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Pope
Pope
Paul III (Latin: Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope
Pope
from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome
Rome
in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
following the Protestant Reformation. During his pontificate, and in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation, new Catholic religious orders and societies, such as the Jesuits, the Barnabites, and the Congregation of the Oratory, attracted a popular following. He convened the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
in 1545. He was a significant patron of the arts and employed nepotism to advance the power and fortunes of his family. It is to Pope
Pope
Paul III that Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
dedicated De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
(On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres).

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life and career

2 Family 3 Politics and religion 4 Slavery 5 Patron of the arts 6 Ancestry 7 Fictional portrayals 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Biography[edit] Early life and career[edit] Born in 1468 at Canino, Latium
Latium
(then part of the Papal States), Alessandro Farnese was the oldest son of Pier Luigi I Farnese, Signore di Montalto (1435–1487) and his wife Giovanna Caetani,[1] a member of the Caetani
Caetani
family which had also produced Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII. The Farnese family
Farnese family
had prospered over the centuries but it was Alessandro’s ascendency to the papacy and his dedication to family interests which brought about the most significant increase in the family’s wealth and power. Alessandro’s humanist education was at the University of Pisa
University of Pisa
and the court of Lorenzo de' Medici.[2] Initially trained as an apostolic notary, he joined the Roman Curia
Curia
in 1491 and in 1493 Pope
Pope
Alexander VI appointed him Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma e Damiano. Farnese’s sister, Giulia was reputedly a mistress of Alexander VI and might have been instrumental in securing this appointment for her brother. For this reason, he was sometimes mockingly referred to as the "Borgia brother-in-law," just as Giulia was mocked as "the Bride of Christ." More disparagingly he was referred to as "Cardinal Fregnese" (translated as Cardinal Cunt).[3] As Bishop of Parma, he came under the influence of his vicar-general, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni. This led to the future pope breaking off the relationship with his mistress and committing himself to reform in his Parma
Parma
diocese.[4] Under Pope Clement VII
Clement VII
(1523–34) he became Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and dean of the College of Cardinals, and on the death of Clement VII
Clement VII
in 1534, was elected as Pope
Pope
Paul III. Family[edit]

Portrait of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, later Pope
Pope
Paul III, by Raphael, 1509–1511 (Museo di Capodimonte, Naples).

Cardinal Ascanio Sforza

As a young cleric, Alessandro lived a notably dissolute life, taking for himself a mistress and having three sons and two daughters with her.[4] By Silvia Ruffini, he fathered Pier Luigi Farnese, whom he created Duke of Parma; others included Ranuccio Farnese and Costanza Farnese. The elevation to the cardinalate of his grandsons, Alessandro Farnese, aged fourteen, and Guido Ascanio Sforza, aged sixteen, displeased the reform party and drew a protest from the emperor, but this was forgiven when, shortly after, he introduced into the Sacred College men of the calibre of Reginald Pole, Gasparo Contarini, Jacopo Sadoleto, and Giovanni Pietro Caraffa,[1] who became Pope
Pope
Paul IV.

Pope
Pope
Paul III and his Grandsons Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (left), and Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
(right), II Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
since 1547. A triple portrait by Titian, 1546

Politics and religion[edit] The fourth pope during the period of the Protestant Reformation, Paul III became the first to take active reform measures in response to Protestantism.[4] Soon after his elevation, 2 June 1536, Paul III summoned a general council to meet at Mantua in the following May; but the opposition of the Protestant princes and the refusal of the Duke of Mantua to assume the responsibility of maintaining order frustrated the project.[1] Paul III first deferred for a year and then discarded the whole project. In 1536, Paul III invited nine eminent prelates, distinguished by learning and piety alike, to act in committee and to report on the reformation and rebuilding of the Church. In 1537 they turned in their celebrated Consilium de emendenda ecclesia,[5] exposing gross abuses in the Curia, in the church administration and public worship; and proffering many a bold and earnest word on behalf of abolishing such abuses. This report was printed not only at Rome, but at Strasbourg and elsewhere. But to the Protestants it seemed far from thorough; Martin Luther
Martin Luther
had his edition (1538) prefaced with a vignette showing the cardinals cleaning the Augean stable of the Roman Church with foxtails instead of brooms. Yet the Pope
Pope
was in earnest when he took up the problem of reform. He clearly perceived that Emperor Charles V would not rest until the problems were grappled with in earnest, and a council was an unequivocal procedure that should leave no room for doubt of his own readiness to make changes. Yet it is clear that the Concilium bore no fruit in the actual situation, and that in Rome
Rome
no results followed from the committee's recommendations. As a consequence of the extensive campaign against "idolatry" in England, culminating with the dismantling of the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury, the Pope excommunicated Henry VIII on 17 December 1538 and issued an interdict. On the other hand, serious political complications resulted. In order to vest his grandson Ottavio Farnese
Ottavio Farnese
with the dukedom of Camerino, Paul forcibly wrested the same from the duke of Urbino
Urbino
(1540). He also incurred virtual war with his own subjects and vassals by the imposition of burdensome taxes. Perugia, renouncing its obedience, was besieged by Paul's son, Pier Luigi, and forfeited its freedom entirely on its surrender. The burghers of Colonna
Colonna
were duly vanquished, and Ascanio was banished (1541). After this the time seemed ripe for annihilating heresy. In 1540, the Church officially recognized the new society forming about Ignatius of Loyola, which became the Society of Jesus.[6] The second visible stage in the process becomes marked by the institution, or reorganization, in 1542, of the Congregation of the Holy Office of the Inquisition. On another side, the Emperor was insisting that Rome
Rome
should forward his designs towards a peaceable recovery of the German Protestants. Accordingly, the Pope
Pope
despatched Giovanni Morone
Giovanni Morone
(not yet a cardinal) as nuncio to Hagenau
Hagenau
and Worms, in 1540; while, in 1541, Cardinal Gasparo Contarini
Gasparo Contarini
took part in the adjustment proceedings at the Conference of Regensburg. It was Contarini who led to the stating of a definition in connection with the article of justification in which occurs the famous formula "by faith alone are we justified," with which was combined, however, the Roman Catholic doctrine of good works. At Rome, this definition was rejected in the consistory of 27 May, and Luther declared that he could accept it only provided the opposers would admit that hitherto they had taught differently from what was meant in the present instance.

Ranuccio Farnese was made cardinal by Paul III at the age of 15.

Yet, even now, and particularly after the Regensburg Conference had proved in vain, the Emperor did not cease to insist on convening the council, the final result of his insistence being the Council of Trent, which, after several postponements, was finally convoked by the bull Laetare Hierusalem, on 15 March 1545. Meanwhile, after the peace of Crespy
Crespy
(September 1544), the situation had so shaped itself that Emperor Charles V (1519–56) began to put down Protestantism by force. Pending the Diet of Worms
Diet of Worms
in 1545, the Emperor concluded a covenant of joint action with the papal legate, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. Paul III was to aid in the projected war against the German Protestant princes and estates. The prompt acquiescence of Paul III in the war project was probably grounded on personal motives. The moment now seemed opportune for him, since the Emperor was sufficiently preoccupied in the German realm, to acquire for his son Pier Luigi the duchies of Parma
Parma
and Piacenza. Although these belonged to the Papal States, Paul III thought to overcome the reluctance of the Cardinals by exchanging the duchies for the less valuable domains of Camerino
Camerino
and Nepi. The Emperor agreed, because of his prospective compensation to the extent of 12,000 infantry, 500 cavalry, and considerable sums of money for the German war. In Germany the campaign began in the west, where Archbishop
Archbishop
of Cologne Hermann of Wied
Hermann of Wied
had converted to Protestantism in 1542. Emperor Charles began open warfare against the Protestant princes, estates, and cities allied in the Schmalkaldic League
Schmalkaldic League
(see Philip of Hesse). Hermann was excommunicated on 16 April 1546, and was compelled by the Emperor to abdicate in February 1547. By the close of 1546, Charles V had subjugated South Germany. The victory at the Battle of Mühlberg, on 24 April 1547, established his imperial sovereignty everywhere in Germany, and the two leaders of the league were captured.

The Farnese coat of arms or stemma on the facade of the Farnese Palace in Rome

Rome, Italy. St. Peter's, tomb of Paul III. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

But while north of the Alps, in virtue of his preparations for the Augsburg Interim and its enforcement, the Emperor was widely instrumental in recovering Germany to Roman Catholicism, the Pope
Pope
now held aloof from him because Charles V himself had stood aloof in the matter of endowing Pier Luigi with Parma
Parma
and Piacenza, and the situation came to a total rupture when the imperial vice-regent, Ferrante Gonzaga, proceeded forcibly to expel Pier Luigi. In 1547 the Pope's son was assassinated at Piacenza, and Paul III believed that this had not come to pass without the emperor's foreknowledge. In the same year, however, and after the death of Francis I of France
Francis I of France
(1515–47), with whom the Pope
Pope
had once again sought an alliance, the stress of circumstances compelled him to do the Emperor's will and accept the ecclesiastical measures adopted during the Interim. With reference to the assassinated prince's inheritance, the restitution of which Paul III demanded ostensibly in the name and for the sake of the Church, the Pope's design was thwarted by the Emperor, who refused to surrender Piacenza, and by Pier Luigi's heir in Parma, Ottavio Farnese. In consequence of a violent altercation on this account with Cardinal Farnese, Paul III, at the age of eighty-one years, became so overwrought that an attack of sickness ensued from which he died, 10 November 1549. Paul III proved unable to suppress the Protestant Reformation, although it was during his pontificate that the foundation was laid for the Counter-Reformation. He decreed the second and final excommunication of King Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII of England
in December 1538. His efforts in Parma
Parma
led to the War of Parma
Parma
two years after his death. Slavery[edit] In May–June 1537 Paul issued three documents: the bulls Sublimus Dei (also known as Unigenitus and Veritas ipsa); Altituda divini consolii; and Pastorale officium, the brief for the execution of Sublimus Dei. "Altituda divini consolii" was essentially a bull to settle a difference between the Franciscans
Franciscans
and Dominicans over baptism, but "Sublimus Dei" is described by Prein (2008) as the "Magna Carta" for the human rights of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in its declaration that "the Indians were human beings and they were not to be robbed of their freedom or possessions". "Pastorale officium" declared automatic excommunication for anyone who failed to abide by the new ruling.[7] Stogre (1992) notes that "Sublimus Dei" is not present in Denzinger, the authoritative compendium of official teachings of the Catholic Church, and that the executing brief for it ("Pastorale officium") was annulled the following year in "Non Indecens Videtur".[8] Davis (1988) asserts it was annulled due to a dispute with the Spanish crown.[9] The Council of The West Indies and the Crown concluded that the documents broke their patronato rights and the Pope
Pope
withdrew them, though they continued to circulate and be quoted by Las Casas
Las Casas
and others who supported Indian rights.[10] According to Falkowski (2002) "Sublimus Dei" had the effect of revoking the bull of Alexander VI Inter Caetera
Inter Caetera
but still leaving the colonizers the duty of converting the native people.[11] Prein (2008) observes the difficulty in reconciling these decrees with "Inter Caetera".[7] Father Gustavo Gutierrez
Gustavo Gutierrez
describes "Sublimus Dei" as "the most important papal document relating to the condition of native Indians and that it was addressed to all Christians".[12] Maxwell (1975) notes that the bull did not change the traditional teaching that the enslavement of Indians was permissible if they were considered "enemies of Christendom" as this would be considered by the Church as a "just war". He further argues that the Indian nations had every right to self-defence.[13] Stark (2003) describes the bull as "magnificent" and believes the reason that, in his opinion, it has belatedly come to light is due to the neglect of Protestant historians.[14] Falola notes that the bull related to the native populations of the New World and did not condemn the transatlantic slave trade stimulated by the Spanish monarchy and the Holy Roman Emperor.[15] In 1537, he also issued In nomine Sancte, a bull in which he talks about evangelism and conversion tasks. In 1545 Paul repealed an ancient law that allowed slaves to claim their freedom under the Emperor's statue on Capitoline Hill, in view of the number of homeless people and tramps in the city of Rome.[16] The decree included those who had become Christians after their enslavement and those born to Christian slaves. The right of inhabitants of Rome
Rome
to publicly buy and sell slaves of both sexes was affirmed.[17] Stogre (1992) asserts that the lifting of restrictions was due to a shortage of slaves in Rome.[18] In 1548 Paul authorized the purchase and possession of Muslim slaves in the Papal states.[19] Patron of the arts[edit] One of the most significant artistic works of Paul's reign was the depiction of the Last Judgement by Michelangelo
Michelangelo
in the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican Palace. Although the work was commissioned by Paul III’s predecessor, it was finished in 1541. As a cardinal, Alessandro had begun construction of a palace, the Palazzo Farnese, in central Rome. On his election to the papacy, the size and magnificence of this building programme was increased to reflect his change in status. The palace was initially designed by the architect Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, received further architectural refinement from Michelangelo, and was completed by Giacomo della Porta. Like other Farnese family
Farnese family
buildings, the palace imposes its presence on its surroundings in an expression of the family’s power and wealth. Alessandro's Villa Farnese
Villa Farnese
at Caprarola has a similar presence. In 1546, after the death of Sangallo, Paul appointed the elderly Michelangelo
Michelangelo
to take over the supervision of the building of St. Peter's Basilica. Michelangelo
Michelangelo
was also commissioned by Paul to paint the 'Crucifixion of St. Peter' and the 'Conversion of St. Paul' (1542–50), Michelangelo's last frescoes, in the Pauline Chapel of the Vatican. Paul III's artistic and architectural commissions were numerous and varied. The Venetian artist Titian
Titian
painted a portrait of the Pope
Pope
in 1543, and in 1546, the well-known portrait of Paul III with his grandsons Cardinal Alessandro Farnese and Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma. Both are now in the Capodimonte Museum, Naples. The military fortifications in Rome
Rome
and the Papal States
Papal States
were strengthened during his reign.[20] He had Michelangelo
Michelangelo
relocate the ancient bronze of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
to the Capitoline Hill, where it became the centerpiece to the Piazza del Campidoglio. Paul III’s bronze tomb, executed by Guglielmo della Porta, is in St. Peter's. Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Pope
Pope
Paul III

16. Ranuccio Farnese, Signore di Montalto

8. Pietro Farnese, Signore di Montalto

17. Pantasilea Salimbeni

4. Ranuccio Farnese, Count of Pitigliano

9. Pantasilea Dolci

2. Pier Luigi Farnese, Signore di Montalto

5. Agnese Monadelschi

1. Pope
Pope
Paul III

24. Giacobello Caetani

12. Giacomo Caetani, Signore di Sermoneta

25. Rosa d'Eboli

6. Onorato Caetani, Duke of Sermoneta

26. Pirro Orsini, Count of Nola

13. Giovanella Orsini

3. Giovanna Caetani

28. Giovanni Orsini, Signore di Galera

14. Francesco Orsini, Duke of Gravina

29. Bartolomea Spinelli

7. Caterina Orsini

30. Ugone Scilliato

15. Flavia Scilliato

31. Rita di Molise

Fictional portrayals[edit] Stendhal's novel La Chartreuse de Parme
La Chartreuse de Parme
was inspired by an inauthentic Italian account of the dissolute youth of Alessandro Farnese.[21] The character of Pope
Pope
Paul III, played by Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
in the Showtime series The Tudors, is loosely inspired by him. The young Alessandro Farnese is played by Diarmuid Noyes in the StudioCanal serial Borgia, and Cyron Melville
Cyron Melville
in Showtime's The Borgias. See also[edit]

Cardinals created by Paul III

Notes[edit]

^ a b c "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope
Pope
Paul III". www.newadvent.org.  ^ Verellen Till R. Pope
Pope
Paul III (Alessandro Farnese) Oxford Art Online ^ Martin Gayford, Michelangelo: His epic life, p. 71 ^ a b c " Pope
Pope
Paul III", Reformation
Reformation
500 Concordia University Archived 2014-09-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ le Plat, J. (1782). Monumenta ad historiam Concilii Tridentini (in Latin). Leuven. pp. ii. 596–597.  ^ "POPE PAUL III'S APPROVAL OF THE SOCIETY OF JESUS (1540)". personal.ashland.edu.  ^ a b "The Encyclopedia Of Christianity", p. 212 ^ Stogre, p. 115, fn. 133 ^ Davis, p. 170, fn. 9 ^ Lampe, p. 17 ^ Thornberry 2002, p. 65, fn. 21 ^ Panzer, 2008 ^ Stogre, p. 115-116 ^ Stark 2003 ^ Falola, p. 107; see also Maxwell , p. 73 ^ Davis, p. 56" ^ Noonan, p. 79, Stogre, p. 116 ^ Stogre, p. 116 ^ Clarence-Smith ^ Verellen Till R. , ibid. ^ M. R. B. Shaw, introduction to Penguin Classics
Penguin Classics
1958 translation of The Charterhouse of Parma

References[edit]

Clarence-Smith, William G., "Religions and the abolition of slavery — a comparative approach", at Global Economic History Network (GEHN) conference entitled 'Culture and economic performance', Washington DC, 7–10 September 2006." Davis, David Brion, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture, Oxford University Press U.S., 1988, ISBN 0-19-505639-6 The Encyclopedia Of Christianity, Volume 5, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2008, ISBN 0-8028-2417-X Falola, Toyin, and Amanda Warnock, Encyclopedia of the Middle Passage, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, ISBN 0-313-33480-3 Lampe, Armando, Christianity in the Caribbean: Essays on Church History, 2001, University of the West Indies Press, ISBN 976-640-029-6 Maxwell, John Francis, Slavery and the Catholic Church: The History of Catholic Teaching Concerning the Moral Legitimacy of the Institution of Slavery, 1975, Chichester Barry-Rose, ISBN 0-85992-015-1 Panzer, Father Joel S, The Popes and Slavery, The Church In History Centre, 22 April 2008, retrieved 9 August 2009 Stark, Rodney, "The truth about the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and slavery", Christianity Today, 7 January 2003 Stogre, Michael, S.J, That the World May Believe: The Development of Papal Social Thought on Aboriginal Rights, Médiaspaul, 1992, ISBN 2-89039-549-9 Thornberry, Patrick, Indigenous Peoples and Human Rights, Manchester University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-7190-3794-8

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paulus III.

Farnese family
Farnese family
tree from about 1390 to 1766. Sublimus Dei – On the Enslavement and Evangelization of Indians in the New World – 1537  "Paul. The name of five popes. Paul III". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: K. Benrath (1914). "Paul III". In Jackson, Samuel Macauley. New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls. p. 395. 

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International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

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History of the Catholic Church

General

History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
Catholic Church
art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
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Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
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Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
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Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
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Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
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Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
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Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
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Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
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Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
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Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
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Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
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Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
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Innocent XI Pope
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Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
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Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
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Pius VII Pope
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Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
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Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
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Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
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Pius XII Pope
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Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
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John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
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Paul VI Pope
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John Paul I Pope
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John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
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sexual abuse cases Pope
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Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 51803934 LCCN: n82037510 ISNI: 0000 0001 2132 8898 GND: 118592068 SELIBR: 212373 SUDOC: 066960940 BNF: cb12548904x (data) BIBSYS: 90344380 ULAN: 500114692 NDL: 00939403 BNE: XX903616 RKD: 447

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