rome, an unrelated socialist, anti-monarchic and anti-Catholic uprising began to take place in Central Italy. This was accompanied by a general strike, the looting and destruction of churches, telephone connections and railway buildings, and a proclamation of a secular republic. In Bologna
Bologna
itself, citizens and the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
opposed such developments successfully. The Socialists overwhelmingly won the following regional elections with great majorities.[22] As World War I
World War I
approached, the question was hotly discussed in Italy as to which side to be on. Officially, Italy was still in an alliance with Germany and Austria–Hungary. However, in the Tirol, an integral part of Austria which was mostly German-speaking, the southern part, the province of Trento, was exclusively Italian-speaking. The clergy of Bologna
Bologna
was not totally free from nationalistic fervor either. Therefore, in his capacity as Archbishop, on the outbreak of World War I, della Chiesa made a speech on the Church's position and duties, emphasizing the need for neutrality, promoting peace and the easing of suffering.[23] Pontificate[edit]

Coronation of Pope
Pope
Benedict XV in 1914

Papal styles of Pope
Pope
Benedict XV

Reference style His Holiness

Spoken style Your Holiness

Religious style Holy Father

Posthumous style None

Following the death of Pius X, the resulting conclave opened at the end of August 1914. The war would clearly be the dominant issue of the new pontificate, so the cardinals' priority was to choose a man with great diplomatic experience. Thus on 3 September 1914, della Chiesa, despite having been a cardinal only three months, was elected pope, taking the name of Benedict XV. He chose the name in honour of Pope Benedict XIV
Benedict XIV
who was also bishop from Bologna.[24] Upon being elected pope, he was also formally the Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, prefect of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office and prefect of the Sacred Consistorial Congregation. There was, however, a Cardinal-Secretary to run these bodies on a day-to-day basis. Due to the enduring Roman Question, after the announcement of his election to the papacy by the Cardinal Protodeacon, Benedict XV, following in the footsteps of his two most recent predecessors, did not appear at the balcony of St. Peter's basilica to grant the urbi et orbi blessing. Benedict XV was crowned at the Sistine Chapel on 6 September 1914, and, also as a form of protest due to the Roman Question, there was no ceremony for the formal possession of the Cathedral of St. John Lateran. Benedict XV's pontificate was dominated by World War I, which he termed, along with its turbulent aftermath, "the suicide of Europe." Benedict's first encyclical extended a heartfelt plea for an end to hostilities. His early call for a Christmas truce
Christmas truce
in 1914 was ignored. Late in the war, in May–October 1917, the apparitions of Our Lady of Fatima occurred in Fatima, Portugal, apparitions that would be declared "worthy of belief" in 1930 during the papacy of his successor, Pius XI. Peace efforts[edit]

Eugenio Pacelli
Eugenio Pacelli
at the Imperial Headquarters with the peace proposal of Benedict XV to Emperor William II

The war and its consequences were Benedict's main focus during the early years of his pontificate. He declared the neutrality of the Holy See and attempted from that perspective to mediate peace in 1916 and 1917. Both sides rejected his initiatives. The national antagonisms between the warring parties were accentuated by religious differences before the war, with France, Italy and Belgium being largely Catholic. Vatican relations with Great Britain were good, while neither Prussia
Prussia
nor Imperial Germany
Imperial Germany
had any official relations with the Vatican. In Protestant circles of Germany, the notion was popular that the Catholic Pope
Pope
was neutral on paper only, strongly favoring the allies instead.[25] Benedict was said to have prompted Austria–Hungary
Austria–Hungary
to go to war in order to weaken the German war machine. Also, allegedly, the Papal Nuncio
Nuncio
in Paris explained in a meeting of the Institut Catholique, "to fight against France is to fight against God",[25] and the Pope
Pope
was said to have exclaimed that he was sorry not to be a Frenchman.[25] The Belgian Cardinal Désiré-Joseph Mercier, known as a brave patriot during German occupation but also famous for his anti-German propaganda, was said to have been favored by Benedict XV for his enmity to the German cause. After the war, Benedict also allegedly praised the Treaty of Versailles, which humiliated the Germans.[25] These allegations were rejected by the Vatican's Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri, who wrote on 4 March 1916 that the Holy See
Holy See
is completely impartial and does not favor the allied side. This was even more important, so Gasparri noted, after the diplomatic representatives of Germany and Austria–Hungary
Austria–Hungary
to the Vatican were expelled from Rome
Rome
by Italian authorities.[26] However, considering all this, German Protestants rejected any "Papal Peace", calling it insulting. French politician Georges Clemenceau, a fierce anti-clerical, claimed to regard the Vatican initiative as anti-French. Benedict made many unsuccessful attempts to negotiate peace, but these pleas for a negotiated peace made him unpopular, even in Catholic countries like Italy, among many supporters of the war who were determined to accept nothing less than total victory.[27] On 1 August 1917, Benedict issued a seven-point peace plan stating that

(1) "the moral force of right ... be substituted for the material force of arms," (2) there must be "simultaneous and reciprocal diminution of armaments," (3) a mechanism for "international arbitration" must be established," (4) "true liberty and common rights over the sea" should exist, (5) there should be a "renunciation of war indemnities," (6) occupied territories should be evacuated, and (7) there should be "an examination ... of rival claims."

In other words, after three years of war, and several million deaths, the belligerent nations were expected to return to their starting points as if nothing had happened. Great Britain reacted favorably though popular opinion was mixed.[28] United States President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
rejected the plan. Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary were also favorable, but Germany replied ambiguously.[29][30] Benedict also called for outlawing conscription,[31] a call he repeated in 1921.[32] Some of the proposals eventually were included in Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
call for peace in January 1918.[27][33] In Europe, each side saw him as biased in favor of the other and was unwilling to accept the terms he proposed. Still, although unsuccessful, his diplomatic efforts during the war are credited with an increase of papal prestige and served as a model in the 20th century for the peace efforts of Pius XII
Pius XII
before and during World War II, the policies of Paul VI
Paul VI
during the Vietnam War, and the position of John Paul II
John Paul II
before and during the War in Iraq.[27] In addition to his efforts in the field of international diplomacy Pope
Pope
Benedict also tried to bring about peace through Christian faith, as he published a special prayer in 1915 to be spoken by Catholics throughout the world.[34] There is a statue in Saint Peter's Basilica of the Pontiff absorbed in prayer, kneeling on a tomb which commemorates a fallen soldier of the war, which he described as a "useless massacre". Humanitarian efforts[edit]

Nuncio
Nuncio
Eugenio Pacelli
Eugenio Pacelli
delivers packages from Benedict XV to Italian POWs in 1917

Almost from the beginning of the war, November 1914, Benedict negotiated with the warring parties about an exchange of wounded and other prisoners of war who were unable to continue fighting. Tens of thousands of such prisoners were exchanged through his intervention.[26] On 15 January 1915, he proposed an exchange of civilians from the occupied zones, which resulted in 20,000 persons being sent to unoccupied Southern France in one month.[26] In 1916, Benedict managed to hammer out an agreement between both sides by which 29,000 prisoners with lung disease from the gas attacks could be sent into Switzerland.[35] In May 1918, he also negotiated an agreement whereby prisoners on both sides with at least 18 months of captivity and four children at home would also be sent to neutral Switzerland.[26] He succeeded in 1915 in reaching an agreement by which the warring parties promised not to let prisoners of war (POWs) work on Sundays and holidays. Several individuals on both sides were spared the death penalty after his intervention. Hostages were exchanged and corpses repatriated.[26] The Pope
Pope
founded the Opera dei Prigionieri to assist in distributing information on prisoners. By the end of the war, some 600,000 items of correspondence were processed by the Vatican. Almost a third of it concerned missing persons. Some 40,000 people had asked for help in the repatriation of sick POWs and 50,000 letters were sent from families to their loved ones who were POWs.[36] Both during and after the war, Benedict was primarily concerned about the fate of the children, on whose behalf he issued an encyclical. In 1916 he appealed to the people and clergy of the United States to help him feed the starving children in German-occupied Belgium. His aid to children was not limited to Belgium but extended to children in Lithuania, Poland, Lebanon, Montenegro, Syria and Russia.[37] Benedict was particularly appalled at the new military invention of aerial warfare and protested several times against it to no avail.[38]

Excerpt from the letter of Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
to Benedict XV. 24 Dec 1918

In May and June 1915, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
waged a campaign against the Armenian Christian minorities, which by many contemporary accounts was considered a genocide or a holocaust in Anatolia. The Vatican attempted to get Germany and Austria–Hungary
Austria–Hungary
involved in protesting to its Turkish ally. The Pope
Pope
himself sent a personal letter to the Sultan, who was also Caliph
Caliph
of Islam. It had no success “as over a million Armenians died, either killed outright by the Turks or from maltreatment or starvation."[38]

After the war[edit] At the time, the anti-Vatican resentment, combined with Italian diplomatic moves to isolate the Vatican in light of the unresolved Roman Question,[39] contributed to the exclusion of the Vatican from the Paris Peace conference of 1919 (although it was also part of a historical pattern of political and diplomatic marginalization of the papacy after the loss of the Papal States). Despite this, he wrote an encyclical pleading for international reconciliation, Pacem, Dei Munus Pulcherrimum.[40] After the war, Benedict focused the Vatican's activities on overcoming famine and misery in Europe
Europe
and establishing contacts and relations with the many new states which were created because of the demise of Imperial Russia, Austria–Hungary, and Germany. Large food shipments, and information about and contacts with POWs, were to be the first steps for a better understanding of the papacy in Europe.[4] Regarding the Versailles Peace Conference, the Vatican believed that the economic conditions imposed on Germany were too harsh and threatened the European economic stability as a whole. Cardinal Gasparri believed that the peace conditions and the humiliation of the Germans would likely result in another war as soon as Germany would be militarily in a position to start one.[41] The Vatican also rejected the dissolution of Austria–Hungary, seeing in this step an inevitable and eventual strengthening of Germany.[42] The Vatican also had great reservations about the creation of small successor states which, in the view of Gasparri, were not viable economically and therefore condemned to economic misery.[43] Benedict rejected the League of Nations
League of Nations
as a secular organization that was not built on Christian values.[44] On the other hand, he also condemned European nationalism that was rampant in the 1920s and asked for "European Unification" in his 1920 encyclical :it:Pacem Dei Munus Pulcherrimum, "peace, a beautiful gift of God".[44] The pope was also disturbed by the Communist revolution in Russia. He reacted with horror to the strongly anti-religious policies adopted by Vladimir Lenin's government along with the bloodshed and widespread famine which occurred during the subsequent Russian Civil War. He undertook the greatest efforts trying to help the victims of the Russian famine with millions in relief.[44] Following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, concerns were raised in the Vatican about the safety and future of the Catholics in the Holy Land. Diplomatic agenda[edit]

Under Pope
Pope
Benedict XV Cardinals Domenico Ferrata
Domenico Ferrata
(above) and Rafael Merry del Val in 1914 switched positions in the Vatican

In the post-war period, Pope
Pope
Benedict XV was involved in developing the Church administration to deal with the new international system that had emerged. The papacy was faced with the emergence of numerous new states such as Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Finland, and others. Germany, France, Italy, and Austria were impoverished from the war. In addition, the traditional social and cultural European order was threatened by right-wing nationalism and fascism as well as left-wing socialism and communism, all of which potentially threatened the existence and freedom of the Church. To deal with these and related issues, Benedict engaged in what he knew best, a large scale diplomatic offensive to secure the rights of the faithful in all countries. Italy[edit] Leo XIII
Leo XIII
already had agreed to the participation of Catholics in local but not national politics. Relations with Italy improved as well under Benedict XV, who de facto reversed the stiff anti-Italian policy of his predecessors by allowing Catholics to participate in national elections as well. This led to a surgence of the Partito Popolare Italiano under Luigi Sturzo. Anti-Catholic
Anti-Catholic
politicians were gradually replaced by persons who were neutral or even sympathetic to the Catholic Church. The King of Italy himself gave signals of his desire for better relations, when, for example, he sent personal condolences to the Pontiff on the death of his brother.[45] The working conditions for Vatican staff greatly improved and feelers were extended on both sides to solve the Roman Question. Benedict XV strongly supported a solution and seemed to have had a fairly pragmatic view of the political and social situation in Italy at this time. Thus, while numerous traditional Catholics opposed voting rights for women, the pope was in favour, arguing that, unlike the feminist protagonists, most women would vote conservative and thus support traditional Catholic positions.[46] France[edit]

Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
enters Orléans (painting by J.J. Sherer, 1887) Joan was canonized by Pope
Pope
Benedict XV in 1920.

Benedict XV attempted to improve relations with the anti-clerical Republican government of France. He canonized the French national heroine Saint Joan of Arc. In the mission territories of the Third World, he emphasized the necessity of training native priests to quickly replace the European missionaries, and founded the Pontifical Oriental Institute and the Coptic College in the Vatican. Pius XI would entrust the "Orientale" to the Jesuits
Jesuits
and make it a part of the Jesuit's Gregorian Consortium
Gregorian Consortium
in Rome
Rome
(along with the Gregorian University and the Biblicum).[47] In 1921, France re-established diplomatic relations with the Vatican.[48] Soviet Union[edit]

Cardinal Secretary of State
Cardinal Secretary of State
Pietro Gasparri

Main article: Holy See– Soviet Union
Soviet Union
relations The end of the war caused the revolutionary development, which Benedict XV had foreseen in his first encyclical. With the Russian Revolution, the Vatican was faced with a new, so far unknown, situation. Lithuania and Estonia[edit]

His friend Cardinal Rampolla at age 70 shortly before his death

The relations with Russia changed drastically for a second reason. The Baltic states
Baltic states
and Poland gained their independence from Russia after World War I, thus enabling a relatively free Church life in those former Russia-controlled countries. Estonia was the first country to look for Vatican ties. On 11 April 1919, Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri
Pietro Gasparri
informed the Estonian authorities that the Vatican would agree to have diplomatic relations. A concordat was agreed upon in principle a year later in June 1920. It was signed on 30 May 1922. It guaranteed freedom for the Catholic Church, established archdioceses, liberated clergy from military service, allowed the creation of seminaries and Catholic schools, and enshrined church property rights and immunity. The Archbishop
Archbishop
swore alliance to Estonia.[49] Relations with Catholic Lithuania were slightly more complicated because of the Polish occupation of Vilnius, a city and archiepiscopal seat, which Lithuania claimed as its own. Polish forces had occupied Vilnius
Vilnius
and committed acts of brutality in its Catholic seminary there. This generated several protests by Lithuania to the Holy See.[50] Relations with the Holy See
Holy See
were defined during the pontificate of Pope
Pope
Pius XI
Pius XI
(1922–1939) Poland[edit] Before all other heads of State, Pope
Pope
Benedict XV in October 1918 congratulated the Polish people on their independence.[51] In a public letter to Archbishop
Archbishop
Kakowski of Warsaw, he remembered their loyalty and the many efforts of the Holy See
Holy See
to assist them. He expressed his hopes that Poland would again take its place in the family of nations and continue its history as an educated Christian nation.[51] In March 1919, he nominated 10 new bishops and, soon after, Achille Ratti
Achille Ratti
as papal nuncio who was already in Warsaw
Warsaw
as his representative.[51] He repeatedly cautioned Polish authorities against persecuting Lithuanian and Ruthenian clergy.[52] During the Bolshevik advance against Warsaw, he asked for worldwide public prayers for Poland. Nuncio
Nuncio
Ratti was the only foreign diplomat to stay in the Polish capital. On 11 June 1921, he wrote to the Polish episcopate, warning against political misuses of spiritual power, urging again for peaceful coexistence with neighbouring peoples, stating that “love of country has its limits in justice and obligations.”[53] He sent nuncio Ratti to Silesia
Silesia
to act against potential political agitations of the Catholic clergy.[52] Ratti, a scholar, intended to work for Poland and build bridges to the Soviet Union, hoping even to shed his blood for Russia.[54] Pope Benedict XV needed him as a diplomat and not as a martyr and forbade any trip into the USSR
USSR
even though he was the official papal delegate to Russia.[54] However, he continued his contacts with Russia. This did not generate much sympathy for him within Poland at the time. He was asked to go. “While he tried honestly to show himself as a friend of Poland, Warsaw
Warsaw
forced his departure after his neutrality in Silesian voting was questioned”[55] by Germans and Poles. Nationalistic Germans objected to a Polish nuncio supervising elections, and Poles were upset because he curtailed agitating clergy.[56] On 20 November, when German Cardinal Adolf Bertram announced a papal ban on all political activities of clergymen, calls for Ratti's expulsion climaxed in Warsaw.[56] Two years later, Achille Ratti became Pope
Pope
Pius XI, shaping Vatican policies towards Poland with Pietro Gasparri
Pietro Gasparri
and Eugenio Pacelli
Eugenio Pacelli
for the following 36 years (1922–1958). Israel[edit] As part of the preliminary diplomatic negotiations leading to the Balfour Declaration, Pope
Pope
Benedict gave his support to a Jewish homeland in Palestine to Zionist diplomat Nahum Sokolow
Nahum Sokolow
on 4 May 1917, describing the return of the Jews to Palestine as "providential; God has willed it."[57] Church affairs[edit]

The handwriting of Pope
Pope
Benedict XV

Theology[edit] In internal Church affairs, Benedict XV reiterated Pius X's condemnation of Modernist scholars and the errors in modern philosophical systems in Ad beatissimi Apostolorum. He declined to readmit to full communion scholars who had been excommunicated during the previous pontificate. However, he calmed what he saw as the excesses of the anti-Modernist campaign within the Church. On 25 July 1920, he wrote the motu proprio Bonum sane
Bonum sane
on Saint Joseph
Saint Joseph
and against naturalism and socialism. Canon law reform[edit] Main article: 1917 Code of Canon Law In 1917 Benedict XV promulgated the Church's first comprehensive Code of Canon Law, the preparation of which had been commissioned by Pope St. Pius X, and which is thus known as the Pio-Benedictine Code. This Code, which entered into force in 1918, was the first consolidation of the Church's Canon Law
Canon Law
into a modern Code made up of simple articles. Previously, Canon Law
Canon Law
was dispersed in a variety of sources and partial compilations. The new codification of canon law is credited with reviving religious life and providing judicial clarity throughout the Church.[5] In addition, continuing the concerns of Leo XIII, he furthered Eastern Catholic culture, theology and liturgy by founding an Oriental Institute for them in Rome[5] and creating the Sacred Congregation for the Oriental Church in 1917. Catholic missions[edit] On 30 November 1919, Benedict XV appealed to all Catholics worldwide to sacrifice for Catholic missions, stating at the same time in Maximum Illud that these missions should foster local culture and not import European cultures.[5] The damages of such cultural imports[58] were particularly grave in Africa and Asia, where many missionaries were deported and incarcerated if they happened to originate from a hostile nation. Mariology[edit]

"Salus Populi Romani"

Pope
Pope
Benedict personally addressed in numerous letters the pilgrims at Marian sanctuaries. He named Mary the Patron of Bavaria, and permitted, in Mexico, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of Guadaloupe. He authorised the Feast of Mary Mediator of all Graces.[6] He condemned the misuse of Marian statues and pictures, dressed in priestly robes, which he outlawed 4 April 1916.[59] On 10 May 1916, Pope
Pope
Benedict declared the image and Marian title of Our Lady of Charity of El Cobre as Patroness of Cuba at the written request of the soldier veterans of the Cuban War of Independence. During World War I, Benedict placed the world under the protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary
and added the invocation Mary Queen of Peace to the Litany of Loreto. He promoted Marian veneration throughout the world by elevating 20 well-known Marian shrines such as Ettal Abbey
Ettal Abbey
in Bavaria into Basilica Minors. He also promoted Marian devotions in May.[60] The dogmatic constitution on the Church issued by the Second Vatican Council quotes the Marian theology of Benedict XV.[61] Pope
Pope
Benedict issued the motu proprio Bonum sane
Bonum sane
on 25 July 1920, encouraging devotion to Saint Joseph
Saint Joseph
"since through St. Joseph we go directly to Mary, and through Mary to the source of every holiness, Jesus
Jesus
Christ, who consecrated the domestic virtues with his obedience to St. Joseph and Mary."[62] He issued an encyclical on Ephraim the Syrian
Ephraim the Syrian
depicting Ephraim as a model of Marian devotion, as well as the Apostolic Letter
Apostolic Letter
Inter Soldalica of 22 March 1918.[63]

"As the blessed Virgin Mary does not seem to participate in the public life of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and then, suddenly appears at the stations of his cross, she is not there without divine intention. She suffers with her suffering and dying son, almost as if she would have died herself. For the salvation of mankind, she gave up her rights as the mother of her son and sacrificed him for the reconciliation of divine justice, as far as she was permitted to do. Therefore, one can say, she redeemed with Christ the human race."[63]

Writings[edit] During his seven-year pontificate, Benedict XV wrote a total of twelve encyclicals. In addition to the encyclicals mentioned, he issued In hac tanta on St. Boniface (14 May 1919), Paterno iam diu on the Children of Central Europe
Europe
(24 November 1919), Spiritus Paraclitus on St. Jerome
Jerome
(September 1920), Principi Apostolorum Petro on St. Ephram the Syrian (5 October 1920), Annus iam plenus also on Children in Central Europe
Europe
(1 December 1920), Sacra propediem on the Third Order of St. Francis (6 January 1921), In praeclara summorum on Dante (30 April 1921), and Fausto appetente die on St. Dominic (29 June 1921). His Apostolic Exhortations include Ubi primum (8 September 1914), Allorché fummo chiamati (28 July 1915) and Dès le début (1 August 1917). The Papal bulls
Papal bulls
of Benedict XV include Incruentum Altaris (10 August 1915), Providentissima Mater (27 May 1917), Sedis huius (14 May 1919), and Divina disponente (16 May 1920). Benedict issued nine Briefs during his pontificate: Divinum praeceptum (December 1915), Romanorum Pontificum (February 1916), Cum Catholicae Ecclesiae (April 1916), Cum Biblia Sacra (August 1916), Cum Centesimus (October 1916), Centesimo Hodie (October 1916), Quod Ioannes (April 1917), In Africam quisnam (June 1920), and Quod nobis in condendo (September 1920). Ad beatissimi Apostolorum[edit] Ad beatissimi Apostolorum is an encyclical of Benedict XV given at St. Peter's, Rome, on the Feast of All Saints on 1 November 1914, in the first year of his pontificate. This first encyclical coincided with the beginning of World War I, which he labeled "The Suicide of Civilized Europe." Benedict described the combatants as the greatest and wealthiest nations of the earth, stating that "they are well-provided with the most awful weapons modern military science has devised, and they strive to destroy one another with refinements of horror. There is no limit to the measure of ruin and of slaughter; day by day the earth is drenched with newly shed blood and is covered with the bodies of the wounded and of the slain."[64] In light of the senseless slaughter, the pope pleaded for "peace on earth to men of good will" (Luke 2:14), insisting that there are other ways and means whereby violated rights can be rectified.[65] The origin of the evil is a neglect of the precepts and practices of Christian wisdom, particularly a lack of love and compassion. Jesus Christ came down from Heaven for the very purpose of restoring among men the Kingdom of Peace, as He stated, "A new commandment I give unto you: That you love one another."[66] This message is repeated in John 15:12, in which Jesus
Jesus
says, "This is my commandment that you love one another."[67] Materialism, nationalism, racism, and class warfare are the characteristics of the age instead, so Benedict XV described:

"Race hatred has reached its climax; peoples are more divided by jealousies than by frontiers; within one and the same nation, within the same city there rages the burning envy of class against class; and amongst individuals it is self-love which is the supreme law over-ruling everything."[68]

Humani generis redemptionem[edit] The encyclical Humani generis redemptionem from 15 June 1917, deals with blatant ineffectiveness of Christian preaching. According to Benedict XV, there are more preachers of the Word than ever before, but "in the state of public and private morals as well as the constitutions and laws of nations, there is a general disregard and forgetfulness of the supernatural, a gradual falling away from the strict standard of Christian virtue, and that men are slipping back into the shameful practices of paganism."[69] The Pope
Pope
squarely put part of the blame on those ministers of the Gospel who do not handle it as they should. It is not the times but the incompetent Christian preachers who are to blame, for no one today can say for sure that the Apostles
Apostles
were living in better times than ours. Perhaps, the encyclical states, that the Apostles
Apostles
found minds more readily devoted to the Gospel, or they may have met others with less opposition to the law of God.[70] As the encyclical tells, first are the Catholic bishops. The Council of Trent
Council of Trent
taught that preaching "is the paramount duty of Bishops."[71] The Apostles, whose successors the bishops are, looked upon the Church as something theirs, for it was they who received the grace of the Holy Spirit to begin it. Saint Paul wrote to the Corinthians, "Christ sent us not to baptize, but to preach the Gospel."[72] Council of Trent
Council of Trent
Bishops are required to select for this priestly office those only who are "fit" for the position, i.e. those who "can exercise the ministry of preaching with profit to souls." Profiting souls does not mean doing such "eloquently or with popular applause, but rather with spiritual fruit."[73] The Pope
Pope
requested that all the priests who are incapable of preaching or of hearing confession be removed from the position.[74] The encyclical helps to draw out the message that priests must concentrate on the Word on God and the benefitting of souls before their own selves. Quod iam diu[edit] Quod iam diu was an encyclical given at Rome
Rome
at St. Peter's on 1 December 1918, in the fifth year of his Pontificate. It requested that, after World War I, all Catholics of the world pray for a lasting peace and for those who are entrusted to make such during peace negotiations. The pope noted that true peace has not yet arrived, but the Armistice has suspended the slaughter and devastation by land, sea and air.[75] It is the obligation of all Catholics to "invoke Divine assistance for all who take part in the peace conference," as the encyclical states. The Pope
Pope
concludes that prayer is essential for the delegates who are to meet to define peace, as they are in need of much support.[76] Maximum illud[edit] Maximum Illud is an apostolic letter of Benedict XV issued on November 30, 1919, dealing with the Catholic missions. After reminding bishops of their responsibility to support the missions, he advised missionaries not to regard the mission as their own but to welcome others to the task and to collaborate with those around them. He underlined the necessity of proper preparation for the work in foreign cultures and the need to acquire language skills before doing such work, especially in the Orient. He tells missionaries that: "Especially among the infidels, who are guided more by instinct than by reason, preaching by example is much more profitable than that of words". He requested a continued striving for personal sanctity and praised the selfless work of women religious in the missions.[77] "Mission", however, "is not only for missionaries, but all Catholics must participate through their apostolate of prayer, by supporting vocations, and by helping financially."[78] The letter concludes with the naming of several organizations which organize and supervise mission activities within the Catholic Church.[79][80] Beatifications and canonizations[edit] Benedict XV canonized a total of four individuals including Joan of Arc and Marguerite Marie Alacoque. He also beatified a total of thirty six people, including the Uganda Martyrs, Oliver Plunkett
Oliver Plunkett
and Louise de Marillac. Doctor of the Church[edit] He named Ephrem the Syrian
Ephrem the Syrian
as a Doctor of the Church
Doctor of the Church
on 5 October 1920. Personality and appearance[edit]

The birthplace of Pope
Pope
Benedict XV in Pegli

Pope
Pope
Benedict was a slight man. He wore the smallest of three cassocks that were prepared for the election of a new pope in 1914, and became known as "Il Piccoletto" or "The Little Man". He was dignified in bearing and courtly in terms of manners, but his appearance was not that of a pope. He had a sallow complexion, a mat of black hair, and prominent teeth. Everything about him seemed crooked, from his nose to his eyes and shoulders.[81] He was renowned for his generosity, answering all pleas for help from poor Roman families with large cash gifts from his private revenues. When he was short on money, those who would be admitted to an audience would often be instructed by prelates not to mention their financial woes, as Benedict would inevitably feel guilty that he could not help the needy at the time. He also depleted the Vatican's official revenues with large-scale charitable expenditure during World War I. Upon his death, the Vatican Treasury had been depleted to the equivalent in Italian lire of U.S. $19,000.[82] Benedict XV was a careful innovator by Vatican standards. He was known to carefully consider all novelties before he ordered their implementation, then insisting on them to the fullest. He rejected clinging to the past for the past's sake with the words "Let us live in the present and not in history."[83] His relation to secular Italian powers was reserved yet positive, avoiding conflict and tacitly supporting the Royal Family of Italy. Yet, like Pius IX
Pius IX
and Leo XIII, he also protested against interventions of State authorities in internal Church affairs.[83] Pope
Pope
Benedict was not considered a man of letters. He did not publish educational or devotional books. His encyclicals are pragmatic and down-to-earth, intelligent and at times far-sighted. He remained neutral during the battles of the "Great War," when almost everybody else was claiming "sides." Like that of Pius XII
Pius XII
during World War II, his neutrality was questioned by all sides then and even to this day.[84] Benedict XV personally had a strong devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. He gave his support to an understanding of Mary as Mediatrix of All Graces by approving a Mass and office under this title for the dioceses of Belgium. He stated in his apostolic letter Inter Sodalicia that "together with Christ, she redeemed the human race" by her immolation of Christ as his sorrowful mother. Lumen gentium
Lumen gentium
of Vatican II would add a footnote to the title of "Mediatrix", that "This, however, is to be so understood that it neither takes away from nor adds anything to the dignity and efficaciousness of Christ the one Mediator".[85] Death and legacy[edit]

Tomb of Benedict XV in the grottoes of St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
in Vatican City

Statue of Benedict XV in the courtyard of St. Esprit Cathedral, Istanbul

Benedict XV celebrated Mass with the nuns at the Domus Sanctae Marthae and while he waited for his driver out in the rain he fell ill with the flu which turned into pneumonia. After a month of pain he succumbed to that illness on 22 January 1922 at the age of 67, his nephews alongside him. After his death, flags were flown at half-staff in memory of him and as a tribute to him. His body then lay in state for the people to see before being moved for burial in the Vatican grottos.[86] Possibly the least remembered pope of the twentieth century, Benedict XV, nevertheless, made valiant efforts to end World War I. In 2005, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
recognized the significance of his long-ago predecessor's commitment to peace by taking the same name upon his own rise to the pontificate. Benedict XV's humane approach to the world in 1914–1918 starkly contrasted with that of the monarchs and leaders of the time. His worth is reflected in the tribute engraved at the foot of the statue that the Turks, a non-Catholic, non-Christian people, erected of him in Istanbul: "The great Pope
Pope
of the world tragedy,... the benefactor of all people, irrespective of nationality or religion." This monument stands in the courtyard of the St. Esprit Cathedral. Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
showed high regard for Benedict XV, who had consecrated him a bishop on 13 May 1917, the very day of the first reported apparitions of Our Lady of Fatima. While Pius XII
Pius XII
considered another Benedict, Benedict XIV, in terms of his sanctity and scholarly contributions to be worthy as Doctor of the Church,[87] he thought that Benedict XV during his short pontificate was truly a man of God, who worked for peace.[88] He helped prisoners of war and many others who needed help in dire times and was extremely generous to Russia.[89] He praised him as a Marian Pope
Pope
who promoted the devotion to Our Lady of Lourdes,[90] for his encyclicals Ad beatissimi Apostolorum, Humani generis redemptionem, Quod iam diu, and Spiritus Paraclitus, and for the codification of Canon Law,[91] which under della Chiesa and Pietro Gasparri, he as Eugenio Pacelli
Eugenio Pacelli
had the opportunity to participate in. Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
showed his own admiration for Benedict XV following his election to the papacy on 19 April 2005. The election of a new Pope
Pope
is often accompanied by conjecture over his choice of papal name; it is widely believed that a Pope
Pope
chooses the name of a predecessor whose teachings and legacy he wishes to continue. Ratzinger's choice of "Benedict" was seen as a signal that Benedict XV's views on humanitarian diplomacy, and his stance against relativism and modernism, would be emulated during the reign of the new Pope. During his first General Audience in St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
on 27 April 2005, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
paid tribute to Benedict XV when explaining his choice:

"Filled with sentiments of awe and thanksgiving, I wish to speak of why I chose the name Benedict. Firstly, I remember Pope
Pope
Benedict XV, that courageous prophet of peace, who guided the Church through turbulent times of war. In his footsteps I place my ministry in the service of reconciliation and harmony between peoples."

See also[edit]

List of encyclicals of Pope
Pope
Benedict XV List of meetings between the Pope
Pope
and the President of the United States Cardinals created by Benedict XV

Notes[edit]

^ English: James Paul John Baptist della Chiesa

References[edit]

^ Miranda, Salvador. "Della Chiesa, Giacomo", The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Florida International University ^ "CHIESA 1922 GENNAIO". Araldicavaticana.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22.  ^ Franzen 379 ^ a b Franzen 380 ^ a b c d e Franzen 382 ^ a b AAS 1921, 345 ^ George L. Williams, Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes (2004:133) ^ De Waal 7 ^ De Waal 14–15 ^ De Waal 19 ^ De Waal 43 ^ Pollard 15 ^ De Waal 68 ^ "The New Pope", The Wall Street Journal, 4 September 1914, p. 3. (Newspapers.com) ^ De Waal 70 ^ De Waal 82 ^ De Waal 102 ^ De Waal 100 ^ a b De Waal 121 ^ 1913 ^ a b De Waal 110 ^ De Waal 117 ^ De Waal 124 ^ Note on numbering: Pope
Pope
Benedict X is now considered an antipope. At the time, however, this status was not recognized, and so the man the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
officially considers the tenth true Pope
Pope
Benedict took the official number XI, rather than X. This has advanced the numbering of all subsequent Popes Benedict by one. Popes Benedict XI-XVI are, from an official point of view, the tenth through fifteenth popes by that name. In other words, there is no legitimate Pope
Pope
Benedict X. ^ a b c d Conrad Gröber, Handbuch der Religiösen Gegenwartsfragen, Herder Freiburg, Germany 1937, 493 ^ a b c d e Gröber 495 ^ a b c Pollard, 136 ^ Youssef Taouk, The Pope's Peace Note of 1917: the British response, Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society 37 (2) (2016), 193-207. ^ John R. Smestad Jr., Europe
Europe
1914–1945: Attempts at Peace Archived 8 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Loyola University New Orleans
Loyola University New Orleans
The Student Historical Journal 1994–1995 Vol XXVI. ^ Five of seven points of Benedict XV's peace plan. ^ “ Pope
Pope
in New Note to Ban Conscription,” “New York Times,” 23 September 1917, A1 ^ “ Pope
Pope
would clinch peace. Urges abolition of conscription as way to disarmament, New York Times, 16 November 1921, from Associated Press report. ^ Pope's Name Pays Homage To Benedict XV, Took Inspiration From An Anti-War Pontiff[permanent dead link], WCBSTV, 20 April 2005. ^ "Prayer for Peace from Pope
Pope
Benedict". Chicago Tribune. 1915-03-14. Retrieved 2015-03-01.  ^ Pollard 114 ^ Pollard 113 ^ Pollard 115 ^ a b Pollard 116 ^ Pollard 141 ff ^ DEI MUNUS PULCHERRIMUM ENCYCLICAL OF POPE BENEDICT XV ON PEACE AND CHRISTIAN RECONCILIATION TO THE PATRIARCHS, PRIMATES, ARCHBISHOPS, BISHOPS, AND ORDINARIES IN PEACE AND COMMUNION WITH THE HOLY SEE ^ Pollard 144 ^ Pollard, 145 ^ Pollard 145 ^ a b c Pollard 147 ^ Pollard 163 ^ Pollard 174 ^ "Storia del P.I.O." Orientale (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-12-20.  ^ Franzen 381, ^ Schmidlin III, 305 ^ Schmidlin III, 306. ^ a b c Schmidlin III, 306 ^ a b Schmidlin III, 307 ^ AAS 1921, 566 ^ a b Stehle 25 ^ Stehle 26 ^ a b Schmidlin IV, 15 ^ Kramer, Martin (12 June 2017). "How the Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration
Became Part of International Law". Mosaic. Retrieved 14 June 2017.  ^ World War One ^ AAS 1916 146 Baumann in Marienkunde; 673 ^ Schmidlin 179–339 ^ C VII, §50 ^ Pope
Pope
Benedict XV, Bonum Sane, §4, Vatican, 25 July 1920 ^ a b AAS, 1918, 181 ^ Ad beatissimi Apostolorum, 3 ^ Ad beatissimi Apostolorum, 4 ^ (John 14:34); ^ (John 15:12); ^ Ad beatissimi Apostolorum, 7 ^ Humani generis redemptionem 2 ^ Humani generis redemptionem 3 ^ [Sess., xxiv, De. Ref., c.iv] ^ [I Cor. i:17] ^ Humani generis redemptionem 7 ^ Humani generis redemptionem 9 ^ Quod iam diu, 1 ^ Quod iam diu, 2 ^ Maximum illud, 30 ^ Maximum Illud 30–36 ^ Maximum illud, 37–40 ^ "Maximum illud (30 novembre 1919) BENEDETTO XV". w2.vatican.va. Retrieved 2017-12-20.  ^ Kertzer, David I. (2014). The Pope
Pope
and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI
Pius XI
and the Rise of Fascism in Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198716167.  ^ Michael Burleigh, Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics from the Great War to the War on Terror, HarperCollins, 2007, p.70. ^ a b De Waal 122 ^ Pollard 86 ff ^ "Lumen gentium, 62". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 2017-12-20.  ^ " Pope
Pope
Benedict XV (1854-1922)". Find a Grave. 27 November 2001. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  ^ Pio XII, Discorsi, Roma 1939–1958, Vol. VIII, 419 ^ Discorsi, I 300 ^ Discorsi, II 346 ^ Discorsi XIX, 877 ^ Discorsi XIII,133

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Benedict XV

Peters, Walter H. The Life of Benedict XV. 1959. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company. Daughters of St. Paul. Popes of the Twentieth Century. 1983. Pauline Books and Media Pollard, John F. The Unknown Pope. 1999. London: Geoffrey Chapman

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pope
Pope
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Benedict XV

Vatican website: Benedict XV; texts of encyclicals etc. Canonization of Joan of Arc: by Benedict XV Pope
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Benedict XV at LibriVox
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Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

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Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
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Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
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Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
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Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
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Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

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Innocent XI Pope
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Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
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Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

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Pius VII Pope
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Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
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Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

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Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
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Pius XII Pope
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Pius XII
Pius XII
Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
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John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
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Paul VI Pope
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John Paul I Pope
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John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
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Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

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History of Catholic theology

General history

History of the Catholic Church Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical Councils Timeline of the Catholic Church History of Christianity History of Christian theology

Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope
Antipope
Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope
Pope
Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus
Jesus
of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

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Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 78769797 LCCN: n88167935 ISNI: 0000 0001 2140 7844 GND: 118655442 SELIBR: 177272 SUDOC: 029974518 BNF: cb12148662k (data) NLA: 35918519 NKC: jn20001005038 ICCU: ITICCURAVV76817 BNE: XX5348

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