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Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus[2] (Classical Latin: [ˈgnae̯.ʊs pɔmˈpɛj.jʊs ˈmaŋ.nʊs]; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC),[1] usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey
Pompey
the Great,[3] was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility. Pompey's immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a military commander in Sulla's second civil war resulted in Sulla
Sulla
bestowing the nickname Magnus, "the Great", upon him. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs. In mid-60 BC, Pompey
Pompey
joined Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus
and Gaius Julius Caesar in the unofficial military-political alliance known as the First Triumvirate, which Pompey's marriage to Caesar's daughter Julia helped secure. After the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey
Pompey
sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey
Pompey
and Caesar then contended for the leadership of the Roman state, leading to a civil war. When Pompey
Pompey
was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Rome's subsequent transformation from Republic to Empire.

Contents

1 Early life and political debut 2 Sicily, Africa and Lepidus' rebellion 3 Sertorian War, Third Servile War
Third Servile War
and first consulship

3.1 Sertorian War 3.2 Third Servile War 3.3 First consulship

4 Campaign against the pirates 5 Pompey
Pompey
in the East

5.1 Third Mithridatic War, Syria and Judea

5.1.1 Third Mithridatic War 5.1.2 Syria 5.1.3 Judea

5.2 Pompey's settlements in the East

6 Return to Rome and third triumph 7 First Triumvirate 8 From confrontation to civil war 9 Civil war and assassination 10 Generalship 11 Later portrayals and reputation

11.1 Theater, film, television and video game 11.2 Literature

12 Marriages and offspring 13 Chronology of Pompey's life and career 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

Early life and political debut[edit] Pompey's family first gained the position of Consul
Consul
in 141 BC. Pompey's father, Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was a wealthy equestrian from Picenum
Picenum
(in south and north of the modern regions of the Marche
Marche
and Abruzzo, in central Italy, on the Adriatic coast). He was a novus homo (new man). Pompeius Strabo ascended the traditional cursus honorum, becoming quaestor in 104 BC, praetor in 92 BC and consul in 89 BC. He acquired a reputation for greed, political double-dealing and military ruthlessness. He fought the Social War (91–88 BC)
Social War (91–88 BC)
against Rome's Italian allies. He supported Sulla, who belonged to the optimates, the pro-aristocracy faction, against Marius, who belonged to the populares (in favour of the people), in Sulla's first civil war
Sulla's first civil war
(88-87 BC). He died during the siege of Rome by the Marians, Marius' followers, in 87 BC, either as a casualty of an epidemic,[4] or by having been struck by lightning.[5] His twenty-year-old son Pompey
Pompey
inherited his estates, and the loyalty of his legions.

Roman statue of Pompey, at the Villa Arconati a Castellazzo di Bollate (Milan, Italy). It was brought there from Rome in 1627 by Galeazzo Arconati.

Pompey
Pompey
had served two years under his father's command, and had participated in the final part of the Social War. When his father died, Pompey
Pompey
was put on trial due to accusations that his father stole public property. As his father’s heir Pompey
Pompey
could be held to account. He discovered that this was committed by one of his father's freedmen. Following his preliminary bouts with his accuser, the judge took a liking to Pompey
Pompey
and offered his daughter, Antistia in marriage. Pompey
Pompey
was acquitted.[6] Another civil war broke out between the Marians and Sulla
Sulla
in 83-82 BC. The Marians had previously taken over Rome while Sulla
Sulla
was fighting the First Mithridatic War
First Mithridatic War
(89–85 BC) against Mithridates VI
Mithridates VI
of Pontus in Greece.[7] In 83 BC, Sulla
Sulla
returned from that war, landing in Brundisium
Brundisium
(Brindisi) in southern Italy. Pompey
Pompey
raised three legions in Picenum
Picenum
to support Sulla's march on Rome against the Marian regime of Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
the Younger. Cassius Dio described Pompey's troop levy as a "small band"[8] Sulla
Sulla
defeated the Marians and was appointed as Dictator. He admired Pompey's qualities and thought that he was useful for the administration of his affairs. He and his wife, Metella, persuaded Pompey
Pompey
to divorce Antistia and marry Sulla's stepdaughter Aemilia Scaura. Plutarch
Plutarch
commented that the marriage was "characteristic of a tyranny, and benefitted the needs of Sulla
Sulla
rather than the nature and habits of Pompey, Aemilia being given to him in marriage when she was with child by another man." Antistia had recently lost both her parents. Pompey
Pompey
accepted, but "Aemilia had scarcely entered Pompey's house before she succumbed to the pains of childbirth."[9] Pompey later married Mucia Tertia. We have no record of when this took place. The sources only mentioned Pompey
Pompey
divorcing her. Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that Pompey
Pompey
dismissed with contempt a report that she had had an affair while he was fighting in the Third Mithridatic War
Third Mithridatic War
between and 66 BC and 63 BC. However, on his journey back to Rome he examined the evidence more carefully and filed for divorce.[10] Cicero
Cicero
wrote that the divorce was strongly approved.[11] Cassius Dio wrote that she was the sister of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer and that Metellus Celer was angry because he had divorced her despite having had children by her.[12] Pompey
Pompey
and Mucia had three children: The eldest, Gnaeus Pompey
Pompey
( Pompey
Pompey
the Younger), Pompeia Magna, a daughter, and Sextus Pompey, the younger son. Cassius Dio wrote that Marcus Scaurus was Sextus’ half-brother on his mother's side. He was condemned to death, but later released for the sake of his mother Mucia.[13] Sicily, Africa and Lepidus' rebellion[edit] The survivors of the Marians, those who were exiled after they lost Rome and those who escaped Sulla's persecution of his opponents, were given refuge in Sicily
Sicily
by Marcus Perpenna Vento. Papirius Carbo had a fleet there and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus had forced an entry into the Roman province of Africa. Sulla
Sulla
sent Pompey
Pompey
to Sicily
Sicily
with a large force. According to Plutarch, Perpenna fled and left Sicily
Sicily
to Pompey. The Sicilian cities had been treated harshly by Perpenna and Pompey treated them with kindness. Pompey
Pompey
"treated Carbo in his misfortunes with an unnatural insolence," taking Carbo in fetters to a tribunal he presided over, examining him closely "to the distress and vexation of the audience," and finally, sentencing him to death. Pompey
Pompey
also treated Quintus Valerius 'with unnatural cruelty.'[14] His opponents dubbed him adulescens carnifex (adolescent butcher).[15] While Pompey was still in Sicily, Sulla
Sulla
sent him to the province of Africa to fight Gnaeus Domitius who had assembled a large force there. When he got there, 7,000 of the enemy forces went over to him. Domitius drew up for battle, but he was routed. Some cities surrendered and some were taken by storm. King Iarbas of Numidia, who was an ally of Domitius, was captured. Pompey
Pompey
restored Hiempsal II, invaded Numidia
Numidia
and subdued it in forty days. When he returned to Africa, Sulla
Sulla
ordered him to send back the rest of his troops and remain there with one legion to wait for his successor. This turned the soldiers who remained against Sulla. Pompey
Pompey
said that he would kill himself rather than go against Sulla. When Pompey
Pompey
returned to Rome everyone welcomed him. To outdo them, Sulla
Sulla
saluted him as Magnus (the Great) and ordered the others to give him this surname.[16] Pompey
Pompey
asked for a triumph, but Sulla
Sulla
refused because the law allowed only a consul or a praetor to celebrate a triumph and said that if Pompey, who was even too young to be a senator, would do so he would make both Sulla's regime and his honour odious. Plutarch
Plutarch
commented that Pompey
Pompey
"had scarcely grown a beard as yet." However, Sulla
Sulla
added that he would not oppose him if he refused to listen to him. Pompey replied that more worshiped the rising than the setting sun, implying that his power was on the increase, while Sulla's was on the wane. Sulla
Sulla
said twice: "Let him triumph!" Pompey
Pompey
tried to enter the city on a chariot drawn by four of the many elephants he had captured in Africa, but the city gate was too narrow and he changed over to his horses. His soldiers, who had not received as much of a share of the war booty as they expected threatened a mutiny, but Pompey
Pompey
said that he did not care and that he would rather give up his triumph. Pompey went ahead with his extra-legal triumph.[17] Sulla
Sulla
was annoyed, but did not want to hinder his career and kept quiet. However, in 79 BC, when Pompey
Pompey
canvassed for Lepidus and succeeded in making him a consul against Sulla's wishes, Sulla
Sulla
warned Pompey
Pompey
to watch out because he had made an adversary stronger than him. He left Pompey
Pompey
out in his will.[18] Marcus Aemilius Lepidus tried to revive the fortunes of the populares, gathered the remnants and rebelled (Lepidus' Rebellion). In 78 BC, He tried to prevent Sulla
Sulla
receiving a state funeral or his body being buried in the Campus Martius. However, Pompey
Pompey
opposed this and ensured Sulla's burial with honours. Pompey
Pompey
besieged a rebel force led by a Brutus at Mutina (Modena) in Gallia Cisalpina
Gallia Cisalpina
(in northern Italy). Lepidus went back to Rome with another force and demanded a second consulship. However, a letter from Pompey
Pompey
announced that he had brought the war to an end without a battle. Brutus surrendered and Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that it was not known whether Brutus had betrayed his army or whether his army had gone over to Pompey. Brutus was given an escort and retired to a town by the River Po, but, the next day, he was apparently assassinated on Pompey's orders. Pompey
Pompey
was blamed for this because he had written that Brutus had surrendered of his own accord and then wrote a second letter denouncing him after he had him murdered. Lepidus withdrew to Sardinia, where he fell ill and died, allegedly because he found out that his wife had had an affair.[19] Sertorian War, Third Servile War
Third Servile War
and first consulship[edit]

Bust of Pompey
Pompey
in the Residenz, Munich

Sertorian War[edit] Quintus Sertorius, a popularis, waged an effective guerrilla war against the officials of the Sullan regime in Hispania
Hispania
( Spain
Spain
and Portugal) with the help of local tribes allied with him, particularly the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
and the Celtiberians, in what came to be called the Sertorian War (80 BC-72 BC). The guerrilla tactics of Sertorius
Sertorius
had been wearing down Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, one of Sulla's commanders, for three years. Pompey
Pompey
asked to be sent to reinforce Metellus. He had not disbanded his soldiers as he was supposed to. When the consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus ordered him to disband them he remained under arms near the city with various excuses until he was ordered to do so by the senate on a motion of Lucius Philippus. A senator asked Philippus if he "thought it necessary to send Pompey
Pompey
out as proconsul. 'No indeed!' said Philippus, 'but as proconsuls,' implying that both the consuls of that year were good for nothing." Therefore, Pompey
Pompey
was sent to Hispania.[20] Pompey's proconsular mandate was extra-legal, as a proconsulship was the extension of the military command (but not the public office) of a consul. Pompey, however, was not a consul and had never held public office. His career seems to have been driven by desire for military glory and disregard for traditional political constraints.[21] On his way to Hispania, Pompey
Pompey
opened a new route through the Alps
Alps
and subdued tribes that had rebelled in Gallia Narbonensis.[22][23] He remained in Hispania
Hispania
from 76 BC to 71 BC. Pompey's arrival gave the men of Caecilius Metellus new hope and led to some local tribes, which were not tightly associated with Sertorius, changing sides. According to Appian, as soon as Pompey
Pompey
arrived, Sertorius
Sertorius
routed one of his legions, which had been sent out foraging. Pompey
Pompey
went to relieve the siege of Lauron, and attempted to prevent Sertorius
Sertorius
from seizing a commanding hill, but the latter got there first. Still, Pompey
Pompey
felt that he was in a strong position and that the enemy was caught between the city and his troops. However, Pompey
Pompey
realized, too late, that behind him were 6,000 armed men Sertorius
Sertorius
had left at the camp from which he had set out to take the hill. He did not want to suffer the shame of withdrawing, and so, he could only sit and watch the enemy capture the city and burn it.[24] In 75 BC, Caecilius Metellus and Pompey
Pompey
advanced from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
and Sertorius
Sertorius
and Perpenna (another rebel commander) from Lusitania. Metellus defeated Perpenna. Pompey
Pompey
and Sertorius
Sertorius
then hastily engaged in an indecisive battle by the River Sucro in order to fight before the arrival of Caecilius Metellus. Pompey
Pompey
wanted to fight alone and Sertorius
Sertorius
wanted only one opponent. Sertorius
Sertorius
defeated Afrianius, Pompey’s lieutenant, on the left wing. Pompey
Pompey
was having the better on the other wing. Sertorius
Sertorius
intervened there, rallied his men, stopped their retreat and routed the other enemy wing. Pompey
Pompey
was seriously wounded in the thigh. However, after Sertorius
Sertorius
left his right wing Afrianius routed it. The next day the two sides prepared for the continuation of the battle. However, Metellus approached and Sertorius
Sertorius
withdrew. Soon after this Sertorius
Sertorius
defeated Pompey
Pompey
near Seguntia. Pompey
Pompey
lost nearly 6,000 men and Sertorius
Sertorius
half of that. Memmius, the most capable of Pompey's commanders, also fell. Metellus defeated Perpenna, who lost 5,000 men. According to Appian
Appian
the next day Sertorius
Sertorius
attacked his camp unexpectedly, but he withdrew because Pompey
Pompey
was approaching.[25] According to Plutarch, instead, there was a battle and Metellus was struck by a spear. His men rallied and pushed the enemy back. Sertorius
Sertorius
withdrew to a mountain stronghold and repaired its walls to lure the Romans into a siege and sent officers to collect troops from other towns. He then made a sortie, passed through the enemy lines and joined his new force. He resumed his guerrilla tactics and cut off the enemy's supplies with widespread raids. Pirate tactics at sea disrupted maritime supplies. This forced the two Roman commanders to separate. Metellus went to Gaul. Pompey wintered among the Vaccaei
Vaccaei
and suffered shortages of supplies. When Pompey
Pompey
spent most of his private resources on the war he asked the senate for money, threatening to go back to Italy
Italy
with his army if this was refused. The consul Lucius Licinius Lucullus
Lucullus
was canvassing for the command of the Third Mithridatic War, believing that it would bring glory with little difficulty. Fearing that Pompey
Pompey
would leave the Sertorian War to take on the Mithridatic one, Lucullus
Lucullus
ensured that the money was sent to keep Pompey
Pompey
in place.[26] In 73 BC, Rome sent two more legions to Hispania. Metellus and Pompey descended from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
to the River Ebro. Sertorius
Sertorius
and Perpenna advanced from Lusitania
Lusitania
again. According to Plutarch
Plutarch
many of the senators and other high ranking men who had joined Sertorius
Sertorius
were jealous of their leader. This was encouraged by Perpenna who aspired to the chief command. They secretly sabotaged him and meted out severe punishments on the Hispanic allies, pretending that this was ordered by Sertorius. Revolts in the towns were further stirred up by these men. Sertorius
Sertorius
killed some allies and sold others into slavery.[27] Appian
Appian
wrote that many of Sertorius' Roman soldiers defected to Metellus. Sertorius
Sertorius
reacted with severe punishments and started using a bodyguard of Celtiberians
Celtiberians
instead of Romans. Moreover, he reproached his Roman soldiers for treachery. This aggrieved the soldiers because they felt that they were blamed for the desertion of other soldiers and because this was happening while they were serving under an enemy of the regime in Rome and therefore in a sense they were betraying their country through him. Moreover, the Celtiberians
Celtiberians
treated them with contempt as men under suspicion. These facts made Sertorius unpopular; only his skill at command kept his troops from deserting en masse. Metellus took advantage of his enemy's poor morale, bringing many towns allied to Sertorius
Sertorius
under subjection. Pompey
Pompey
besieged Palantia until Sertorius
Sertorius
showed up to relieve the city. Pompey
Pompey
set fire to the city walls and retreated to Metellus. Sertorius
Sertorius
rebuilt the wall and then attacked his enemies who were encamped around the castle of Calagurris. They lost 3000 men. In 72 BC, there were only skirmishes. However, Metellus and Pompey
Pompey
advanced on several towns. Some of them defected and some were attacked. Appian
Appian
wrote that Sertorius
Sertorius
fell unto ‘habits of luxury,’ drinking and consorting with women. He was defeated continually. He became hot-tempered, suspicious and cruel in punishment. Perpenna began to fear for his safety and conspired to murder Sertorius.[28] Plutarch, instead, thought that Perpenna was motivated by ambition. He had gone to Hispania
Hispania
with the remnants of the army of Lepidus in Sardinia
Sardinia
and had wanted to fight this war independently to gain glory. He had joined Sertorius
Sertorius
reluctantly because his troops wanted to do so when they heard that Pompey
Pompey
was coming to Hispania. He wanted to take over the supreme command.[29] When Sertorius
Sertorius
was murdered the formerly disaffected soldiers grieved for the loss of their commander whose bravery had been their salvation and were angry with Perpenna. The native troops, especially the Lusitanians, who had given Sertorius
Sertorius
the greatest support, were angry, too. Perpenna responded with the carrot and the stick: he gave gifts, made promises and released some of the men Sertorius
Sertorius
had imprisoned, while threatening others and killing some men to strike terror. He secured the obedience of his troops, but not their true loyalty. Metellus left the fight against Perpenna to Pompey. The two skirmished for nine days. Then, as Perpenna did not think that his men would remain loyal for long, the two men fought a decisive battle. Pompey won against a poor commander and a disaffected army. Perpenna hid in a thicket, fearing his troops more than the enemy, and was eventually captured. Perpenna offered to produce letters to Sertorius
Sertorius
from leading men in Rome who had invited Sertorius
Sertorius
to Italy
Italy
for seditious purposes. Pompey, fearing that this might lead to an even greater war, had Perpenna executed and burned the letters without even reading them.[30] Pompey
Pompey
remained in Hispania
Hispania
to quell the last disorders and settle affairs. He showed a talent for efficient organisation and fair administration in the conquered province. This extended his patronage throughout Hispania
Hispania
and into southern Gaul.[31] In 71 BC, Pompey returned to Italy
Italy
with his army. Third Servile War[edit] While Pompey
Pompey
was in Hispania
Hispania
the rebellion of the slaves led by Spartacus
Spartacus
(the Third Servile War, 73–71 BC) broke out. Crassus
Crassus
was given eight legions and led the final phase of the war. He asked the senate to summon Lucullus
Lucullus
and Pompey
Pompey
back from the Third Mithridatic War and Hispania
Hispania
respectively to provide reinforcements, "but he was sorry now that he had done so, and was eager to bring the war to an end before those generals came. He knew that the success would be ascribed to the one who came up with assistance, and not to himself."[32] The senate decided to send Pompey
Pompey
who had just returned from Hispania. On hearing this, Crassus
Crassus
hurried to engage in the decisive battle, and routed the rebels. On his arrival, Pompey
Pompey
cut to pieces 6,000 fugitives from the battle. Pompey
Pompey
wrote to the senate that Crassus
Crassus
had conquered the rebels in a pitched battle, but that he himself had extirpated the war entirely.[33] First consulship[edit]

Bust of Pompey
Pompey
in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen

Pompey
Pompey
was granted a second triumph for his victory in Hispania, which, again, was extra-legal. He was asked to stand for the consulship, even though he was only 35 and thus below the age of eligibility to the consulship, and had not held any public office, much less climbed the cursus honorum (the progression from lower to higher offices). Livy
Livy
noted that Pompey
Pompey
was made consul after a special senatorial decree, because he had not occupied the quaestorship and was an equestrian and did not have senatorial rank.[34] Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that "Crassus, the richest statesman of his time, the ablest speaker, and the greatest man, who looked down on Pompey
Pompey
and everybody else, had not the courage to sue for the consulship until he had asked the support of Pompey." Pompey
Pompey
accepted gladly. In the Life of Pompey
Pompey
Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that Pompey
Pompey
"had long wanted an opportunity of doing him some service and kindness ..."[35] In the Life of Crassus
Crassus
he wrote that Pompey
Pompey
"was desirous of having Crassus, in some way or other, always in debt to him for some favour."[36] Pompey
Pompey
promoted his candidature and said in a speech that "he should be no less grateful to them for the colleague than for the office which he desired."[37] Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that in Rome Pompey
Pompey
was looked at with both fear and great expectations. About half of the people feared that he would not disband his army and that he would seize absolute power by arms and hand power to the Sullans. Pompey, instead, declared that he would disband his army after his triumph and then "there remained but one accusation for envious tongues to make, namely, that he devoted himself more to the people than to the senate..."[38] When Pompey
Pompey
and Crassus
Crassus
assumed office they did not remain friendly. In the Life of Crassus, Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that the two men differed on almost every measure, and by their contentiousness rendered their consulship "barren politically and without achievement, except that Crassus
Crassus
made a great sacrifice in honour of Hercules and gave the people a great feast and an allowance of grain for three months".[39] Towards the end of their term of office, when the differences between the two men were increasing, a man declared that Jupiter
Jupiter
told him, to "declare in public that you should not suffer your consuls to lay down their office until they become friends." The people called for a reconciliation. Pompey
Pompey
did not react, but Crassus
Crassus
"clasped him by the hand" and said that it was not humiliating for him to take the first step of goodwill.[40]

A Roman bust of Crassus
Crassus
in the Louvre, Paris, France

Neither Plutarch
Plutarch
nor Suetonius[41] wrote that the acrimony between Pompey
Pompey
and Crassus
Crassus
stemmed from Pompey's claim about the defeat of Spartacus. Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that "Crassus, for all his self-approval, did not venture to ask for the major triumph, and it was thought ignoble and mean in him to celebrate even the minor triumph on foot, called the ovation (a minor victory celebration), for a servile war."[42] According to Appian, however, there was a contention for honours between the two men--a reference to the fact that Pompey claimed that he had ended the slave rebellion led by Spartacus, whereas in actual fact Crassus
Crassus
had done so. In Appian's account there was no disbanding of armies. The two commanders refused to disband their armies and kept them stationed near the city, as neither wanted to be the first to do so. Pompey
Pompey
said that he was waiting the return of Metellus for his Spanish triumph; Crassus
Crassus
said that Pompey
Pompey
ought to dismiss his army first. Initially, pleas from the people were of no avail, but eventually Crassus
Crassus
yielded and offered Pompey
Pompey
the handshake.[43] Plutarch's reference to Pompey's "devot[ing] himself more to the people than to the senate" was related to a measure regarding the plebeian tribunes, the representatives of the plebeians. As part of the constitutional reforms Sulla
Sulla
carried out after his second civil war, he revoked the power of the tribunes to veto the senatus consulta (the written advice of the senate on bills, which was usually followed to the letter), and prohibited ex-tribunes from ever holding any other office. Ambitious young plebeians had sought election to this tribunate as a stepping stone for election to other offices and to climb up the cursus honorum. Therefore, the plebeian tribunate became a dead end for one's political career. He also limited the ability of the plebeian council (the assembly of the plebeians) to enact bills by reintroducing the senatus auctoritas, a pronouncement of the senate on bills that, if negative, could invalidate them. The reforms reflected Sulla's view of the hated plebeian tribunate as a source of subversion that roused the "rabble" (the plebeians) against the aristocracy. Naturally, these measures were unpopular among the plebeians, the majority of the population. Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that Pompey
Pompey
"had determined to restore the authority of the tribunate, which Sulla
Sulla
had overthrown, and to court the favour of the many" and commented that, "There was nothing on which the Roman people had more frantically set their affections, or for which they had a greater yearning, than to behold that office again."[44] Through the repeal of Sulla's measures against the plebeian tribunate Pompey
Pompey
gained the favour of the people. In 'The Life of Crassus', Plutarch
Plutarch
did not mention this repeal and, as mentioned above, he only wrote that Pompey
Pompey
and Crassus
Crassus
disagreed on everything and that as a result their consulship did not achieve anything. Yet, the restoration of tribunician powers was a highly significant measure and a turning point in the politics of the late Republic. This measure must have been opposed by the aristocracy and it would have been unlikely that it would have been passed if the two consuls had opposed each other. Crassus
Crassus
does not feature much in the writings of the ancient sources. Unfortunately, the books of Livy, otherwise the most detailed of the sources, which cover this period have been lost. However, the Periochae, a short summary of Livy's work, records that "Marcus Crassus
Crassus
and Gnaeus Pompey
Pompey
were made consuls ... and reconstituted the tribunician powers."[45] Suetonius
Suetonius
wrote that when Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
was a military tribune "he ardently supported the leaders in the attempt to re-establish the authority of the tribunes of the commons [the plebeians], the extent of which Sulla
Sulla
had curtailed."[46] The two leaders must obviously have been the two consuls, Crassus
Crassus
and Pompey. Campaign against the pirates[edit]

A denarius of Pompey
Pompey
minted 49-48 BC

Piracy
Piracy
in the Mediterranean became a large-scale problem. A large network of pirates coordinated operations over wide areas with large fleets. According to Cassius Dio, many years of war contributed to this. Many war fugitives joined them. Pirates were more difficult to catch or break up than bandits. The pirates pillaged coastal fields and towns. Rome was affected through shortages of imports and in the supply of corn, but the Romans did not pay proper attention to the problem. They sent out fleets when ‘they were stirred by individual reports’ and these did not achieve anything. Cassius Dio wrote that these operations caused greater distress for Rome’s allies. It was thought that a war against the pirates would be big and expensive and that it was impossible to attack all the pirates at once or to drive them back everywhere. As not much was done against them, some towns were turned into pirate winter quarters and raids further inland were carried out. Many pirates settled on land in various places and relied on an informal network of mutual assistance. Towns in Italy
Italy
were also attacked, including Ostia, the port of Rome: ships were burnt and there was pillaging. The pirates seized important Romans and demanded large ransoms.[47] Plutarch
Plutarch
also linked the worsening of the piracy problem to war and did so in more specific terms. The Third Mithridatic War
Third Mithridatic War
(73–63 BC) against king Mithridates VI of Pontus
Mithridates VI of Pontus
(in modern northern Turkey) played a part in giving the pirates boldness because piracy lent itself to Mithridates’ service. This suggested that Mithridates fostered piracy as a means to weaken the Romans. Plutarch
Plutarch
also thought that with the civil wars in Rome the Romans left the sea unguarded, which gave the pirates the confidence to lay waste islands and coastal cities in addition to attacking ships at sea. Piracy
Piracy
spread from its original base in Cilicia
Cilicia
(on the southern coast of modern Turkey). The pirates also seized and ransomed some towns. Men of distinction also got involved in piracy. Plutarch
Plutarch
claimed that pirates had more than 1,000 ships, that they captured 400 towns and plundered temples in Greece
Greece
and sacred and inviolable sanctuaries, listing fourteen of them. He cited the praetors Sextilius and Bellinus and the daughter of Antonius among the important Romans who were seized for a ransom. The pirates also mocked their captives if they were Romans. Piracy
Piracy
spread over the whole of the Mediterranean, making it unnavigable and closed to trade. This caused scarcity of provisions.[48] Appian
Appian
attributed the escalation of piracy to Mithridates plundering the Roman province of Asia extensively in 88 BC and the rest of the First Mithridatic War
First Mithridatic War
(89-85 BC). The destitute people who lost their livelihood became pirates. At first, they scoured the sea with a few small boats. As the war dragged on they became more numerous and used larger ships. When the war ended piracy continued. They sailed in squadrons. They besieged towns or took them by storm and plundered them. They kidnapped rich people for a ransom. The ragged part of the Cilician coast became their main area for anchorage and encampment and the Crags of Cilicia
Cilicia
(the promontory of Coracesium) became their main base. It also attracted men from Pamphylia, Pontus, Cyprus, Syria and elsewhere in the east. There were quickly tens of thousands of pirates and they dominated the whole Mediterranean. They defeated some Roman naval commanders, even off the coast of Sicily. The sea became unsafe. This disrupted trade and some lands remained untilled, leading to food shortages and hunger in Rome. Eliminating such a scattered and large force from no particular country and of an intangible and lawless nature seemed a difficult task. In Appian’s opinion Lucius Licinius Murena and his successor Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus (78-74 BC) did not accomplish anything against them.[49] Cilicia
Cilicia
had been a haven for pirates for a long time. It was divided into two parts, Cilicia
Cilicia
Trachaea (Rugged Cilicia), a mountain area in the west, and Cilicia
Cilicia
Pedias (flat Cilicia, in the east) by the Limonlu River. The first Roman campaign against the pirates was led by Marcus Antonius Orator in 102 BC. Parts of Cilicia
Cilicia
Pedias became Roman territory. Only a small part of that area became a Roman province. Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus was given the command of fighting piracy in Cilicia
Cilicia
in 78-74 BC. He won several naval victories off Cilicia
Cilicia
and occupied the coasts of nearby Lycia
Lycia
and Pamphylia. He received his agnomen of Isaurus because he defeated the Isauri who lived in the core of the Taurus Mountains, which bordered on Cilicia. He incorporated Isauria
Isauria
into the province of Cilicia
Cilicia
Pedias. However, much of Cilicia
Cilicia
Paedia belonged to the kingdom of Armenia. Cilicia Trachea was still under the control of the pirates.[50] In 67 BC, three years after Pompey’s consulship, the plebeian tribune Aulus Gabinius
Aulus Gabinius
proposed a law (Lex Gabinia) for choosing "...from among the ex-consuls a commander with full power against all the pirates."[51] He was to have dominion over the waters of entire Mediterranean and up to fifty miles inland for three years. He was to be empowered to pick fifteen lieutenants from the senate and assign specific areas to them. He was allowed to have 200 ships, levy as many soldiers and oarsmen as he needed and collect as much money from the tax collectors and the public treasuries as he wished. The use of treasury in the plural might suggest power to raise funds from treasures of the allied Mediterranean states as well.[52] Such sweeping powers were not a problem because comparable extraordinary powers given to Marcus Antonius Creticus to fight piracy in Crete
Crete
in 74 BC provided a precedent.[53] The optimates in the Senate remained suspicious of Pompey--this seemed yet another extraordinary appointment.[54] Cassius Dio claimed that Gabinius "had either been prompted by Pompey
Pompey
or wished in any case to do him a favour … and … He did not directly utter Pompey's name, but it was easy to see that if once the populace should hear of any such proposition, they would choose him."[55] Plutarch
Plutarch
described Gabinius as one of Pompey's intimates and claimed that he "drew up a law which gave him, not an admiralty, but an out-and‑out monarchy and irresponsible power over all men."[52] Cassius Dio wrote that Gabinius’ bill was supported by everybody except the senate, which preferred the ravages of pirates rather than giving Pompey
Pompey
such great powers. The senators nearly killed Pompey. This outraged the people, who set upon the senators. They all ran away, except for the consul Gaius Piso, who was arrested. Gabinius had him freed. The optimates tried to persuade the other nine plebeian tribunes to oppose the bill. Only two, Trebellius and Roscius, agreed, but they were unable to do so. Pompey
Pompey
tried to appear as if he was forced to accept the command because of the jealousy that would be caused if he would lay claim to the post and the glory that came with it. Cassius Dio commented that Pompey
Pompey
was "always in the habit of pretending as far as possible not to desire the things he really wished."[56] Trebellius tried to speak against the bill, but was not allowed to speak. Gabinius postponed the vote and introduced a motion to remove him from the tribunate, which passed. Roscius did not dare to speak, but suggested with a gesture that two commanders should be chosen. The people booed him loudly. The law was passed and the senate ratified it reluctantly.[57] Plutarch
Plutarch
did not mention Pompey
Pompey
being nearly killed. He gave details of the acrimony of the speeches against Pompey. One of the senators proposed that Pompey
Pompey
should be given a colleague. Only Caesar supported the law and in Plutarch’s view he did so "not because he cared in the least for Pompey, but because from the outset he sought to ingratiate himself with the people and win their support." In his account the people did not attack the senators. Instead they shouted loudly. The assembly was dissolved. On the day of the vote Pompey withdrew to the countryside. The Lex Gabinia was passed. Pompey extracted further concessions and received 500 ships, 120,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry and twenty-four lieutenants. With the prospect of a campaign against the pirates the prices of provisions fell. Pompey
Pompey
divided the sea and the coast into thirteen districts, each with a commander with his own forces.[58] Appian
Appian
gave the same number of infantry and cavalry, but the number of ships was 270. The lieutenants were twenty-five. He listed them and their areas of command as follows: Tiberius Nero and Manlius Torquatus: in command of Hispania
Hispania
and the Straits of Hercules (the Strait of Gibraltar); Marcus Pomponius: Gaul
Gaul
and Liguria; Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus and Publius Atilius: Africa, Sardinia, Corsica; Lucius Gellius Publicola and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus: Italy; Plotius Varus and Terentius Varro: Sicily
Sicily
and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
as far as Acarnania; Lucius Sisenna: the Peloponnese, Attica, Euboea, Thessaly, Macedon, and Boeotia
Boeotia
(mainland Greece); Lucius Lollius: the Greek islands, the Aegean sea, and the Hellespont; Publius Piso: Bithynia
Bithynia
(the west of the northern coast of modern Turkey), Thrace
Thrace
(eastern Bulgaria), the Propontis
Propontis
(the Sea of Marmara) and the mouth of the Euxine (the Black Sea); Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iunior: Lycia, Pamphylia
Pamphylia
(both on the south coast of modern Turkey), Cyprus, and Phoenicia
Phoenicia
(Lebanon). Pompey
Pompey
made a tour of the whole. He cleared the western Mediterranean in forty days, proceeded to Brundisium
Brundisium
(Brindisi) and cleared the eastern Mediterranean in the same amount of time.[59] In Plutarch's account, Pompey's scattered forces encompassed every pirate fleet they came across and brought them to port. The pirates escaped to Cilicia. Pompey
Pompey
attacked Cilicia
Cilicia
with his sixty best ships; after that he cleared the Tyrrhenian Sea, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and the Libyan Sea in forty days with the help of his lieutenants. Meanwhile, the consul Piso sabotaged Pompey's equipment and discharged his crews. Pompey
Pompey
went to Rome. The markets in Rome now were well stocked with provisions again and the people acclaimed Pompey. Piso was nearly stripped of his consulship, but Pompey
Pompey
prevented Aulus Gabinius from proposing a bill to this effect. He set sail again and reached Athens. He then defeated the Cilician pirates off the promontory of Coracesium. He then besieged them and they surrendered together with the islands and towns they controlled. The latter were fortified and difficult to take by storm. Pompey
Pompey
seized many ships. He spared the lives of 20,000 pirates. He resettled some of them in the city of Soli, which had recently been devastated by Tigranes the Great, the king of Armenia. Most were resettled in Dyme in Achaea, Greece, which was underpopulated and had plenty of good land. Some pirates were received by the half-deserted cities of Cilicia. Pompey thought that they would abandon their old ways and be softened by a change of place, new customs and a gentler way of life.[60] In Appian’s account, Pompey
Pompey
went to Cilicia
Cilicia
expecting to have to undertake sieges of rock-bound citadels. However, he did not have to. His reputation and the magnitude of his preparations provoked panic and the pirates surrendered, hoping to be treated leniently because of this. They gave up large quantities of weapons, ships and ship building materials. Pompey
Pompey
destroyed the material, took away the ships and sent some of the captured pirates back to their countries. He recognised that they had undertaken piracy due to the poverty caused by the mentioned war and settled many of them in Mallus, Adana Epiphania or any other uninhabited or thinly peopled town in Cilicia. He sent some to Dyme in Achaea. According to Appian, the war against the pirates lasted only a few days. Pompey
Pompey
captured 71 ships and 306 ships were surrendered. He sized 120 towns and fortresses and killed about 10,000 pirates in battles.[61] In Cassius Dio’s brief account Pompey
Pompey
and his lieutenants patrolled ‘the whole stretch of sea that the pirates were troubling’, his fleet and his troops were irresistible both on sea and land. The leniency with which he treated the pirates who surrendered was 'equally great' and won over many pirates who went over to his side. Pompey
Pompey
'took care of them' and gave them land which was empty or settled them in underpopulated towns so that they would not resort to crime due to poverty. Soli was among these cities. It was on the Cilician coast and had been sacked by Tigranes the Great. Pompey renamed it Pompeiopolis.[62] Metellus, a relative of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, with whom Pompey
Pompey
had fought in Hispania, had been sent to Crete, which was the second source of piracy before Pompey
Pompey
assumed command. He hemmed in and killed many pirates and besieged the remnants. The Cretans called on Pompey
Pompey
to come to Crete
Crete
claiming that it was under his jurisdiction. Pompey
Pompey
wrote to Metellus to urge him to stop the war and sent one of his lieutenants, Lucius Octavius. The latter entered the besieged strongholds and fought with the pirates. Metellus persisted, captured and punished the pirates, and sent Octavius away after insulting him in front of the army. Pompey
Pompey
in the East[edit]

Pompey
Pompey
in the Temple of Jerusalem, by Jean Fouquet

Third Mithridatic War, Syria and Judea[edit] Third Mithridatic War[edit] Main article: Third Mithridatic War Lucius Licinius Lucullus
Lucullus
was conducting the Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) against Mithridates VI
Mithridates VI
the king of Pontus (on the eastern and central part of the north coast of Anatolia) and Tigranes the Great, the king of Armenia (in eastern Anatolia). He was successful in battle; however, the war was dragging on and he opened a new front. In Rome he was accused of protracting the war for ‘the love of power and wealth’ and of plundering royal palaces as if he had been sent, 'not to subdue the kings, but to strip them.’ Some of the soldiers were disgruntled and were incited by Publius Clodius Pulcher not to follow their commander. Commissioners were sent to investigate and the soldiers mocked Lucullus
Lucullus
in front of the commission.[63] In 68 BC, the consul Quintus Marcius Rex was assigned Cilicia. He refused a request for his for aid from Lucullus
Lucullus
because his soldiers refused to follow him to the front. According to Cassius Dio this was a pretext.[64] One of the consuls for 67 BC, Manius Acilius Glabrio, was appointed to succeed Lucullus. However, when Mithridates won back almost all his kingdom and caused havoc in Cappadocia, which was allied with Rome and had been left undefended, Glabrio did not go to the front, but delayed in Bithynia.[65] Another plebeian tribune, Gaius Manilius, proposed the lex Manilia. It gave Pompey
Pompey
command of the forces and the areas of operation of Licinius Lucullus
Lucullus
and in addition to this, Bithynia, which was held by Acilius Glabrio. It commissioned him to wage war on Mithridates and Tigranes. It allowed him to retain his naval force and his dominion over the sea granted by the lex Gabinia. Therefore, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Upper Colchis, Pontus and Armenia as well as the forces of Lucullus
Lucullus
were added to his command. Plutarch noted that this meant the placing of Roman supremacy entirely in the hands of one man. The optimates were unhappy about so much power being given to Pompey
Pompey
and saw this as the establishment of a tyranny. They agreed to oppose the law, but they were fearful of the mood of the people. Only Catulus spoke up. The law was passed.[66] The law was supported by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and justified by Cicero
Cicero
in his extant speech Pro Lege Manilia.[67] Former consuls also supported the law. Cicero
Cicero
mentioned Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus (consul in 72 BC), Gaius Cassius Longinus Varus (73 BC), Gaius Scribonius Curio (76 BC) and Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus (79 BC).[68] According to Cassius Dio, while this was happening, Pompey
Pompey
was preparing to sail to Crete to face Metellus Creticus (see campaign against the pirates).[69] Lucullus
Lucullus
was incensed at the prospect of his replacement by Pompey. The outgoing commander and his replacement traded insults. Lucullus called Pompey
Pompey
a "vulture" who fed from the work of others. Lucullus was referring not merely to Pompey's new command against Mithridates, but also his claim to have finished the war against Spartacus.[70] According to Cassius Dio, Pompey
Pompey
made friendly proposals to Mithridates to test this disposition. Mithridates tried to establish friendly relations with Phraates III, the king of Parthia. Pompey foresaw this, established a friendship with Phraates and persuaded him to invade the part of Armenia under Tigranes. Mithridates sent envoys to conclude a truce, but Pompey
Pompey
demanded that he lay down his arms and hand over the deserters. There was unrest among the scared deserters. They were joined by some of Mithridates' men who feared having to fight without them. The king held them in check with difficulty and had to pretend that he was testing Pompey. Pompey, who was in Galatia, prepared for war. Lucullus
Lucullus
met him and claimed that the war was over and that there was no need for an expedition. He failed to dissuade Pompey
Pompey
and verbally abused him. Pompey
Pompey
ignored him, forbade the soldiers to obey Lucullus
Lucullus
and marched to the front.[71] In Appian's account when the deserters heard about the demand to hand them back, Mithridates swore that he would not make peace with the Romans and that he would not give them up.[72] Cassius Dio wrote that Mithridates kept withdrawing because his forces were inferior. Pompey
Pompey
entered Lesser Armenia, which was not under Tigranes' rule. Mithridates did the same and encamped on a mountain that was difficult to attack. He sent the cavalry down for skirmishes, which caused a large number of desertions. Pompey
Pompey
moved his camp to a wooded area for protection. He set up a successful ambush. When Pompey was joined by more Roman forces Mithridates fled to the 'Armenia of Tigranes.' In Plutarch's version the location of the mountain is unspecified and Mithridates abandoned it because he thought that it had no water. Pompey
Pompey
took the mountain and had wells sunk. He then besieged Mithridates' camp for 45 days. However, Mithridates managed to escape with his best men. Pompey
Pompey
caught up with him by the River Euphrates, lined up for battle to prevent him from crossing the river and advanced at midnight. He wanted to just surround the enemy camp to prevent an escape in the darkness, but his officers convinced him to charge. The Romans attacked with the moon at their back, confusing the enemy who, because of the shadows, thought that they were nearer. The enemy fled in panic and was cut down.[73][74] In Cassius Dio this battle occurred when Mithridates entered a defile. The Romans hurled stones, arrows and javelins on the enemy, which was not in battle formation, from a height. When they ran out of missiles they charged those on the outside and those in the centre were crushed together. Most were horsemen and archers and they could not respond in the darkness. When the moon rose it was behind the Romans and this created shadows, causing confusion for the enemy. Many were killed, but many, including Mithridates, fled. He tried to go to Tigranes. Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that Tigranes forbade him from coming and put a reward on him. Cassius Dio did not mention a reward. He wrote that Tigranes arrested his envoys because he thought that Mithridates was responsible for a rebellion by his son. In both Plutarch
Plutarch
and Cassius Dio Mithridates went to Colchis
Colchis
(on the south-eastern shore of the Black Sea). Cassius Dio added that Pompey
Pompey
had sent a detachment to pursue him, but he outstripped them by crossing the River Phasis. He reached the Maeotis (the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
which is connected to the north shore of the Black Sea) and stayed in the Cimmerian Bosporus. He had his son Machares, who ruled it and had gone over to the Romans, killed and recovered that country. Meanwhile, Pompey
Pompey
set up a colony (settlement) for his soldiers at Nicopolitans in Cappadocia.[75][76] In Appian's account, Mithridates wintered at Dioscurias
Dioscurias
in Colchis, (in 66/65 BC). He intended to travel around the Black Sea, reach the strait of the Bosporus
Bosporus
and attack the Romans from the European side while they were in Asia Minor. He also wanted to seize the kingdom of Machares, his son who had gone over to the Romans. He crossed the territory of the Scythian
Scythian
tribes (partly by permission, partly by force) and the Heniochi, who welcomed him. He reached the Sea of Azov country, where made alliances with its many princes. He contemplated marching through Thrace, Macedonia and Pannonia
Pannonia
and crossing the Alps into Italy. He gave some of his daughters in marriage to the more powerful Scythian
Scythian
princes. Machares sent envoys to say he had made terms with the Romans out of necessity. He then he fled to the Pontic Chersonesus, burning the ships to prevent Mithridates from pursuing him. However, his father found other ships and sent them after him. Machares killed himself.[77] In Appian, at this stage Pompey
Pompey
pursued Mithridates as far as Colchis and then marched against Armenia. In the accounts of Plutarch
Plutarch
and Cassious Dio, instead, he went to Armenia first and to Colchis
Colchis
later. In Appian, Pompey
Pompey
thought that his enemy would never reach the sea of Azov or do much if he escaped. His advance was more of an exploration of that country, which was the place of the legends of the Argonauts, Heracles, and Prometheus. He was accompanied by the neighbouring tribes. Only Oroeses, the king of the Caucasian Albanians, and Artoces, the king of the Caucasian Iberians, resisted him. They placed 70,000 men in ambush at the river Cyrus. Pompey
Pompey
learnt of this, built a bridge over the river, drove the enemy into a forest and set it on fire. He then pursued the fugitives who ran out until they surrendered and brought him hostages. He then marched against Armenia.[78] In Plutarch's account Pompey
Pompey
was invited to invade Armenia by Tigranes’ son (also named Tigranes), who rebelled against his father. The two men received the submission of several towns. When they got close to Artaxata
Artaxata
(the royal residence) Tigranes, knowing Pompey’s leniency, surrendered and allowed a Roman garrison in his palace. He went to Pompey's camp, where Pompey
Pompey
offered the restitution of the Armenian territories in Syria, Phoenicia, Cilicia, Galatia, and Sophene, which Lucullus
Lucullus
had taken. He demanded an indemnity and ruled that the son should be king of Sophene. Tigranes accepted. His son was not happy with the deal and remonstrated. He was put in chains and reserved for Pompey's triumph. Soon after this Phraates III, the king of Parthia
Parthia
asked to be given the son in exchange for an agreement to set the River Euphrates
Euphrates
as the boundary between Parthia
Parthia
and Rome. Pompey
Pompey
refused.[79] In the version of Cassius Dio the son of Tigranes fled to Phraates. He persuaded the latter, who had a treaty with Pompey
Pompey
to invade Armenia and fight his father. The two reached Artaxata, causing Tigranes to flee to the mountains. Phraates then went back to his land, and Tigranes counterattacked, defeating his son. The younger Tigranes fled and at first wanted to go to Mithridates. However, since Mithridates had been defeated, he went over to the Romans and Pompey
Pompey
used him as a guide to advance into Armenia. When they reached Artaxata, the elder Tigranes surrendered the city and went voluntarily to Pompey’s camp. The next day Pompey heard the claims of father and son. He restored the hereditary domains of the father, but took the land he had invaded later (parts of Cappadocia, and Syria, as well as Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and Sophene) and demanded an indemnity. He assigned Sophene
Sophene
to the son. This was the area where the treasures were, and the son began a dispute over them. He did not obtain satisfaction and planned to escape. Pompey
Pompey
put him in chains. The treasures went to the old king, who received far more money than had been agreed.[80] Appian
Appian
gave an explanation for the young Tigranes turning against his father. Tigranes killed two of his three sons. He killed one in battle when he was fighting him. He killed another while hunting because instead of helping him when he was thrown off his horse, he put a diadem on his head. Following this incident, he gave the crown to the third son, Tigranes. However, the latter was distressed about the incident and waged war against his father. He was defeated and fled to Phraates. Because of all this, Tigranes did not want to fight any more when Pompey
Pompey
got near Artaxata. The young Tigranes took refuge with Pompey
Pompey
as a suppliant with the approval of Phraates, who wanted Pompey's friendship. The elder Tigranes submitted his affairs to Pompey’s decision and made complaint against his son. Pompey
Pompey
called him for a meeting. He gave 6,000 talents for Pompey, 10,000 drachmas for each tribune, 1,000 for each centurion, and fifty for each soldier. Pompey
Pompey
pardoned him and reconciled him with his son. In Appian's account, Pompey
Pompey
gave the latter both Sophene
Sophene
and Gordyene. The father was left with the rest of Armenia and was ordered to give up the territory he has seized in the war: Syria west of the River Euphrates
Euphrates
and part of Cilicia. Armenian deserters persuaded the younger Tigranes to make an attempt on his father. Pompey
Pompey
arrested and chained him. He then founded a city in Lesser Armenia
Lesser Armenia
where he had defeated Mithridates. He called it Nicopolis (City of Victory).[81] In Appian's account, after Armenia Pompey
Pompey
(still in 64 BC) turned west, crossed Mount Taurus
Mount Taurus
and fought Antiochus I Theos,the king of Commagene
Commagene
until he made an alliance with him. He then fought Darius the Mede and put him to flight. This was because he had 'helped Antiochus, or Tigranes before him'.[82] According to Plutarch
Plutarch
and Cassius Dio, instead, it was at this point that Pompey
Pompey
turned north. The two writers provided different accounts of Pompey’s operations in the territories on the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
and Colchis
Colchis
(on the southern shore of the Black Sea). He fought in Caucasian Iberia (inland and to the south of Colchis) and Caucasian Albania
Caucasian Albania
(or Arran, roughly corresponding with modern Azerbaijan) (see Pompey's Georgian campaign). In Plutarch
Plutarch
the Albanians at first granted Pompey
Pompey
free passage, but in the winter they advanced on the Romans who were celebrating the festival of the Saturnalia
Saturnalia
with 40,000 men. Pompey
Pompey
let them cross the river Cyrnus and then attacked them and routed them. Their king begged for mercy and Pompey
Pompey
pardoned him. He then marched on the Iberians, who were allies of Mithridates. He routed them, killing 9,000 of them and taking 10,000 prisoners. Then he invaded Colchis
Colchis
and reached Phasis on the Black Sea, where he was met by Servilius, the admiral of his Euxine (Black Sea) fleet. However, he encountered difficulties there and the Albanians revolted again. Pompey
Pompey
turned back. He had to cross a river whose banks had been fenced off, made a long march through a waterless area and defeated a force of 60,000 badly-armed infantry and 12,000 cavalry led by the king's brother. He pushed north again, but turned back south because he encountered a great number of snakes.[83] In Cassius Dio, Pompey
Pompey
wintered near the River Cyrnus. Oroeses, the king of the Albanians, who lived beyond this river, attacked the Romans during the winter, partly to favour the younger Tigranes, who was a friend, and partly because he feared an invasion. He was defeated and Pompey
Pompey
agreed to his request for a truce even though he wanted to invade their country. He wanted to postpone the war until after the winter. In 65 BC, Artoces, the king of the Iberians, who also feared an invasion, prepared to attack the Romans. Pompey
Pompey
learnt of this and invaded his territory, catching him unawares. He seized an impregnable frontier pass and got close to a fortress in the narrowest point of the River Cyrnus. Artoces had no chance to array his forces. He withdrew, crossed the river and burned the bridge. The fortress surrendered. When Pompey
Pompey
was about to cross the river Artoces sued for peace. However, he then fled to the river. Pompey
Pompey
pursued him, routed his forces and hunted down the fugitives. Artoces fled across the River Pelorus and made overtures, but Pompey
Pompey
would agree to terms only if he sent his children as hostages. Artoces delayed, but when the Romans crossed the Pelorus in the summer he handed over his children and concluded a treaty. Pompey
Pompey
moved on to Colchis
Colchis
and wanted to march to the Cimmerian Bosporus
Cimmerian Bosporus
against Mithridates. However, he realised that he would have to confront unknown hostile tribes and that a sea journey would be difficult because of a lack of harbours. Therefore, he ordered his fleet to blockade Mithridates and turned on the Albanians. He went to Armenia first to catch them off guard and then crossed the River Cyrnus. He heard that Oroeses was coming close and wanted to lead him into a conflict. He hid his infantry and got the cavalry to go ahead. When the cavalry was attacked by Oroeses it withdrew towards the infantry, which then engaged. It let the cavalry through its ranks. Some of the enemy forces, which were in hot pursuit, also ended up through their ranks and were killed. The rest was surrounded and routed. Pompey
Pompey
then overran the country. Then he granted peace to the Albanians and concluded truces with other tribes on the northern side of the Caucasus.[84] Pompey
Pompey
withdrew to Lesser Armenia. He sent a force under Afrianius against Phraates, who was plundering the subjects of Tigranes in Gordyene. Afrianius drove him out and pursued him as far as the area of Arbela, in northern Mesopotamia.[85] Cassius Dio gave more details. Phraates renewed the treaty with Pompey
Pompey
because of his success and because of the progress of his lieutenants. They were subduing Armenia and the adjacent part of Pontus and in the south Afrianius was advancing to the River Tigris; that is, towards Parthia. Pompey demanded the cession of Corduene, which Phraates was disputing with Tigranes and sent Afrianius there, who occupied it unopposed and handed it to Tigranes before receiving a reply from Phraates. Afrianius also returned to Syria through Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(a Parthian area) contrary to the Roman-Parthian agreements. Pompey
Pompey
treated Phraates with contempt. Phraates sent envoys to complain about the suffered wrongs. In 64 BC, when he did not receive a conciliatory reply, Phraates attacked Tigranes, accompanied by the son of the latter. He lost a first battle, but won another. Tigranes asked Pompey
Pompey
for help. Phraates brought many charges against Tigranes and many insinuations against the Romans. Pompey
Pompey
did not help Tigranes, stopped being hostile to Phraates and sent three envoys to arbitrate the border dispute. Tigranes, angry about not receiving help, reconciled with Phraates in order not to strengthen the position of the Romans.[86] Stratonice, the fourth wife of Mithridates, surrendered Caenum, one of the most important fortresses of the king. Pompey
Pompey
also received gifts from the king of the Iberians. He then moved from Caenum to Amisus (modern Samsun, on the north coast of Anatolia). Pompey
Pompey
then decided to move south because it was too difficult to try to reach Mithridates in the Cimmerian Bosporus
Cimmerian Bosporus
and thus he did not want to ‘wear out his own strength in a vain pursuit.’ He was content with preventing merchant ships reaching the Cimmerian Bosporus
Cimmerian Bosporus
through his blockade and preferred other pursuits. He sent Afrianius to subdue the Arabs around the Amanus Mountains (in what was then on the coast of northern Syria). He went to Syria with his army. He annexed Syria because it had no legitimate kings. He spent most of his time settling disputes between cities and kings or sending envoys to do so. He gained prestige as much for his clemency as for his power. By being helpful to those who had dealings with him, he made them willing to put up with the rapacity of his friends and was thus able to hide this. The king of the Arabians at Petra
Petra
( Aretas III
Aretas III
of Nabataea) wanted to become a friend of Rome. Pompey
Pompey
marched towards Petra
Petra
to confirm him. Pompey
Pompey
was criticised because this was seen as an evasion of the pursuit of Mithridates and was urged to turn against him. There were reports that Mithridates was preparing to march on Italy
Italy
via the River Danube. Pompey
Pompey
was lucky because while he was encamped near Petra
Petra
a messenger brought the news that Mithridates was dead. Pompey
Pompey
left Arabia and went to Amisus (Samsun), on the north coast of Anatolia.[87] Cassius Dio wrote that ' Pompey
Pompey
arbitrated disputes and managed other business for kings and potentates who came to him. He confirmed some in possession of their kingdoms, added to the principalities of others, and curtailed and humbled the excessive powers of a few.' He united Coele-Syria
Coele-Syria
and Phoenicia
Phoenicia
(Lebanon), which had been ravaged by the Arabians and Tigranes.[88] Antiochus XIII Philadelphus (one of the last rulers of Syria) asked for them back to no avail. Pompey
Pompey
put them under Roman jurisdiction.[89] Cassius Dio also mentioned that Mithridates planned to reach the River Danube
Danube
and invade Italy. However, he was ageing and becoming weaker. As his position became weaker and that of the Romans stronger some of his associates became estranged. A massive earthquake destroyed many towns. There was a mutiny by the soldiers. Some of his sons were kidnapped and taken to Pompey. He became unpopular. Mithridates was mistrustful and had his wives and some of his remaining children killed. One of them, Pharnaces II, plotted against him. He won over both the men who were sent to arrest him and then the soldiers who were sent against him. in 64 BC, he obtained the voluntary submission of Panticapaeum, the city where Mithridates was staying. Mithridates tried to poison himself, but failed because he was immune due to taking ‘precautionary antidotes in large doses every day.’ He was killed by the rebels. Pharnaces embalmed his body and sent it to Pompey
Pompey
as proof of his surrender. He was granted the kingdom of Bosporus
Bosporus
and listed as an ally.[90] Syria[edit] Syria had once been the heart of the vast Seleucid Empire, which had become increasingly unstable after the death of Antiochus IV in 164 BC. Continuous civil wars made central authority weak. By 163 BC, the Maccabean Revolt
Maccabean Revolt
established the independence of Judea. The Parthians of Persia gained control of the Iranian Plateau. In 139 BC, they defeated the Seleucid king Demetrius II, and took Babylon
Babylon
from the Seleucids. The following year they captured the king. His brother Antiochus VII gained the support of the Maccabees, regained the submission of the once vassal kingdoms of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
and Armenia, drove back the Parthians and retook Mesopotamia, Babylon, and Media. However, he was killed in battle and the Seleucids lost all of these gains. By 100 BC, the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
was reduced to a few cities in western Syria. It was still riddled with king makers and civil wars. It survived only because none of its neighbours took it over. In 83 BC Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great
of Armenia invaded Syria, invited by a faction in one of the civil wars, and virtually ended Seleucid rule. When Lucius Licinius Lucullus
Lucullus
defeated Tigranes in the Third Mithridatic War
Third Mithridatic War
in 69 BC, a rump Seleucid kingdom was restored. However, the civil war continued. Pompey
Pompey
was concerned about political instability to the south of Armenia, both in Syria and in Judea. In Syria the Seleucid state was disintegrating. In Judea
Judea
there was a civil war. We know about Pompey's actions in Syria and Judea
Judea
through the work of Josephus, the ancient Jewish-Roman historian. In 65 BC, Pompey
Pompey
sent two of his lieutenants, Metellus and Lollius, to Syria to take possession of Damascus. In 63 BC, Pompey
Pompey
went to Damascus. He was met by ambassadors from Syria, Egypt and Judea. He undertook an expedition, during which he destroyed Apameia and took over the country of Ptolemy Mennaeus. Ptolemy Mennaeus was the ruler of Calchis (Qinnasrin, in northern Syria) and Iturea
Iturea
(a region north of Galilee). He had extended his domain by war, took over areas of the coast of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and threatened Damascus. The Itureans had seized Galilee
Galilee
from Judea
Judea
in 103 BC.[91] He was hated in Syria, Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and Judea. However, Pompey
Pompey
let him escape punishment in exchange for a large sum of money, which he used to pay his soldiers. He then took Lysias (which was under a Jewish tyrant), Heliopolis (Baalbek, in eastern Lebanon) and Chalcis, crossed the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
Mountains, took Pella (in the River Jordan
Jordan
Rift Valley) and reached Damascus. This completed the takeover of Syria.[92] Judea[edit] A conflict between the brothers Aristobulus II
Aristobulus II
and Hyrcanus II
Hyrcanus II
over the succession to the Hasmonean throne began in Judea
Judea
in 69 BC. Aristobulus deposed Hyrcanus. Then Antipater the Idumaean became the adviser of weak-willed Hyrcanus and persuaded him to contend for the throne. He advised him to escape to Aretas III, the king of the Arabian Nabataean Kingdom. Hyrcanus promised Aretas that if he restored him to the throne he would give him back twelve cities his father had taken from him. Aretas besieged Aristobulus in the Temple in Jerusalem for eight months (66–65 BC). The people supported Hyrcanus and only the priests supported Aristobulus. Meanwhile, Pompey, who was fighting Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great
in Armenia, sent Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (who was a quaestor) to Syria. Since two of Pompey's lieutenants, Metellus and Lollius, had already taken Damascus, Scaurus proceeded to Judea. The ambassadors of Aristobulus and Hyrcanus asked for his help. Both offered Scaurus bribes and promises. He sided with Aristobulus because he was rich and because it was easier to expel the Nabateans, who were not very warlike, than to capture Jerusalem. He ordered Aretas to leave and said that if he did not he would be an enemy of Rome. Aretas withdrew. Aristobulus gathered an army, pursued him and defeated him. Scaurus returned to Syria.[93] When Pompey
Pompey
went to Syria he was visited by ambassadors from Syria and Egypt. Aristobulus sent him a very expensive golden vine. A little later, ambassadors from Hyrcanus and Aristobulus went to see him. The former claimed that first Aulus Gabinius
Aulus Gabinius
and then Scaurus had taken bribes. Pompey
Pompey
decided to arbitrate the dispute later, at the beginning of spring, and marched to Damascus. There he heard the cases of Hyrcanus, Aristobulus and those who did not want a monarchy and wanted to return to the tradition of being under the high priest. Hyrcanus claimed that he was the rightful king as the elder brother and that he had been usurped. He accused Aristobulus of making incursions in nearby countries and being responsible for piracy at sea and that this caused a revolt. Aristobulus claimed that Hyrcanus’s indolence had caused him to be deposed, and that he took power lest others seize it. Pompey
Pompey
reproached Aristobulus for his violence, and told the men to wait for him. He would settle the matter after dealing with the Nabataeans. However, Aristobulus went to Judea. This angered Pompey
Pompey
who marched on Judea
Judea
and went to the fortress of Alexandreium, where Aristobulus fled to.[94] Aristobulus went to talk to Pompey
Pompey
and returned to the fortress three times to pretend he was complying with him. He intended to wear him down and prepare for war should he rule against him. When Pompey ordered him to surrender the fortress, Aristobulus did give it up, but he withdrew to Jerusalem and prepared for war. While Pompey
Pompey
was marching on Jerusalem he was informed about the death of Mithridates. Pompey
Pompey
encamped at Jericho. Aristobulus went to see him, promised to give him money and received him into Jerusalem. Pompey
Pompey
forgave him and sent Aulus Gabinius
Aulus Gabinius
with soldiers to receive the money and the city. The soldiers of Aristobulus did not let them in. Pompey
Pompey
arrested Aristobulus and entered Jerusalem. The pro-Aristobulus faction went to the Temple and prepared for a siege. The rest of the inhabitants opened the city gates. Pompey
Pompey
sent in an army led by Piso and placed garrisons in the city and at the palace. The enemy refused to negotiate. Pompey
Pompey
built a wall around the area of the Temple and encamped inside this wall. However, the temple was well fortified and there was a deep valley around it. The Romans built a ramp and brought siege engines and battering rams from Tyre.[95] Pompey
Pompey
took advantage of the enemy celebrating the Sabbath to deploy his battering rams. Jewish law did not allow the Jews to meddle with the enemy if they were not attacking them on the day of the Sabbath. Therefore, the defenders of the Temple did not counter the deployment of the battering rams by the Romans, which on the other days of the week they had successfully prevented. The next day the wall of the Temple was broken through and the soldiers went on the rampage.[96] According to Josephus
Josephus
12,000 Jews fell. Josephus
Josephus
wrote, "No small enormities were committed about the temple itself, which, in former ages, had been inaccessible, and seen by none; for Pompey
Pompey
went into it, and not a few of those that were with him also, and saw all that which it was unlawful for any other men to see but only for the high priests. There were in that temple the golden table, the holy candlestick, and the pouring vessels, and a great quantity of spices; and besides these there were among the treasures two thousand talents of sacred money: yet did Pompey
Pompey
touch nothing of all this, on account of his regard to religion; and in this point also he acted in a manner that was worthy of his virtue." The next day he ordered the men in charge of the Temple to purify it and to bring offerings to God as Jewish law required. Pompey
Pompey
restored Hyrcanus to the high priesthood "both because he had been useful to him in other respects, and because he hindered the Jews in the country from giving Aristobulus any assistance in his war against him."[97] Pompey
Pompey
returned the Syrian cities the Jews had conquered Syria's rule, thus bringing Judea
Judea
back to its original territory. He rebuilt the city of Garara and restored seven inland cities and four coastal ones to its inhabitants. He made Jerusalem a tributary of Rome and made Judea
Judea
a satellite of Syria. He put Marcus Aemilius Scaurus in charge of Syria "as far as the river Euphrates
Euphrates
and Egypt" with two Roman legions. According to Josephus
Josephus
Pompey
Pompey
then went to Cilicia, taking Aristobulus and his children with him, and after this he returned to Rome.[98] This contrasts with the account of Plutarch. The latter did not mention any action in Judea. He wrote that Pompey
Pompey
marched on Petra (the capital of the Kingdom of Nabataea) to confirm Aretas, who wanted to become a friend of Rome. It was while he was encamped near Petra that he was told that Mithridates was dead. He then left Arabia and went to Amisus (Samsun), in Pontus, on the north coast of Anatolia (see above).[99] Josephus
Josephus
did write that Pompey
Pompey
marched on Nabataea, but did not mention the reason for this. However, he also marched to Judea
Judea
to deal with Aristobulus. He did not mention whether he actually reached Petra
Petra
before turning to Judea. He learned of the death of Mithridates when he was marching towards Jerusalem. When he completed matters in Judea
Judea
he went to Cilicia
Cilicia
instead of Amisus. Cassius Dio gave a brief account of Pompey's campaign in Judea
Judea
and wrote that after this he went to Pontus, which fits with Plutarch
Plutarch
writing that he went to Amisus.[100] Josephus
Josephus
wrote that after his siege of the Temple in Jerusalem, Pompey gave the governorship of Syria (for 62 BC) as far as the River Euphrates
Euphrates
and Egypt to Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, giving him two legions. Scaurus made an expedition against Petra, in Arabian Nabataea. He burned the settlements around it because it was difficult to gain access to it. His army suffered hunger. Hyrcanus ordered Antipater to supply corn and other provisions from Judea.[101] Josephus
Josephus
did not give an explanation of the actions of Scaurus. It probably had to do with the security of the Decapolis
Decapolis
(see below). Josephus
Josephus
also wrote:

"Now the occasions of this misery which came upon Jerusalem were Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, by raising a sedition one against the other; for now we lost our liberty, and became subject to the Romans, and were deprived of that country which we had gained by our arms from the Syrians, and were compelled to restore it to the Syrians. Moreover, the Romans exacted of us, in a little time, above ten thousand talents; and the royal authority, which was a dignity formerly bestowed on those that were high priests, by the right of their family, became the property of private men." (Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 14.4.77-78)

Pompey's settlements in the East[edit]

A Roman bust of Pompey, restored in the 17th century with a black marble base, Vaux-le-Vicomte, France

Pompey
Pompey
set out to liberate a number of Hellenised towns from their rulers. He joined seven towns east of the River Jordan
Jordan
that had been under the Hasmoneans
Hasmoneans
of Judea, plus Damascus, into a league. Philadelphia (today's Amman), which had been under Nabataea, also joined the league, which was called the Decapolis
Decapolis
(Ten Cities). They were mostly in Transjordan (now part of Jordan) and around the east of the Sea of Galilee, part of which extended into Syria. It seems that Pompey
Pompey
organized the league as a means of preserving the sovereignty of the city-states. Although he put them under the protection of the Roman province of Syria, each city-state was autonomous. It is thought that it was not organised as a political unit and that the cities cooperated on economic and security matters. Josephus
Josephus
mentioned five of these cities as being taken away from the Hasmoneans
Hasmoneans
and restored to their inhabitants (i.e., they were given self-government). He also mentioned cities in Judea
Judea
and Samaria, Azotus (Ashdod), Jamneia (Yavne), Joppa (Jaffa), Dora (Tel Dor, now an archaeological site), Marissa (or Tel Maresha) and Samaria (now an archaeological site). He also mentioned Strato’s Tower (later called Caesarea Maritima), Arethusa (now replaced by Al-Rastan) in Syria, and the city of Gaza as being restored to their peoples. Two other towns near Gaza, Anthedon (now an archaeological site) and Raphia (Rafah) and another inland town Adora (Dura, near Hebron) were also restored.[102] The liberation of the cities was symbolised by the adoption of the Pompeian era, which made it comparable to a new foundation. This calendar counted the years from 63 BC, the year when self-government started. Damascus
Damascus
continued to use the Seleucid era. A number of the cities in Judea
Judea
and Galilee
Galilee
also adopted the Pompeian era. Several of the towns had been damaged during Hasmonean rule, but the damage was not extensive and reconstruction was completed by the time of the governorship in Syria of Aulus Gabinius
Aulus Gabinius
in 57 BC. Gaza and Raphia adopted the Pompeian era
Pompeian era
when reconstruction was completed, in 61 BC and in 57 BC respectively. The town of Samaria adopted the appellation of Gabinian, presumably because reconstruction there was finished under the governorship of Gabinius. The towns also experienced repopulation. Some of the exiles returned home and probably new settlers for the nearby areas and Hellenized Syrians were sometimes brought in. A distinction between citizens of the polis and natives was restored. Jews were not counted as citizens because of religion, and were probably deported or saw their property confiscated in revenge, with some probably becoming tenants of Hellenized landowners. Such developments increased the long-standing hostility between Jews and Hellenized people.[103] Besides annexing Syria and turning Judea
Judea
into a client kingdom and a satellite of Syria, Pompey
Pompey
annexed the coastal strip in the western part of the Kingdom of Pontus
Kingdom of Pontus
and merged it with Bithynia, turning both into the Roman province of Bithynia
Bithynia
et Pontius. The kingdom of Bithynia
Bithynia
had been bequeathed to Rome by its last king, Nicomedes IV, in 74 BC, triggering the Third Mithridatic War. During this war it was not formally annexed. The territories Mithridates had conquered, apart for Lesser Armenia, became client states. The eastern coast and the interior of Pontus plus the Bosporan Kingdom
Bosporan Kingdom
became client kingdoms under Pharnaces II of Pontus, the son of Mithridates who had rebelled against his father and gone over to the Romans. Pompey
Pompey
installed Aristarchus as a client ruler in Colchis. He gave Lesser Armenia
Lesser Armenia
to Galatia
Galatia
under the Roman client king Deiotarus as a reward for his loyalty to Rome. Pompey
Pompey
greatly expanded the province of Cilicia
Cilicia
along the coast (adding Pamphylia
Pamphylia
to its west) and inland. He reorganized it into six parts: Cilicia
Cilicia
Aspera, Cilicia
Cilicia
Campestris, Pamphylia, Pisidia
Pisidia
(north of Pamphylia), Isauria
Isauria
(east of Pisidia), Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(north of Cilicia Trachea) and the greater part of Phrygia
Phrygia
(north of Pisidia
Pisidia
and Isauria). He left Tarcondimotus I
Tarcondimotus I
in control of Anazarbos and Mount Amanus, to the east of Cilicia
Cilicia
Campestris. Tarcondimotus and his son and successor (Tarcondimotus II) were loyal allies of Rome. As noted above, ancient Cilicia
Cilicia
was divided into Cilicia
Cilicia
Trachea (Rugged Cilicia, a rugged mountainous area along the Taurus Mountains in the west) and Cilicia
Cilicia
Pedias (Flat Cilicia, in the east) by the River Limonlu. Cilicia
Cilicia
had been made the military operational area of Marcus Antonius Orator for his 102 BC campaign against the pirates. A small part of Cilicia
Cilicia
Pedias became Roman territory. It was made the military operational area for the 78-74 BC campaign of Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. However, Cilicia
Cilicia
was not actually part of this, and he campaigned in eastern Lycia
Lycia
and Pamphylia. He incorporated the territories he subdued in those two areas in the province of Cilicia. However, Cilicia
Cilicia
Trachea was still held by the pirates, and most of Cilicia
Cilicia
Pedias belonged to Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great
of Armenia. This area of Anatolia
Anatolia
came truly under Roman control after Pompey’s victories. In 66 BC, following Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus' campaigns there (69-67 BC), Crete
Crete
was annexed as a Roman province. Livy
Livy
wrote: "Having subdued the Cretans, Quintus Metellus gave laws to their island, which had until then been independent."[104] Return to Rome and third triumph[edit] Pompey
Pompey
went back to Amisus (Samsun). Here he found many gifts from Pharnaces and many dead bodies of the royal family, including that of Mithridates. Pompey
Pompey
could not look at Mithridates' body and sent it to Sinope. He then travelled in greater pomp. On his way to Italy
Italy
he went to Mytilene
Mytilene
on the island of Lesbos. He decided to build a theatre in Rome modelled on that of this city. In Rhodes
Rhodes
he listened to the sophist philosophers and gave them money. He also gave rewards to philosophers in Athens and gave the city money towards its restoration (it had been damaged by Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
during the First Mithridatic War). In Rome there were rumours that Pompey
Pompey
would march his army against the city and establish a monarchy. Crassus
Crassus
secretly left with his children and money. Plutarch
Plutarch
thought that it was more likely he did this because he wanted to give credibility to the rumours rather than through genuine fear. However, Pompey
Pompey
disbanded his army when he landed in Italy. He was cheered by the inhabitants of the cities he passed on his way to Rome and many people joined him. Plutarch
Plutarch
remarked that he arrived in Rome with such a large crowd that he would not have needed an army for a revolution.[105]

18th century depiction of the third triumph

In the Senate Pompey
Pompey
was probably equally admired and feared. On the streets he was as popular as ever. His eastern victories earned him his third triumph, which he celebrated on his 45th birthday in 61 BC,[106] seven months after his return to Italy. Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that it surpassed all previous triumphs. It took place over an unprecedented two days. Much of what had been prepared would not find a place and would have been enough for another procession. Inscriptions carried in front of the procession indicated the nations he defeated (the Kingdom of Pontus, Armenia, Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, Media, Colchis, Caucasian Iberia, Caucasian Albania, Syria, Cilicia, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Judaea
Judaea
and Nabataea) and claimed that 900 cities, 1,000 strongholds. 800 pirate ships and 1,000 pirates were captured and that 39 cities were founded. Some also claimed that his conquests were adding 85 million drachmas to the 30 million drachmas of the public revenues from taxes[107] and that he brought 20,000 drachmas in silver and gold. The captives led in the triumph were the leaders of the pirates, the son of Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great
with his wife and daughter, a wife of Tigranes the Great, a sister and five children of Mithridates VI, Aristobulus II, the king of the Jews, and hostages from the Caucasian Albanians, the Caucasian Iberians and the king of Commagene.[108] Appian
Appian
gave the names of the paraded children of Mithridates VI. They were the sons Artaphernes, Cyrus, Oxathres, Darius, and Xerxes, and the daughters Orsabaris and Eupatra. He specified that there were three Iberian chiefs and two Albanian ones. Olthaces, the chief of the Colchians, the tyrants of the Cilicians, the female rulers of the Scythians
Scythians
and Menander the Laodicean, the commander of Mithridates' cavalry, were also paraded . In total, 324 people were paraded. The procession included images of Tigranes and Mithridates, who were not present, and the sons and daughters of Mithridates who had died. The image of Mithridates was made of gold and was four metre high. There was a tablet with the inscription "Ships with brazen beaks captured, 800; cities founded in Cappadocia, 8; in Cilicia
Cilicia
and Coele Syria, 20; in Palestine the one which is now Seleucis. Kings conquered: Tigranes the Armenian, Artoces the Iberian, Oroezes the Albanian, Darius the Mede, Aretas the Nabataean, Antiochus of Commagene." There were two-horse carriages and litters laden with gold or ornaments, including the couch of Darius, the son of Hystaspes, the throne and scepter of Mithridates. There were 75,100,000 drachmas of silver coin and 700 ships were brought to the port. Appian
Appian
also related that " Pompey
Pompey
himself was borne in a chariot studded with gems, wearing, it is said, the cloak of Alexander the Great, if anyone can believe that. It seems to have been found among the possessions of Mithridates that the inhabitants of Kos
Kos
had received from Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII of Egypt."[109] Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
wrote that Pompey
Pompey
displayed "a chess-board made of two precious stones, three feet in width by two in length ... and remarked that his displays were ... more the triumph of luxury than the triumph of conquest."[110] Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote, "That which most enhanced his glory and had never been the lot of any Roman before, was that he celebrated his third triumph over the third continent."[111] His triumphs were for victories in Africa, Hispania
Hispania
and Asia. Only Scipio Aemilianus had celebrated triumphs for victories in two continents (in Africa and Hispania). Cassius Dio wrote that Pompey
Pompey
displayed his "trophies beautifully decked out to represent each of his achievements, even the smallest; and after them all came one huge one, decked out in costly fashion and bearing an inscription stating that it was a trophy of the inhabited world." He also noted that he did not add any title to his name as he was happy with his appellation as Magnus (The Great) and that he did not contrive to receive any other honour.[112] First Triumvirate[edit] Main article: First Triumvirate

From left to right: Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Pompey the Great

When Pompey
Pompey
returned to Rome from the Third Mithridatic War, he asked the Roman senate to ratify the acts of his settlements with the cities, kings and princes in the east en bloc. This was opposed by the senators, particularly the optimates, who were suspicious of the power Pompey
Pompey
had acquired with the lex Gabinia and the lex Manilia and the popularity he gained with his military successes. They saw him as a threat to the supremacy of the senate and as a potential tyrant. In 60 BC, the optimates, not for the first time, also defeated a bill that would have distributed farm land to Pompey’s veterans, and to landless urban poor of Rome, who relied on a grain dole distributed by the state to survive. The consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer opposed the bill very effectively. The other consul, Afrianius, whose election had been sponsored by Pompey, was of no assistance. According to Cassius Dio he "understood how to dance better than to transact any business."[113] In the end, lacking the support of this Afrianius to counterbalance Metellus Celer, Pompey
Pompey
let the matter drop. Thus, the Pompeian camp proved to be inadequate to respond the obstructionism of the optimates.[114] When Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
returned to Rome from his governorship in Hispania towards the end of 60 BC, Pompey
Pompey
and Caesar made an informal political alliance. Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
was a prominent popularis politician who favoured land redistributions and was a resolute man. He stood for election for one of the two consulships for 59 BC, and could provide the kind of support needed for the land bill to be passed. Caesar also pursued a policy of conciliating Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus
and Pompey, who had been at variance politically. Thus, Caesar brought into being this alliance between these three men, which historians call the First Triumvirate. Together these three men could break the resistance of the senate. Pompey’s political clout was based on his popularity as a military commander and on the political patronage and purchase of votes for his supporters and himself that his wealth could afford. He also had the support of his war veterans: "Prestige, wealth, clients, and loyal, grateful veterans who could be readily mobilised—these were the opes which could guarantee [Pompey's] brand of [power]."[115] Crassus
Crassus
was a property speculator and the richest man in Rome. He had extensive patronage networks. Caesar was elected, and proposed an agrarian bill to the plebeian council, which Pompey
Pompey
and Crassus
Crassus
publicly supported. The bill passed over the opposition of his colleague as consul, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, whose election had been funded by the optimates due to his opposition to Caesar and his bill. Calpurnius Bibulus subsequently retired from politics and Caesar had the acts of Pompey’s settlements in the east passed.[116][117][118][119] A law that made Caesar governor of Gallia Cisalpina
Gallia Cisalpina
and Illyricum also passed. When the governor of Gallia Transalpina
Gallia Transalpina
died, Caesar was given that province as well. Caesar tied Pompey
Pompey
to himself by marrying him to his daughter Julia even though she was betrothed to another man.[120][121][122] He then left Rome to take on these governorships and got involved in his Gallic Wars, which lasted from 58 BC to 50 BC. Pompey
Pompey
and Caesar set Publius Clodius Pulcher against Marcus Tullius Cicero, who was an opponent of the triumvirate. Clodius managed to have Cicero
Cicero
exiled, but soon Pompey
Pompey
decided to have Cicero
Cicero
recalled to Rome because Clodius turned against him. A grateful Cicero
Cicero
stopped opposing Pompey.[123][124][125][126] In 58 BC, food shortages in Rome caused popular unrest. Cicero persuaded the people to appoint Pompey
Pompey
as praefectus annonae (prefect of the provisions) in Italy
Italy
and beyond for five years. This post was instituted at times of severe grain shortages to supervise the grain supply. Clodius alleged that the scarcity of grain had been engineered to support a law that boosted Pompey’s power, which had been decreasing. Both Plutarch
Plutarch
and Cassius Dio thought that the law made Pompey
Pompey
‘the master of all the land and sea under Roman possession’. Pompey
Pompey
sent agents and friends to various places and sailed to Sardinia, Sicily
Sicily
and the Roman province of Africa
Roman province of Africa
(the breadbaskets of the Roman empire) to collect grain. He collected it in such abundance that the markets were filled and there was also enough to supply foreign peoples. Appian
Appian
wrote that this success gave Pompey great reputation and power. Cassius Dio also wrote that Pompey
Pompey
faced some delays in the distribution of grain because many slaves had been freed prior to the distribution and Pompey
Pompey
wanted to take a census to ensure they received it in an orderly way.[127][128][129] In 56 BC, Caesar, who was fighting the Gallic Wars, crossed the Alps into Italy
Italy
and wintered in Luca (Lucca, Tuscany). In the Life of Crassus, Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that Caesar met Pompey
Pompey
and Crassus
Crassus
and agreed that the two of them would stand for the consulship and that he would support them by sending soldiers to Rome to vote for them. They were then to secure the command of provinces and armies for themselves and confirm his provinces for a further five years. In the Life of Pompey, Plutarch
Plutarch
added that Caesar also wrote letters to his friends and that the three men were aiming at making themselves the masters of the state.[130][131][132] Cassius Dio, who wrote the most detailed account of the period, did not mention the Luca conference. In his version, instead, Pompey
Pompey
and Crassus
Crassus
agreed to stand for the consulship between themselves as a counterpoise to Caesar. Pompey
Pompey
was annoyed about the increasing admiration of Caesar due to his success in the Gallic Wars, which, he felt, overshadowed his own exploits. He tried to persuade the consuls not to read Caesar's reports from Gaul
Gaul
and to send someone to relieve his command. He was unable to achieve anything through the consuls, and felt that Caesar's increasing independence made his own position precarious. He began to arm himself against Caesar and got closer to Crassus
Crassus
because he thought he could not challenge Caesar on his own. The two men decided to stand for the consulship so that they could be more than a match for Caesar. Once elected, Pompey
Pompey
and Crassus
Crassus
got Gaius Trebonius, a plebeian tribune, to propose a measure that gave the province of Syria and the nearby lands to one of the consuls and the provinces of Hispania
Hispania
Citerior, and Hispania
Hispania
Ulterior to the other. They would hold the command there for five years. They could levy as many troops as they wanted and ‘make peace and war with whomsoever they pleased’. The supporters of Caesar were unhappy and therefore Crassus
Crassus
and Pompey
Pompey
extended Caesar's command in Gaul. According to Cassius Dio, this was for three years, not five.[133] In The Life of Pompey, Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote the laws proposed by Trebonius were in accordance with the agreement made at Luca. They gave Caesar's command a second five-year term, assigned the Roman province of Syria and an expedition against Parthia
Parthia
to Crassus
Crassus
and gave Pompey
Pompey
the two provinces in Hispania
Hispania
(where there had recently been disturbances), the whole of Africa (presumably Plutarch
Plutarch
meant Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
as well as the Roman province of Africa) and four legions. Pompey
Pompey
lent two of these legions to Caesar for his wars in Gaul
Gaul
at his request.[134] According to Appian
Appian
Pompey
Pompey
lent Caesar only one legion. This was when two of Caesar's lieutenants were defeated in Gaul
Gaul
by Ambiorix
Ambiorix
in 54 BC.[135] From confrontation to civil war[edit]

The Tusculum portrait, a bust of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy

In 54 BC, Pompey
Pompey
was the only member of the triumvirate who was in Rome. Caesar continued his campaigns in Gaul
Gaul
and Crassus
Crassus
undertook his campaign against the Parthians. In September 54 BC, Julia, the daughter of Caesar and wife of Pompey, died while giving birth to a girl, who also died a few days later.[136][137] Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that Caesar felt that this was the end of his good relationship with Pompey. The news created factional discord and unrest in Rome as it was thought that the death brought the end of the ties between Caesar and Pompey. The campaign of Crassus
Crassus
against Parthia
Parthia
was disastrous. Shortly after the death of Julia, Crassus
Crassus
died at the Battle of Carrhae (May 53 BC). This brought the first triumvirate to an end. Plutarch
Plutarch
thought that fear of Crassus
Crassus
had led Pompey
Pompey
and Caesar to be decent to each other and his death paved the way for the subsequent friction between these two men and the events that eventually led to civil war.[138] Florus wrote: "Caesar's power now inspired the envy of Pompey, while Pompey's eminence was offensive to Caesar; Pompey
Pompey
could not brook an equal or Caesar a superior."[139] Seneca wrote that with regard to Caesar, Pompey
Pompey
"would ill endure that anyone besides himself should become a great power in the state, and one who was likely to place a check upon his advancement, which he had regarded as onerous even when each gained by the other's rise: yet within three days' time he resumed his duties as general, and conquered his grief [for the death of his wife] as quickly as he was wont to conquer everything else."[140] In the Life of Pompey
Pompey
Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that the plebeian tribune Lucilius proposed to elect Pompey
Pompey
dictator. Cato the Younger, who had been the fiercest opponent of the triumvirate, opposed this. Lucilius came close to losing his tribunate. Despite all this, two consuls for the next year (53 BC) were elected as usual. In 53 BC, three candidates stood for the consulship for 52 BC. Besides resorting to bribery, they promoted factional violence, which Plutarch
Plutarch
saw as a civil war. There were renewed and stronger calls for a dictator. However, in the Life of Cato, Plutarch
Plutarch
did not mention any calls for a dictator and instead he wrote that there were calls for Pompey
Pompey
to preside over the elections. Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger
opposed this. In both versions the violence among the three factions continued and the elections could not be held. The optimates favoured entrusting Pompey with restoring order. Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, the former enemy of the triumvirate, proposed in the senate that Pompey
Pompey
should be elected as sole consul. Cato changed his mind and supported this on the ground that any government was better than no government. Pompey
Pompey
asked him to become his adviser and associate in governance. Cato replied that he would do so in a private capacity.[141] Pompey
Pompey
married Cornelia, a daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica. Some people disliked this because Cornelia was much younger and she would have been a better match for his sons. There were also people who thought that Pompey
Pompey
gave priority to his wedding over dealing with the crisis in the city. Pompey
Pompey
was also seen as being partial in the conduct of some trials. He succeeded in restoring order and chose his father-in‑law as his colleague for the last five months of the year. Pompey
Pompey
was granted an extension of his command in his provinces in Hispania
Hispania
and was given an annual sum for the maintenance of his troops. Cato warned Pompey
Pompey
about Caesar’s manoeuvres to increase his power by using the money he made from the spoils of war to extend his patronage in Rome and urged him to counter Caesar. Pompey
Pompey
hesitated, and Cato stood for the consulship in order to deprive Caesar of his military command and have him tried, but he was not elected. The supporters of Caesar argued that Caesar deserved an extension of his command so that the fruit of his success would not be lost, which triggered a debate. Pompey
Pompey
showed goodwill towards Caesar, claiming that he had letters from Caesar in which he said he wanted to be relieved of his command, but Pompey
Pompey
opined that he should be allowed to stand for the consulship in absentia. Cato opposed this and said that if Caesar wanted this he had to lay down his arms and become a private citizen. Pompey
Pompey
did not contest Cato's view, which gave rise to suspicions about his real feelings towards Caesar.[142]

A Roman bust of Pompey the Great
Pompey the Great
made during the reign of Augustus
Augustus
(27 BC - 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70-60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy

Pompey
Pompey
was moving towards a power struggle with Caesar and reliance on the support of the senate and the optimates. The bone of contention between the two men was the troops they both commanded. According to Plutarch
Plutarch
the rift between Pompey
Pompey
and Cato became exacerbated when Pompey
Pompey
fell seriously ill in Naples in 50 BC. Upon his recovery, the people of Naples offered thanksgiving sacrifices, and the resulting celebration spread throughout Italy. He was feted in towns he travelled to on his way back to Rome. Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that this was said ‘to have done more than anything else to bring about [the subsequent civil] war. For while the public rejoicing was great, a spirit of arrogance came upon Pompey, which went beyond the calculations based upon facts, and, throwing to the winds [ ] caution ... he indulged himself in unlimited confidence and contempt for Caesar's power, feeling that he would need neither an armed force to oppose him nor any irksome labour of preparation, but that he would pull him down much more easily than he had raised him up".[143] This assessment is a bit exaggerated, especially with regard to the feeling of not needing an army. However, it is likely that the display of popular support made Pompey
Pompey
overconfident. In 51 BC, the consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus
Marcus Claudius Marcellus
proposed to send a successor to take command of Caesar's provinces before his term of office had expired. Pompey
Pompey
said that Caesar’s command should come to an end on its expiration. In Appian’s opinion this was a pretence of fairness and good-will. Two bitter enemies of Caesar, Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paulus and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor
Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor
(a cousin of the previous consul) were chosen as consuls for 50 BC. Curio, who was also opposed to Caesar, became one of the new plebeian tribunes. Caesar obtained the neutrality of Aemilius Paulus with a large sum of money and the help of Curio by paying off his debts. Claudius Marcellus Minor proposed sending someone to assume command of Caesar's army. Paulus remained silent. Curio seconded the motion, but added that Pompey
Pompey
should also give up his provinces and armies to remove fear of conflict, which encountered opposition. Curio maintained his stance that both men should lay down their command because they were suspicious of each other and there would not be peace. The people praised him as the only politician who was willing to incur the enmity of both men for the good of Rome. Pompey
Pompey
promised to give up his governorship and armies and claimed that Caesar would do the same. According to Appian, the aim of this was to create prejudice against Caesar, who did not seem likely to give up his command, and to have a successor for Caesar’s command appointed immediately, thus forcing Caesar to disband his armies, while Pompey
Pompey
retained his with impunity. Curio exposed this and said that promises were not enough and that Pompey
Pompey
should lay down his command immediately and that Caesar should disarm after this because if Caesar would do so first, Pompey, aiming at supreme power, would have no incentive to disarm. He also proposed that unless both obeyed, both should be declared public enemies and troops should be levied against them. The senate was suspicious of both men, but deemed Pompey
Pompey
to be less of a threat and hated Caesar because he had disregarded the senate when he was consul. Some senators proposed that Caesar should disarm first. Curio maintained that Caesar was a counterbalance to Pompey’s power and that either Pompey
Pompey
should disarm first or both should do so simultaneously. The senate disagreed and he dismissed the motion without coming to a resolution.[144] Despite this impasse, the senate did pass a decree that Caesar and Pompey
Pompey
should send a legion to Syria to defend it against the Parthians who had defeated Crassus. Pompey
Pompey
took advantage of this to recall the soldiers he had lent Caesar. Caesar gave them 250 drachmas and sent them to Rome, together with a legion of his own. According to Appian, Pompey
Pompey
had lent him one legion; according to Caesar, it was two legions.[145] However, the Parthian threat to Syria did not materialise and the legions were sent to Capua. Pompey’s soldiers said that Caesar’s troops were worn out, longed to return home, and would defect to Pompey
Pompey
as soon and they had crossed the Alps. Whether through ignorance or corruption, this information was wrong; Caesar’s soldiers were very loyal to him. Pompey
Pompey
believed the reports and did not levy troops to counter Caesar’s forces.[146] Caesar crossed the Alps
Alps
with a legion and arrived at Ravenna, close to the border with Italy. Curio advised him to assemble his whole army and march on Rome, but Caesar decided to negotiate. He proposed to give up his governorships and troops, but retain two legions and the provinces of Illyricum and Gallia Cisalpina
Gallia Cisalpina
until he should be elected consul. Pompey
Pompey
agreed, but the consuls refused. Curio went to Rome with a letter Caesar wrote to the senate and gave it to the two newly elected consuls, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior and Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus. Caesar proposed that both he and Pompey
Pompey
lay down their arms at the same time and said that if Pompey
Pompey
retained his he would not expose himself to his enemies. Claudius Marcellus put forward the questions of sending a successor to Caesar and disarming Pompey separately. No senator voted for Pompey
Pompey
to give up his arms because his troops were in the suburbs. All but two voted for Caesar to disband his army. There was a false rumour that Caesar was marching on Rome. Claudius proposed that Caesar be declared public enemy and that the army at Capua
Capua
be sent against him. Curio opposed this on the ground that it was a false rumour. Two of the new plebeian tribunes, Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Quintus Cassius Longinus, did not allow the motions to be ratified. The angered senators who debated a punishment for them. The consul Cornelius Lentulus advised them to leave the senate for their safety. There were detachments of Pompey
Pompey
standing around the senate house. They and Curio secretly went to Caesar.[147][148] In Plutarch's version Curio's demands were very popular. Pompey
Pompey
should be required to give up his troops, and if not, Caesar should retain his. In the latter case the two men would remain a match for each other and would not cause trouble. However, weakening one of them would double the power of the other. Claudius Marcellus called Caesar a robber and urged for him to be voted a public enemy unless he should lay down his arms. Curio, helped by Antony and Piso, prevailed. He then moved for a vote about Caesar laying down his arms and Pompey
Pompey
retaining his command, which passed. Then he moved for a vote on both men laying down their arms and relinquishing their command. Only twenty-two favoured Pompey. Curio felt that he had won the day and rushed before the people. He was applauded and 'pelted him with garlands and flowers'. However, Claudius Marcellus declared that "since he saw ten legions already looming up in their march over the Alps, he himself also would send forth a man who would oppose them in defence of his country".[149] According to Cassius Dio the senators went to Pompey
Pompey
and gave him both funds and troops. According to Appian, Lucius Domitius was appointed as Caesar’s successor and he took to the field with 4,000 men from the active list. The senate thought that the arrival of Caesar’s army from Gaul
Gaul
would take time and that he would not rush with a small force. It directed Pompey
Pompey
to levy 130,000 Italian soldiers mainly from the veterans and to recruit as many men as possible from the neighbouring provinces. All the money from the public treasury and, if needed, from the private wealth of the senators was to be used to pay for the soldiers. Contributions were also to be levied from the allied cities as quickly as possible. Caesar, accustomed to celerity and audacity, decided to advance with just the one legion, anticipating his enemy and seizing strategic positions in Italy.[150][151] Civil war and assassination[edit] Main article: Caesar's civil war

The Flight of Pompey
Pompey
after Pharsalus, by Jean Fouquet

Caesar sent a detachment to Ariminum (Rimini), the first town in Italy, and took it by surprise. He then advanced towards Rome, having crossed the River Rubicon at the boundary of Italy. On hearing of this, the consuls directed Pompey
Pompey
to quickly recruit more troops. The Senate, still unprepared, was panicked at Caesar's unexpected speed. Cicero
Cicero
proposed sending messengers to Caesar to negotiate their safety, but the frantic consuls rejected this path.[152] So Caesar marched on to Rome, winning over all the cities on the way without a fight, either because their garrisons were too weak or they preferred his cause. Pompey, after learning of this from a defector and having had no time to prepare a large enough force, sent Roman envoys to Caesar to ask for negotiations. Caesar agreed to negotiate. He promised the envoys that no one would suffer harm at his hands and that he would call for the immediate disbandment of the troops. But the people of Rome feared war and were already calling for both men to disarm at the same time. Pompey
Pompey
knew that any negotiations would soon leave him inferior to Caesar rather than an equal partner. So, before his envoys could return, he planned his flight to Campania
Campania
to pursue the war from there. He ordered the senators and officials to go with him and to seize the public treasury to pay for the troops they needed to recruit. However, after hearing exaggerated reports about Caesar not being conciliatory, the senators disobeyed and hurriedly left Rome to their own estates without touching the money. The flight from Rome was disorderly. As Pompey
Pompey
rushed away, he hastily levied troops from the Italian cities on the road, setting up garrisons as he went.[153] Caesar stopped his march on Rome and claimed that he was fighting against his opponents and in defence of Rome. He sent letters throughout Italy
Italy
that challenged Pompey. He then set out against Corfinium, in central Italy, which was occupied by Lucius Domitius. According to Cassius Dio he defeated a small force and then besieged the city. According to Appian, Lucius Domitius, who had been sent to succeed Caesar's command, did not have all of the 4,000 men assigned to him. The inhabitants of the city seized him as he was trying to escape and took him to Caesar. His soldiers went over to Caesar, who let Lucius Domitius go and take his money with him. Pompey
Pompey
hastened to Nuceria (Nocera) and then to Brundisium
Brundisium
(Brindisi, in southern Italy), the port for crossing the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
to Greece. He wanted to complete his war preparations in Greece. He wrote to the governors of the provinces in the east and the kings and cities he had won over in the Third Mithridatic War
Third Mithridatic War
asking to send aid. Pompey
Pompey
felt that he had no hope in Italy. He could not reach his troops in Hispania
Hispania
because Caesar controlled Gaul, which was on the way. Caesar would not be able to pursue him to Greece
Greece
because there were few ships and the winter, which made the Mediterranean difficult to sail, was approaching. Pompey
Pompey
wanted to raise money and levy troops during the winter. According to Cassius Dio, Pompey
Pompey
ordered Lucius Domitius to join him. The latter prepared to leave Corfinium, but many of his associates did not want to go abroad and went over to Caesar. Caesar headed for Brundisium
Brundisium
while Pompey
Pompey
was sending his men, starting with the senators and the consuls, to Greece
Greece
in batches in the few available ships. The city was difficult to seize and Caesar tried to negotiate peace and resume his friendship with Pompey. Pompey
Pompey
merely said that he would relay that to the consuls. Caesar attacked the city. Pompey repelled him until the ships returned and set sail at night. After this Caesar seized the city and captured two ships full of men.[154][155] Caesar went to Rome and after that he embarked on an astonishing 27-day forced march to Hispania
Hispania
and defeated the troops Pompey
Pompey
had there. He then crossed the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
and landed in what is now southern Albania
Albania
even though the fleet Pompey
Pompey
recruited from the maritime cities in the east controlled this sea.[156] There, he advanced on Oricum, which the commander of the garrison handed to him. Two lieutenants of Pompey
Pompey
who were guarding merchant ships loaded with corn for Pompey's troops sank them with their warships to prevent them from falling into Caesar's hands. Caesar marched on Apollonia and the inhabitants handed him the city. Straberius, the commander of the garrison, abandoned the city. Caesar then headed for Dyrrachium (Durrës, Albania), where Pompey
Pompey
had an arsenal. Pompey
Pompey
hurried to defend Dyrrachium and arrived there first. The opposing forces fought the Battle of Dyrrachium. Pompey's troops heavily outnumbered the enemy. He built a fortified camp south of the city, so Caesar started to build a circumvallation to besiege it. At the same time Pompey extended his own fortifications to force Caesar to stretch out his. Six attempts to break through by Pompey
Pompey
were repulsed. Caesar's troops suffered food shortages while Pompey's was supplied by ships as his camp was near the sea. However, Pompey
Pompey
held a limited amount of land and this created shortages of fodder for his animals. Water was also scarce because Caesar had cut off the local streams. When harvest time came close Caesar's troops were going to have plenty of grain. Pompey needed to break the siege. Two deserters from Caesar's camp told him about a gap in Caesar's fortifications where two palisades near the sea had not been joined together. Pompey's troops attacked it and broke through. However, Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Caesar brought in reinforcements and pushed them back. Pompey
Pompey
entrenched a camp near this spot to gain land for fodder. He also occupied a small camp Caesar had left and had added an entrenchment so that the two camps were joined and gained access to a stream.[157] Caesar attacked these new fortifications. However, he was outnumbered and Pompey
Pompey
sent a large cavalry force to outflank his troops. Caesar withdrew and gave up the siege. Pompey
Pompey
could have destroyed Caesar's retreating army by pursuing it. Instead, he did not. Caesar thought that victory was unexpected for Pompey
Pompey
because a little earlier his troops were fleeing from their camp and that Pompey
Pompey
suspected an ambush. Moreover, his cavalry was hindered by the narrow passages of the fortifications, many of which were occupied by Caesar's troops. Plutarch
Plutarch
wrote that Caesar said to his friends: "Today victory would have been with the enemy if they had had a victor in command."[158] Caesar went to Apollonia to leave his wounded men there, pay his army, encourage his allies, and leave garrisons in the towns. He sent off the baggage-train at night and during the day he left for Asparagum (also in Illyria). Pompey
Pompey
pursued him and encamped nearby. The next day Caesar marched on, sending the baggage-train off at night again and then eluding Pompey. After four days Pompey
Pompey
gave up this fruitless pursuit. Caesar marched speedily. He was in a hurry to join his lieutenant, Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus, in case he would be caught unawares by the arrival of Pompey. He considered three contingencies:

to draw Pompey
Pompey
away from the coast and from his stores at Dyrrachium and fight him in equal conditions; to go to Italy
Italy
with his army and that of Gnaeus Domitius via Illyria, should Pompey
Pompey
cross back to Italy; to blockade Metellus Scipio, one of Pompey's lieutenants, to force Pompey
Pompey
to move to his aid, should Pompey
Pompey
try to besiege Apollonia and Oricum
Oricum
to cut Caesar off the coast.

Caesar informed Gnaeus Domitius about his plans and left garrisons at Apollonia, Lissus and Oricum. He began a march through Epirus and Athamania. Pompey
Pompey
decided to hurry to Metellus Scipio
Metellus Scipio
to back him up or, should Caesar decide not to leave the coast, to attack Gnaeus Domitius himself. Both men marched quickly with light equipment. Pompey
Pompey
was marching towards Candavia, a mountain district in Illyria. Gnaeus Domitius and Metellus Scipio
Metellus Scipio
had been encamped close to each other. The former left to forage and moved towards Candavia, thus exposing himself to an attack by Pompey. Caesar was not aware of this. However, some Gallic scouts who had defected from Caesar to Pompey spotted some Gallic scouts of Domitius and informed them about the situation after Dyrrachium. Domitius, who was only a four-hour march away, avoided the danger and joined Caesar who was on his way to Aeginium, a town just past the border of Thessaly. He arrived at Gomphi, the first town in Thessaly, from which envoys had offered their resources to Caesar and asked him for a garrison. However, Pompey
Pompey
had spread exaggerated rumours about Caesar's defeat and the governor of Thessaly
Thessaly
cast his lot with Pompey. He ordered the gates of the city to be closed and asked Pompey
Pompey
to come help because the town could not withstand a long siege. However, although Metellus Scipio had already brought his troops to Larissa, the capital of Thessaly, Pompey
Pompey
had not yet arrived. Caesar besieged Gomphi to gain its resources and to frighten the neighbouring areas. He took it by storm in one day and quickly went to Metropolis. This town also closed its gates, but surrendered when they heard about the fall of Gomphi. All Thessaly
Thessaly
towns not held by Metellus Scipio's troops submitted to Caesar.[159] The two forces fought the Battle of Pharsalus. They were encamped near each other. With the joining of the large armies of Pompey
Pompey
and Metellus Scipio
Metellus Scipio
the supporters of Pompey
Pompey
were confident of victory. Caesar lined up his men close to Pompey's camp to test him. In the next few days he pushed his lines closer to the hill where Pompey's camp was. He got lightly armed young foot soldiers to intermix with the cavalry to get used to this kind of fighting and to prepare for confronting a cavalry force seven times larger. Pompey
Pompey
always lined up on the lower spurs of the hill, on uneven ground that was unfavourable to Caesar. He would not be drawn into battle. Caesar kept moving his camp and was always on the march so that he could get supplies from various places and wear out Pompey's army. One day Pompey
Pompey
drew up his men further from the rampart of his camp. Caesar thought this looked like a chance to fight on more advantageous ground, and he prepared for battle. Pompey
Pompey
deployed 45,000 troops and Caesar 25,000. Pompey was going to have his superior cavalry outflank Caesar's left wing and rout his army. However, Caesar placed six select cohorts at the rear to stop this cavalry. It worked, and Caesar's men defeated the enemy. Pompey
Pompey
left the field and went to his camp. When his men were driven within the rampart Caesar attacked the camp. The camp guards fought hard, but the men who had fled from the battlefield without arms were more keen on escaping than fighting. The men posted on the rampart could not withstand the shower of javelins and left their positions. Pompey
Pompey
rode away from the camp and went to Larissa. From there, he reached the coast with a retinue of thirty cavalry and boarded a corn ship.[160] Caesar pursued Pompey
Pompey
to prevent him from gathering other forces to renew the war. He had stopped at Amphipolis where he held a meeting with friends to collect money. An edict was issued in his name that all the youth of the province of Macedonia (i.e. Greece), whether Greeks or Romans were to take an oath. It was not clear whether he wanted new levies to fight or whether this was for concealing a planned escape. When he heard that Caesar was approaching he left and went to Mitylene
Mitylene
on the island of Lesbos
Lesbos
to take on board his wife Cornelia and his son. Pompey
Pompey
then set sail and stopped over only when he needed to get food or water. He reached Attaleia (Antalya) in Pamphylia
Pamphylia
where some warships from Cilicia
Cilicia
had been assembled for him. There he heard that Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger
was sailing to Africa. He blamed himself for not having used his superior navy and not having stationed at a place where he could have had naval back up if he had been defeated on land instead of fighting far from the coast. He asked the cities in the area for money to man his ships and looked for a temporary refuge in case the enemy caught up with him. According to Plutarch
Plutarch
Pompey
Pompey
considered going to Parthia, but was advised their king, Arsaces, was untrustworthy and the place unsafe for his wife. This last point put Pompey
Pompey
off. He was advised to go to Egypt, which was only three days' sail away, and whose king, Ptolemy XIII (who was only a boy), was indebted to the friendship and the help Pompey
Pompey
had given to his father.[161] According to Caesar, Pompey
Pompey
went from Mitylene, Cilicia
Cilicia
and Cyprus. There he learnt that the inhabitants of Antioch and the Romans resident there had taken up arms to prevent him from going there. The same action had been taken in Rhodes
Rhodes
against Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, the consul of the previous year, and Publius Lentulus, an ex-consul, who were also escaping. They reached the island and were barred from the port. The islanders had been informed that Caesar was approaching. Pompey
Pompey
gave up on going to Syria. He took funds from the tax collectors, borrowed money to hire soldiers, and armed 2,000 men. He boarded a ship with many bronze coins.[162] Pompey
Pompey
set sail from Cyprus
Cyprus
with warships and merchant ships. He heard that Ptolemy was in Pelusium
Pelusium
with an army and that he was at war with his sister Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, whom he had deposed. The camps of the opposing forces were quite close. Pompey
Pompey
sent a messenger to announce his arrival to the king and to ask his aid. Potheinus the eunuch, who was the regent of the boy king, held a council with Theodotus of Chios, the tutor of the king, Achillas the head of the army, and others. According to Plutarch, some advised him to drive Pompey
Pompey
away, and others to welcome him. Theodotus argued that neither option was safe. Welcoming him would make Pompey
Pompey
a master and Caesar an enemy. If turned away, Pompey
Pompey
would blame the Egyptians for rejecting him and Caesar for making him continue his pursuit. Assassinating Pompey
Pompey
would eliminate fear of him and gratify Caesar.[163] Caesar thought that this was decided because the forces of Ptolemy included many of Pompey’s soldiers who had been taken to Alexandria from Syria by Aulus Gabinius
Aulus Gabinius
to restore Ptolemy XII, the king’s father, who had been deposed. The soldiers had remained with Ptolemy XII. The king’s advisors decided to murder Pompey
Pompey
in case he would manipulate the Romans in the Egyptian forces to seize power.[164]

Theodatus shows Caesar the head of Pompey; etching, 1820

On September 28, Achillas went to Pompey’s ship together with Lucius Septimius, who had once been one of Pompey’s officers, and a third assassin, Savius, on a fishing boat. Pompey’s associates saw this lack of pomp with suspicion and advised Pompey
Pompey
to put his ship back in open sea out of reach of missiles of the Egyptians. Achillas claimed that the sea’s sandy bottom and shallows had not allowed him to approach with a ship. However, the royal ships were seen taking crews on board and there were soldiers on the shore. Cornelia thought that Pompey
Pompey
was going to be killed, but he boarded the boat. The lack of friendliness on the boat prompted Pompey
Pompey
to say to Septimius that he was an old comrade. The latter merely nodded. He thrust a sword into Pompey
Pompey
and then Achillas and Savius stabbed him with daggers. The people on Pompey’s ship could see this and, horrified, fled. The wind was favourable and because of this the Egyptians did not pursue them. Pompey’s head was severed and his unclothed body was thrown in the sea. Philip, one of Pompey’s freedmen who had boarded the boat, wrapped it with his tunic and made a funeral pyre on the shore. Pompey died the day after his sixtieth birthday.[165] When Caesar arrived in Egypt a few days later he was appalled. He turned away with loathing the man who brought Pompey’s head. When Caesar was given Pompey's seal-ring, he cried. Theodotus left Egypt and escaped Caesar’s revenge. The remains of Pompey
Pompey
were taken to Cornelia, who gave them burial at his Alban villa.[165][1] Generalship[edit] Pompey's military glory was second to none for a few decades. Yet, his skills were occasionally criticized by some of his contemporaries. Sertorius
Sertorius
or Lucullus, for instance, were especially critical.[166] Pompey's tactics were usually efficient, albeit not particularly innovative or imaginative. They could prove insufficient against greater tacticians. However, Pharsalus was his only decisive defeat.[167] At times, he was reluctant to risk an open battle. While not very charismatic, Pompey
Pompey
could display tremendous bravery and fighting skills on the battlefield, which inspired his men.[168] While being a superb commander, Pompey
Pompey
also earned a reputation for stealing other generals' victories.[169] On the other hand, Pompey
Pompey
is usually considered an outstanding strategist and organizer, who could win campaigns without displaying genius on the battlefield, but simply by constantly outmaneuvering his opponents and gradually pushing them into a desperate situation.[170] Pompey
Pompey
was a great forward planner, and had tremendous organizational skill, which allowed him to devise grand strategies and operate effectively with large armies.[171] During his campaigns in the east, he acted like a sledgehammer, relentlessly pursuing his enemies, and choosing the ground for his battles.[citation needed] Above all, he was often able to adapt to his enemies. On many occasions, he acted very swiftly and decisively, as he did during his campaigns in Sicily
Sicily
and Africa, or against the Cilician pirates. During the Sertorian war, on the other hand, Pompey
Pompey
was beaten several times by Sertorius. Therefore, he decided to resort to a war of attrition, in which he would avoid open battles against his chief opponent but instead try to gradually regain the strategic advantage by capturing his fortresses and cities and defeating his junior officers.[168] In some instances, Sertorius
Sertorius
showed up and forced Pompey
Pompey
to abandon a siege, only to see him strike somewhere else.[172] This strategy was not spectacular but it led to constant territorial gains and did much to demoralize the Sertorian forces. By 72 BC, the year of his assassination, Sertorius
Sertorius
was already in a desperate situation and his troops were deserting. Against Perpenna, a tactician far inferior to his former commander in chief, Pompey
Pompey
decided to revert to a more aggressive strategy and he scored a decisive victory that effectively ended the war. Against Caesar too, his strategy was sound. During the campaign of Greece, he managed to regain the initiative, join his forces to that of Metellus Scipio
Metellus Scipio
(something that Caesar wanted to avoid) and trap his enemy. His strategic position was hence much better than that of Caesar and could have starved his army to death.[173] However, he was finally compelled to fight an open battle by his allies, and his conventional tactics proved no match to that of Caesar and his better-trained troops. Later portrayals and reputation[edit]

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The head of Pompey
Pompey
on a denarius minted in 40 BC by his son Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius

For the historians of his own and later Roman periods, Pompey
Pompey
fit the trope of the great man who achieved extraordinary triumphs through his own efforts, yet fell from power and was, in the end, murdered through treachery. He was a hero of the Republic, who seemed once to hold the Roman world in his palm, only to be brought low by Caesar. Pompey
Pompey
was idealized as a tragic hero almost immediately after Pharsalus and his murder. Plutarch
Plutarch
portrayed him as a Roman Alexander the Great, pure of heart and mind, destroyed by the cynical ambitions of those around him. This portrayal of him survived into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque
Baroque
periods, for example in Corneille's play The Death of Pompey
The Death of Pompey
(1642). In spite of his war against Caesar, Pompey
Pompey
was still widely celebrated during the imperial period, as the conqueror of the orient; e.g., at Augustus' funeral procession, pictures of him were carried. As a triumphator, he also had numerous statues in Rome, one of which was on the forum of Augustus. Though the imperial power did not honor him as much as his archenemy, who was considered a god, his reputation among many aristocrats and historians was equal or even superior to that of Caesar.[174] Pompey
Pompey
has appeared as a character in several modern novels, plays, motion pictures, and other media. Theater, film, television and video game[edit]

A theatrical portrayal was John Masefield's play The Tragedy of Pompey the Great (1910). In the opening scene of the 1961 film King of Kings, he is played by actor Conrado San Martín. In the television series Xena: Warrior Princess, he is portrayed by actor Jeremy Callaghan. Chris Noth
Chris Noth
portrays Pompey
Pompey
in the 2002 miniseries Julius Caesar. He appears as a major character in the first season of the HBO series Rome, in which he is portrayed by Kenneth Cranham. In 2006 he was played by John Shrapnel in the BBC docu-drama Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. In the television series Spartacus: War of the Damned, he is portrayed by actor Joel Tobeck. Pompey
Pompey
appears as a non-playable character in the 2017 video game Assassin's Creed Origins, which takes place during the Ptolemaic period.

Literature[edit]

In Colleen McCullough's Masters of Rome series of historical novels, Pompey's youthful exploits are depicted in Fortune's Favorites, the formation of the First Triumvirate
First Triumvirate
and his marriage to Julia is a large part of Caesar's Women and his loss of Julia, the dissolution of the First Triumvirate, his later political career, the civil war between him and Caesar and his eventual defeat and his betrayal and murder in Egypt are all told in Caesar. In comics, he appears as Julius Caesar's foe throughout The Adventures of Alix series. Pompey
Pompey
is a recurring character in the Roma Sub Rosa
Roma Sub Rosa
series of novels by Steven Saylor, portraying his role in the Civil War with Caesar. His final appearance is in Saylor's novel The Judgment of Caesar, which depicts his murder by Ptolemy in Egypt. Pompey
Pompey
also appears frequently in the SPQR series by John Maddox Roberts, narrated by Senator Decius Metellus, a fictional nephew of Caecilius Metellus Pius. Decius despises Pompey
Pompey
as a glory-seeker and credit-grabber, while acknowledging that he is a political dunce who was eventually swept up into the optimates' feud with Caesar. Pompey
Pompey
is a major recurring character in Robert Harris's trilogy of the life of Cicero
Cicero
(Imperium, Lustrum and Dictator) in which Pompey
Pompey
is portrayed as bombastic and dim-witted, though fearsome.

Marriages and offspring[edit]

First wife, Antistia Second wife, Aemilia Scaura (Sulla's stepdaughter) Third wife, Mucia Tertia (whom he divorced for adultery, according to Cicero's letters) Offspring of marriage between Mucia and Pompey
Pompey
Magnus

Gnaeus Pompeius, executed in 45 BC, after the Battle of Munda Pompeia Magna, married to Faustus Cornelius Sulla; ancestor of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Claudia Antonia's first husband) Sextus Pompey, who would rebel in Sicily
Sicily
against Augustus

Fourth wife Julia (daughter of Caesar) Fifth wife, Cornelia Metella (daughter of Metellus Scipio)

Chronology of Pompey's life and career[edit]

106 BC September 29 – Born in Picenum 83 BC – Aligns with Sulla, after his return from the First Mithridatic War against King Mithridates VI
Mithridates VI
of Pontus; 83 BC – Pompey
Pompey
raises a legion and cavalry in hopes of joining Sulla[175] 82 BC – Marriage to Aemilia Scaura at the behest of Sulla, Aemilia is already pregnant and eventually dies during childbirth[176] 82–81 BC – Defeats Gaius Marius's allies in Sicily
Sicily
(autumn of 82 BC) and Africa after his victory in Sicily 81 BC – Returns to Rome and celebrates first triumph 80 BC – Pompey
Pompey
marries Mucia of the Mucii Scaevolae family[176] 79 BC – Pompey
Pompey
supports the election of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Lepidus openly revolts against the senate a few months later; Pompey suppresses the rebellion with an army raised from Picenum
Picenum
and puts down the rebellion, killing the senior legate Marcus Junius Brutus, father of Brutus who assassinated Julius Caesar.[177] 76–71 BC – Campaign in Hispania
Hispania
against Sertorius 71 BC – Returns to Italy
Italy
and participates in the suppression of a slave rebellion led by Spartacus; second triumph 70 BC – First consulship (with M. Licinius Crassus) 67 BC – Defeats the pirates and goes to Asia province 66–61 BC – Defeats King Mithridates of Pontus; end of the Third Mithridatic War 64–63 BC – Pompey's march through Syria, the Levant, and Judea 61 BC September 29 – Third triumph 59 BC April – The first triumvirate is constituted; Pompey
Pompey
allies with Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Licinius Crassus; marriage to Julia (daughter of Julius Caesar) 58–55 BC – Governs Hispania Ulterior
Hispania Ulterior
by proxy, construction of Pompey's Theater 55 BC – Second consulship (with M. Licinius Crassus), dedication of the Theatre of Pompey 54 BC – Julia dies; the first triumvirate ends 52 BC – Serves as sole consul for an intercalary month,[178] third ordinary consulship with Metellus Scipio
Metellus Scipio
for the rest of the year; marriage to Cornelia Metella 51 BC – Forbids Caesar (in Gaul) to stand for consulship in absentia 50 BC – Falls dangerously ill with fever in Campania, but is saved 'by public prayers'[179] 49 BC – Caesar crosses the Rubicon River and invades Italy; Pompey retreats to Greece
Greece
with the conservatives 48 BC – Caesar defeats Pompey's army near Pharsalus, Greece. Pompey retreats to Egypt and is killed at Pelusium.

Political offices

Preceded by Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura and Gnaeus Aufidius Orestes Consul
Consul
of the Roman Republic with Marcus Licinius Crassus 70 BC Succeeded by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus and Quintus Hortensius

Preceded by Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus and Lucius Marcius Philippus Consul
Consul
of the Roman Republic with Marcus Licinius Crassus 55 BC Succeeded by Appius Claudius Pulcher and Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus

Preceded by Marcus Valerius Messalla Rufus and Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus Consul
Consul
of the Roman Republic Without Colleague Intercalary Month, 52 BC[180] Succeeded by Gnaeus Pompey
Pompey
Magnus and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius
Scipio

Preceded by Gnaeus Pompey
Pompey
Magnus Consul
Consul
of the Roman Republic with Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius
Scipio 52 BC Succeeded by Marcus Claudius Marcellus
Marcus Claudius Marcellus
and Servius Sulpicius Rufus

Notes[edit]

^ a b c " Pompey the Great
Pompey the Great
assassinated". The History Channel. Retrieved October 4, 2016.  ^ Pompey's full name was Gnaeus Pompeius Gnaeī fīlius Sextī nepōs Magnus "Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, son of Gnaeus, grandson of Sextus", in Classical Latin spelling CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS. ^ William Smith, A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography, 1851. (Under the tenth entry of Pompeius). ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 1.68 ^ Velleius Paterculus, Compendium of Roman History 2, 21. (Loeb) at Thayer: [1] ^ Plutarch, The Live of Pompey, 4 ^ Boak, History of Rome, pp. 145-6 ^ Cassius Dio, 33, fragment 107 (Loeb) at Thayer ^ Plutarch, The Live of Pompey, 9.1-2 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Pompey, 42.7 ^ Cicero, Letters ad Atticum 1.12 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.49.3 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 51.2.5 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Pompey, 10.3 ^ Valerius Maximus, Nine Books of Memorable Deeds and Sayings, 6.2.8 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Pompey, 11, 12, 13.1-3 ^ Mary Beard, The Roman Triumph, The (2007) pp. 16-17. ^ Plutarch, The Life of Pompey, 14-15 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Pompey, 16 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Pompey, 17 ^ Holland, Rubicon, pp. 141-42 ^ Sallust, Histories 2.82 ^ Cicero, Pro lege Manilia30 ^ Appian, The civil Wars, 1.109 ^ Appian, The civil Wars, 1.110 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, the Life of Pompey, 18, 19.1-4, 20.1 The Life of Sertorius, 19, 21 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Live of Sertorius
Sertorius
25 ^ Appian
Appian
The Civil Wars, 1. 112–13 ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
Parallel Lives, The Life of Sertorius, 15, 25 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Pompey, 20.1, 4 ^ Holland, T., Rubicon: The Triumph and Tragedy of the Roman Republic, pg. 142 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Crassus, 11.2 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Crassus, 11.7, The Life of Pompey, 21.2 ^ Livy, Periochae, 97.6 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Pompey, 22.2 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Crassus, 12.1 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Crassus, 12.1, The Life of Pompey, 22.2 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Pompey, 21.3-4 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Crassus, 12.2- ^ Plutarch, The Life of Crassus, 12.2-4, The life of Pompey, 23.1-2 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Julius Caesar, 19.2 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Crassus, 11.8 ^ Appian, the Civil wars, 1.121 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Pompey, 21.4-5 ^ Livy, Periochae, 97.6 ^ Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Julius Caesar, 5 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.20-23.1-4 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 24-25.1 ^ Appian, The Mithridatic War, 91-93 ^ Broughton, T.R.S., The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, Vol II, pp. 87-9 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.23.4 ^ a b Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 25.2 ^ Williams, C. E., Pompey
Pompey
and Cicero: An Alliance of Convenience, MA theses, Texas State University, 2013, p. 12 ^ Boak, History of Rome, p. 160 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.23.4-5 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.24 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.30, 37.1 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 25-2-7, 26 ^ Appian, The Mithridatic War, 95 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 27-29 ^ Appian, The Mithridatic Wars, 96 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.37.3-6 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, the Life of Lucullus, 33-35 ^ Cassius Dio, History of Rome, 36.15.1, 17.2 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36. 14.4, 17.1 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 30.1-5 ^ Greenhalg, P., Pompey, the Roman Alexander, pp. 101-4 ^ Cicero, De lege Manilia, 68 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.45 ^ Greenhalg, P., Pompey, the Roman Alexander, p. 107 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.45-46 ^ Appian, The Mithridatic War, 98 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.47 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 32.1-3 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.48-50 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 32.3-7 ^ Appian, The Mithridatic Wars, 101-102 ^ Appian, The Mithridatic Wars, 103 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 33 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.51-2 ^ Appian, The Mithridatic Wars, 104-105 ^ Appian, The Mithridatic Wars, 106 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 33-36.1 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.54, 37.2-5.1 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 33-36.2 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.5.2-5,6 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 36.6-7, 38.1, 39, 41, 42.1 ^ Boak, A., History of Rome, p. 161 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.7 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.11-14.1-2 ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 13.8.11.3, 15.10.1-3 ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 14.3.34-36 ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 14.1.4-7, 14-15, 18. 2.19-20, 29-33 ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 14.3.34, 37, 38, 41-49 ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 14.3.50-53, 4.54-62 ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 14.4.64-70 ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 14.4.71-73 ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 14.54.79 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 42.2 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.14.3, 15-17, 20.1 ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 14.5.80-81 ^ Kasher, Aryeh, Jews and Hellenistic Cities in Eretz-Israel, Mohr Siebeck, (1990), 176-77 ^ Kasher, Aryeh, Jews and Hellenistic Cities in Eretz-Israel, Mohr Siebeck, (1990), 177-78 ^ Livy, Periochae, 100.3 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 42.43 ^ Pliny, Natural History, 37.6 ^ this was probably an exaggeration, Beard, M., The Roman Triumph, 2007, p. 9 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The life of Pompey, 45 ^ Appian, The Mithridatic Wars, 117 ^ Pliny, Natural History 37.6 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 45 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.21.2 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.49.3 ^ Mitchell, T. N., Cicero, Pompey, and the Rise of the First Triumvirate, pp. 19-20 ^ Mitchell, T., Cicero, Pompey
Pompey
and the rise of the First Triumvirate, Traditio, Vol. 29 (1973), p. 17 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 2.10-12 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 38.2.1, 4-7.6 ^ Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Julius Caesar, 30.3 ^ lutarch, Parallel Lives, The life of Caesar, 14.2-3; The Live of Pompey, 13 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 2.14 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, the Live of Caesar. 17.7, The Life of Pompey, 47.6 ^ Suetonius, The twelve Caesars, Julius Caesar, 21 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.2.7.5; 8.2, 5 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 2.13 ^ Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Julius Caesar, 22.1 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The life of Caesar, 14.10 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 49.4-6, 50 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 39.9. 24.1-2 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 2.18 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Live of Pompey, 51.3-6; The Life of Crassus, 14. 4-6 ^ Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Julius Caesar, 23, 24.1 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 2.17 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 39.33 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Live of Pompey, 52.3 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 2.29, 33 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 39.64.1 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars 2.19 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Live of Caesar 23.5-6; The Live of Pompey, 53.4-6 ^ Florus, Epitome of Roman History, 2.13.14 ^ Seneca, Dialogues, Book 6, Of Consolation: To Marcia, 6.14.3 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, the Life of Pompey, 54; The Life of Cato Minor, 47-49 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, the Life of Pompey, 55-56 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 57.1-3 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 2.26-29 ^ Julius Caesar, The Civil War, 1.3 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 2.30 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 32-33 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 41.1-3.1-2 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 58.3-6 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 41 1.3 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 32, 34 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 2.34-35 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 41.4-6 ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 2.38 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 41.10-11 ^ Boak, A., ″A History of Rome to 565 A.D″, p. 176 ^ Julius Caesar, The Civil War, 3.31-69 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 65.5 ^ Julius Caesar, The Civil War, 3.73-79 ^ Julius Caesar, The Civil War, 3.92-96 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 75, 76 ^ Julius Caesar, The Civil War, 102–3 ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 76–77 ^ Julius Caesar, The Civil War, 103–4 ^ a b Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Pompey, 78–81 ^ Plutarch ^ Pompey
Pompey
the great, John Leach ^ a b Pompey
Pompey
the great, John Leach ^ Brice, pg. 145 ^ John Leach ^ Pharsalus, Si Sheppard ^ Appian ^ "Pharsalus" ^ Pompey, Éric Teyssier ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2004). In the name of Rome (3rd impr. ed.). London: Orion. p. 174. ISBN 0753817896.  ^ a b Goldsworthy, Adrian (2004). In the name of Rome (3rd impr. ed.). London: Orion. p. 179. ISBN 0753817896.  ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2004). In the name of Rome (3rd impr. ed.). London: Orion. pp. 180, 181. ISBN 0753817896.  ^ See Abbott, 114 ^ Juvenal, Satire X, 283 ^ Abbott (1901), 114

References[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pompey
Pompey
the Great

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.

Primary sources

Appian, The Civil Wars, The Civil Wars, Penguin Classics; New edition, 1996; ISBN 978-0140445091 Book 2 [2] Accessed August 2016 Appian
Appian
The Foreign Wars, Book 12, The Mithridatic Wars, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014; ISBN 978-1503114289 [3] Accessed August 2016 Julius Caesar, The Civil War: Together with the Alexandrian War, the African War, and the Spanish War, Penguin Classics, new impression edition, 1976; ISBN 978-0140441871 [4] Accessed August 2016 Cassius Dio, Roman History, (Loeb Classical Library) Loeb New issue of 1916 edition, 1989; Vol. 3, Books 36-40, ISBN 978-0674990593; Vol. 4, Books 41-45, ISBN 978-0674990739. [5] Books 36-41. Accessed August 2016 Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews: Volume II (Books XI - XX), CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; First edition, 2014; ISBN 978-1500894573 [6] Accessed August 2016 Plutarch
Plutarch
Lives, Vol V: Agesilaus and Pompey. Pelopidas
Pelopidas
and Marcellus (Loeb Classical Library), Harvard University Press, 1917; ISBN 978-0674990890 Parallel Lives, Life of Pompey
Pompey
Accessed August 2016

Secondary sources

Abbott, F., F., History and Description of Roman Political Institutions, Adamant Media Corporation, 2001; ISBN 978-0543927491 Boak, A., E., R., A History of Rome to 565 A.D., Cornell University Library, 2009; ASIN: B002EQA6AC Brice, Lee L., Warfare in the Roman Republic: From the Etruscan Wars to the Battle of Actium, ABC-CLIO, 2014; ISBN 9781610692991 De Souza, P., Piracy
Piracy
in the Graeco-Roman World, Cambridge University Press, 2002; ISBN 978-0-521-01240-9 Goldsworthy, A., In the name of Rome: The Men Who Won the Roman Empire, Weidenfield and Nicolson, New edition, 2004; ISBN 978-0753817896 Greenhalgh, P., Pompey
Pompey
The Republican Prince, Littlehampton Book Services Ltd; 1981; Littlehampton Book Services Ltd, 1981; ISBN 978-0297778813 Hillman, T., P., The Reputation of Cn. Pompeius Magnus among His Contemporaries from 83 to 59 B.C., Diss. New York 1989. Holland, Tom. Rubicon, The Triumph and Tragedy of the Roman Republic, Abacus; New edition, 2004; ISBN 978-0349115634 Nicols, Marianne Schoenlin. Appearance and Reality. A Study of the Clientele of Pompey
Pompey
the Great, Diss. Berkeley/Cal. 1992. Seager, R., Pompey
Pompey
the Great: A Political Biography, Wiley-Blackwell; 2nd edition, 2002; ISBN 978-0826203564 (paperback) 978-0631227205 (hardcover) Southern, P., Pompey
Pompey
the Great: Caesar's Friend and Foe, The History Press, 2003; ISBN 978-0752425214 Stockton, D., The First Consulship of Pompey, Historia 22 (1973), 205-218. Tröster, Manuel. Roman Hegemony and Non-State Violence. A Fresh Look at Pompey’s Campaign against the Pirates, Greece
Greece
& Rome 56 (2009), 14-33. Van Ooteghem, J., Pompée le Grand. Bâtisseur d’Empire. Brussels 1954. Wylie, G., J., Pompey
Pompey
Megalopsychos, Klio 72 (1990), 445-456.

External links[edit]

Pompey's War - Jona Lendering details Pompey's conquest of Judea

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The works of Plutarch

Works

Parallel Lives Moralia Pseudo-Plutarch

Lives

Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Coriolanus1 Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Julius Caesar Aratus of Sicyon
Aratus of Sicyon
/ Artaxerxes and Galba
Galba
/ Otho2 Aristides
Aristides
and Cato the Elder1 Crassus
Crassus
and Nicias1 Demetrius and Antony1 Demosthenes
Demosthenes
and Cicero1 Dion and Brutus1 Fabius and Pericles1 Lucullus
Lucullus
and Cimon1 Lysander
Lysander
and Sulla1 Numa and Lycurgus1 Pelopidas
Pelopidas
and Marcellus1 Philopoemen
Philopoemen
and Flamininus1 Phocion
Phocion
and Cato the Younger Pompey
Pompey
and Agesilaus1 Poplicola and Solon1 Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius Romulus
Romulus
and Theseus1 Sertorius
Sertorius
and Eumenes1 Agis / Cleomenes1 and Tiberius Gracchus
Tiberius Gracchus
/ Gaius Gracchus Timoleon
Timoleon
and Aemilius Paulus1 Themistocles
Themistocles
and Camillus

Translators and editors

Jacques Amyot Arthur Hugh Clough John Dryden Philemon Holland Thomas North

1 Comparison extant 2 Four unpaired Lives

v t e

Piracy

Periods

Ancient Mediterranean Golden Age

Republic of Pirates Libertatia

21st century

Types of pirate

Privateers Buccaneers Corsairs Sindhi corsairs Timber pirate River pirate Brethren of the Coast Barbary pirates Moro pirates Wōkòu Vikings Ushkuiniks Narentines Cilician pirates Confederate privateer Baltic Slavic pirates Uskoks Cossack pirates Sea Beggars Sea Dogs Fillibusters

Areas

Caribbean Lake Nicaragua British Virgin Islands Strait of Malacca Somali Coast Sulu Sea Falcon Lake South China Coast Anglo-Turkish piracy Port Royal Tortuga Saint-Malo Barbary Coast Lundy Lagos Salé Spanish Main Gulf of Guinea Indonesia Barataria Bay Persian Gulf

Noted pirates

Mansel Alcantra Chui A-poo Louis-Michel Aury Joseph Baker Hayreddin Barbarossa Joseph Barss Samuel Bellamy Charlotte de Berry Black Caesar Blackbeard Eli Boggs Stede Bonnet Anne Bonny Hippolyte Bouchard Abshir Boyah Roche Braziliano Henri Caesar Roberto Cofresí William Dampier Liang Daoming Diabolito Peter Easton Henry Every Alexandre Exquemelin Vincenzo Gambi Charles Gibbs Pedro Gilbert Nathaniel Gordon Laurens de Graaf Michel de Grammont Calico Jack Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah Zheng Jing Jørgen Jørgensen Shirahama Kenki William Kidd Fūma Kotarō Jean Lafitte Limahong Samuel Hall Lord John Hawkins Bully Hayes Piet Pieterszoon Hein Moses Cohen Henriques Albert W. Hicks Nicholas van Hoorn Benjamin Hornigold Pierre Lafitte Olivier Levasseur Edward Low Hendrick Lucifer John Newland Maffitt Samuel Mason Henry Morgan Shap Ng-tsai Gan Ning François l'Olonnais Samuel Pallache Lawrence Prince Cai Qian Redbeard Bartholomew Roberts Lai Choi San Dan Seavey Ching Shih Benito de Soto Klaus Störtebeker Henry Strangways Cheung Po Tsai Dominique You Wang Zhi Zheng Zhilong

Categories

Piracy Pirates By nationality Barbary pirates Female pirates Years in piracy Fictional pirates

Pirate ships

Adventure Galley Fancy Ganj-i-Sawai Queen Anne's Revenge Quedagh Merchant Saladin Whydah Gally Marquis of Havana Ambrose Light York

Pirate hunters

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Angelo Emo Richard Avery Hornsby Jose Campuzano-Polanco Robert Maynard Chaloner Ogle Pompey Woodes Rogers David Porter James Brooke Miguel Enríquez (privateer)

Pirate battles and incidents

Jiajing wokou raids Turkish Abductions Chepo Expedition Battle of Mandab Strait Battle of Pianosa Blockade of Charleston Battle of Cape Fear River Battle of Ocracoke Inlet Capture of the William Sack of Campeche Attack on Veracruz Raid on Cartagena Battle of Cape Lopez Capture of the Fancy Persian Gulf Campaign Battle of New Orleans Anti- Piracy
Piracy
in the Aegean Anti-piracy in the West Indies Capture of the Bravo Action of 9 November 1822 Capture of the El Mosquito Battle of Doro Passage Falklands Expedition Great Lakes Patrol Pirate attacks in Borneo Balanguingui Expedition Battle of Tysami Battle of Tonkin River Battle of Nam Quan Battle of Ty-ho Bay Battle of the Leotung Antelope incident North Star affair Battle off Mukah Salvador Pirates Battle of Boca Teacapan Capture of the Ambrose Light Irene incident 1985 Lahad Datu ambush Operation Enduring Freedom – HOA Action of 18 March 2006 Action of 3 June 2007 Action of 28 October 2007 Dai Hong Dan incident Operation Atalanta Carré d'As IV incident Action of 11 November 2008 Action of 9 April 2009 Maersk Alabama hijacking Operation Ocean Shield Action of 23 March 2010 Action of 1 April 2010 Action of 30 March 2010 Action of 5 April 2010 MV Moscow University hijacking Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden Operation Dawn 8: Gulf of Aden Beluga Nomination incident Battle off Minicoy Island Quest incident MT Zafirah hijacking MT Orkim Harmony hijacking

Slave trade

African slave trade Atlantic slave trade Arab slave trade Barbary slave trade Blockade of Africa African Slave Trade Patrol Capture of the Providentia Capture of the Presidente Capture of the El Almirante Capture of the Marinerito Capture of the Veloz Passagera Capture of the Brillante Amistad Incident Capture of the Emanuela

Fictional pirates

Tom Ayrton Barbe Rouge Hector Barbossa Captain Blood Captain Crook Captain Flint José Gaspar Captain Hook Don Karnage Monkey D. Luffy Captain Nemo One Piece Captain Pugwash Red Rackham Captain Sabertooth Sandokan Long John Silver Jack Sparrow Captain Stingaree Roronoa Zoro

Miscellaneous

Truce of Ratisbon Piracy
Piracy
Act 1698 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1717 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1837 Paris
Paris
Declaration Respecting Maritime Law Child pirate Golden Age of Piracy Jolly Roger Walking the plank Treasure
Treasure
map Buried treasure Pirate booty No purchase, no pay Marooning Pirate code Pirate utopia Victual Brothers Pirate Round Libertatia Sack of Baltimore A General History of the Pyrates Mutiny Pegleg Eyepatch Letter of marque Davy Jones' Locker Air pirate Space pirate

Lists

Pirates Privateers Timeline of piracy Pirate films Women in piracy Fictional pirates Pirates in popular culture List of ships attacked by Somali pirates

Literature

Treasure
Treasure
Island Facing the Flag On Stranger Tides Castaways of the Flying Dutchman The Angel's Command Voyage of Slaves Pirate Latitudes

v t e

Ancient Greek and Roman wars

Ancient Greece

Trojan War First Messenian War Second Messenian War Lelantine War Greek–Punic Wars
Greek–Punic Wars
(Sicilian Wars) Greco-Persian Wars Aeginetan War Wars of the Delian League Samian War Peloponnesian War Corinthian War First / Second / Third Sacred War Social War (357–355 BC) Rise of Macedon Wars of Alexander the Great Wars of the Diadochi Lamian War Chremonidean War Cleomenean War Social War (220–217 BC) Cretan War Aetolian War War against Nabis Maccabean Revolt

Roman Republic

Roman–Latin wars (First Latin War (Battle of Lake Regillus) Second Latin War) Samnite Wars Pyrrhic War Punic Wars (First Second Third) Macedonian Wars (Illyrian First Macedonian Second Macedonian Seleucid Third Macedonian Fourth Macedonian) Jugurthine War Cimbrian War Roman Servile Wars (First Second Third) Social War (90–88 BC) Sulla's civil wars (First Second) Mithridatic Wars (First Second Third) Gallic Wars Julius Caesar's civil war Augustus' rise to power (Battle of Mutina Liberators' civil war Sicilian revolt Perusine War (Fulvia's civil war) Final War of the Roman Republic)

Roman Empire

Germanic Wars (Marcomannic Alemannic Gothic Visigothic) Conquest of Britain Wars of Boudica Armenian War Four Emperors Jewish wars Domitian's Dacian War Trajan's Dacian Wars Parthian Wars Wars against Persia Third-century civil wars Decline and fall of the Western Empire

Military history

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 6224297 LCCN: n80013395 ISNI: 0000 0000 6630 4243 GND: 118595636 SELIBR: 253005 SUDOC: 027318001 BNF: cb11938643b (data) BIBSYS: 90756998 ULAN: 500355380 ND

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