HOME
The Info List - Pompeii


--- Advertisement ---



Pompeii
Pompeii
was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the Campania
Campania
region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum
Herculaneum
and many villas in the surrounding area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Vesuvius
in AD 79. Archaeologists believe that the town was founded in the 7th or 6th century BC by the Osci
Osci
or Oscans. It came under the domination of Rome in the 4th century BC, and was conquered and became a Roman colony in 80 BC after it joined an unsuccessful rebellion against the Roman Republic. By the time of its destruction, 160 years later, its population was estimated at 11,000 people, and the city had a complex water system, an amphitheatre, a gymnasium, and a port. The eruption destroyed the city, killing its inhabitants and burying it under tons of ash. Evidence for the destruction originally came from a surviving letter by Pliny the Younger, who saw the eruption from a distance and described the death of his uncle Pliny the Elder, an admiral of the Roman fleet, who tried to rescue citizens. The site was lost for about 1,500 years until its initial rediscovery in 1599 and broader rediscovery almost 150 years later by Spanish engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre in 1748.[1] The objects that lay beneath the city have been preserved for more than a millennium because of the long lack of air and moisture. These artefacts provide an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city during the Pax Romana. During the excavation, plaster was used to fill in the voids in the ash layers that once held human bodies. This allowed archaeologists to see the exact position the person was in when he or she died. Pompeii
Pompeii
has been a tourist destination for over 250 years. Today it has UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors every year.[2]

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography 3 History

3.1 Early history 3.2 First century AD 3.3 AD 62–79 3.4 Eruption of Vesuvius 3.5 Rediscovery

4 Tourism 5 Conservation

5.1 House of the Gladiators collapse

6 In popular culture 7 Documentaries 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Name

Ruins of Pompeii
Pompeii
from above, with Vesuvius
Vesuvius
in the background

Pompeii
Pompeii
(pronounced [pɔmˈpɛjjiː]) in Latin is a second declension plural (Pompeiī, -ōrum). According to Theodor Kraus, "The root of the word Pompeii
Pompeii
would appear to be the Oscan word for the number five, pompe, which suggests that either the community consisted of five hamlets or, perhaps, it was settled by a family group (gens Pompeia)."[3] Geography

The Temple of Jupiter with Vesuvius
Vesuvius
in the distance

The ruins of Pompeii
Pompeii
are located near the modern suburban town of Pompei
Pompei
(nowadays written with one 'i'). It stands on a spur formed by a lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River
Sarno River
(known in ancient times as the Sarnus).

Pompeii, Italy. Pompeii
Pompeii
- Forum and Vesuvius. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

Today it is some distance inland, but in ancient times was nearer to the coast. Pompeii
Pompeii
is about 8 km (5.0 mi) away from Mount Vesuvius. It covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares (170 acres) and was home to approximately 11,000 to 11,500 people on the basis of household counts.[4] It was a major city in the region of Campania. History Early history The archaeological digs at the site extend to the street level of the AD 79 volcanic event; deeper digs in older parts of Pompeii
Pompeii
and core samples of nearby drillings have exposed layers of jumbled sediment that suggest that the city had suffered from other seismic events before the eruption. Three sheets of sediment have been found on top of the lava that lies below the city and, mixed in with the sediment, archaeologists have found bits of animal bone, pottery shards and plants. Carbon dating
Carbon dating
has placed the oldest of these layers from the 8th–6th centuries BC (around the time the city was founded). The other two strata are separated either by well-developed soil layers or Roman pavement, and were laid in the 4th century BC and 2nd century BC. It is theorised that the layers of the jumbled sediment were created by large landslides, perhaps triggered by extended rainfall.[5] The town was founded around the 7th–6th century BC by the Osci
Osci
or Oscans, a people of central Italy, on what was an important crossroad between Cumae, Nola
Nola
and Stabiae. It had already been used as a safe port by Greek and Phoenician sailors. According to Strabo, Pompeii
Pompeii
was also captured by the Etruscans, and in fact recent[timeframe?] excavations have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions and a 6th-century BC necropolis. Pompeii
Pompeii
was captured for the first time by the Greek colony of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, between 525 and 474 BC. In the 5th century BC, the Samnites
Samnites
conquered it (and all the other towns of Campania); the new rulers imposed their architecture and enlarged the town. After the Samnite Wars
Samnite Wars
(4th century BC), Pompeii was forced to accept the status of socium of Rome, maintaining, however, linguistic and administrative autonomy. In the 4th century BC, it was fortified. Pompeii
Pompeii
remained faithful to Rome
Rome
during the Second Punic War. The present Temple of Apollo was built in the 2nd century BC as the city's most important religious structure. Pompeii
Pompeii
took part in the war that the towns of Campania
Campania
initiated against Rome, but in 89 BC it was besieged by Sulla. Although the battle-hardened troops of the Social League, headed by Lucius Cluentius, helped in resisting the Romans, in 80 BC Pompeii
Pompeii
was forced to surrender after the conquest of Nola, culminating in many of Sulla's veterans being given land and property, while many of those who went against Rome
Rome
were ousted from their homes. It became a Roman colony with the name of Colonia Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum. The town became an important passage for goods that arrived by sea and had to be sent toward Rome
Rome
or southern Italy
Italy
along the nearby Appian Way. It was fed with water by a spur from Aqua Augusta (Naples)
Aqua Augusta (Naples)
built c. 20 BC by Agrippa; the main line supplied several other large towns, and finally the naval base at Misenum. The castellum in Pompeii
Pompeii
is well preserved, and includes many details of the distribution network and its controls.[6] First century AD

Illustrated reconstruction, from a CyArk/University of Ferrara research partnership, of how the Temple of Apollo may have looked before Mt. Vesuvius
Vesuvius
erupted

The same location today.

Annotated map of Pompeii

The main Forum in Pompeii

The Forum with Vesuvius
Vesuvius
in the distance

Amphitheatre
Amphitheatre
of Pompeii

Ruins of Roman Villa Poppaea
Villa Poppaea
at Torre Annunziata

The excavated city offers a snapshot of Roman life in the 1st century, frozen at the moment it was buried on 24 August AD 79.[7] The forum, the baths, many houses, and some out-of-town villas like the Villa of the Mysteries remain well preserved. Details of everyday life are preserved. For example, on the floor of one of the houses (Sirico's), a famous inscription Salve, lucru ("Welcome, profit") indicates a trading company owned by two partners, Sirico and Nummianus (but this could be a nickname, since nummus means "coin; money"). Other houses provide details concerning professions and categories, such as for the "laundry" workers (Fullones). Wine jars have been found bearing what is apparently the world's earliest known marketing pun (technically a blend), Vesuvinum (combining Vesuvius
Vesuvius
and the Latin for wine, vinum).[citation needed] The numerous graffiti carved on the walls and inside rooms provides a wealth of information regarding Vulgar Latin, the form of Latin spoken colloquially rather than the literary language of the classical writers.

Portrait of Terentius Neo with his wife found on the wall of a Pompeii house. (Portrait of Paquius Proculo)[8]

In 89 BC, after the final occupation of the city by Roman General Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Pompeii
Pompeii
was finally annexed by the Roman Republic. During this period, Pompeii
Pompeii
underwent a vast process of infrastructural development, most of which was built during the Augustan period. These include an amphitheatre, a palaestra with a central natatorium (cella natatoria) or swimming pool and an aqueduct that provided water for more than 25 street fountains, at least four public baths, and a large number of private houses (domūs) and businesses. The amphitheatre has been cited by modern scholars as a model of sophisticated design, particularly in the area of crowd control.[9] The aqueduct branched through three main pipes from the Castellum Aquae, where the waters were collected before being distributed to the city. In extreme drought, the water supply would first fail to reach the public baths (the least vital service), then private houses and businesses—and if there were no water flow at all, the system would fail to supply the public fountains (the most vital service) in the streets of Pompeii. The pools in Pompeii
Pompeii
were mostly for decoration. The large number of well-preserved frescoes provide information on everyday life and have been a major advance in art history of the ancient world, with the innovation of the Pompeian Styles (First/Second/Third Style). Some aspects of the culture were distinctly erotic, including frequent use of the phallus as apotropaion or good-luck charm in various types of decoration. A large collection of erotic votive objects and frescoes were found at Pompeii. Many were removed and kept until recently in a secret collection at the University of Naples. At the time of the eruption, the town may have had some 11,000 inhabitants, and was located in an area where Romans had holiday villas. William Abbott explains, "At the time of the eruption, Pompeii had reached its high point in society as many Romans frequently visited Pompeii
Pompeii
on vacations." It is the only ancient town of which the whole topographic structure is known precisely as it was, with no later modifications or additions. Due to the difficult terrain, it was not distributed on a regular plan as most Roman towns were, but its streets are straight and laid out in a grid in the Roman tradition. They are laid with polygonal stones, and have houses and shops on both sides of the street. It followed its decumanus (main east/west road) and its cardo (main north/south road), centred on the forum. Modern archaeologists have excavated garden sites and urban domains to reveal the agricultural staples in Pompeii’s economy prior to AD 79. Pompeii
Pompeii
was fortunate to have a fruitful, fertile region of soil for harvesting a variety of crops. The soils surrounding Mount Vesuvius even preceding its eruption have been revealed to have good water-holding capabilities, implying access to productive agriculture. The Tyrrhenian Sea’s airflow provided hydration to the soil despite the hot, dry climate.[10] The rural areas surrounding Pompeii
Pompeii
had abundant agricultural land that was very fertile and could produce much larger quantities of goods than the city needed. Some speculate that much of the flat land in Campania, surrounding the areas of Pompeii
Pompeii
was dedicated to grain and wheat production. Cereal, barley, wheat, and millet were all produced by the locals in Pompeii. These grains, along with wine and olive oil, were produced in abundance for export to other regions.[11] Evidence of wine imported nationally from Pompeii
Pompeii
in its most prosperous years can be found from recovered artefacts such as wine bottles in Rome.[11] For this reason, vineyards were of utmost importance to Pompeii’s economy. Agricultural policymaker Columella suggested that each vineyard in Rome
Rome
produced a quota of three cullei of wine per jugerum, otherwise the vineyard would be uprooted. The nutrient-rich lands near Pompeii
Pompeii
were extremely efficient at this and were often able to exceed these requirements by a steep margin, therefore providing the incentive for local wineries to establish themselves.[11] While wine was exported for Pompeii’s economy, the majority of the other agricultural goods were likely produced in quantities relevant to the city’s consumption. Remains of large formations of constructed wineries were found in Forum Boarium, covered by cemented casts from the eruption of Vesuvius.[11] It is speculated that these historical vineyards are strikingly similar in structure to the modern day vineyards across Italy. Water depressions have also been found in close proximity to the wineries and served as water wells for the produce and livestock. Carbonised food plant remains, roots, seeds and pollens, have been found from gardens in Pompeii, Herculaneum
Herculaneum
and from the Roman villa at Torre Annunziata. They revealed that emmer wheat, Italian millet, common millet, walnuts, pine nuts, chestnuts, hazel nuts, chickpeas, bitter vetch, broad beans, olives, figs, pears, onions, garlic, peaches, carob, grapes, and dates were consumed. All except the dates could have been produced locally.[12] Besides the forum, many other services were found: the Macellum
Macellum
(great food market), the Pistrinum (mill), the Thermopolium
Thermopolium
(sort of bar that served cold and hot beverages), and cauponae (small restaurants). An amphitheatre and two theatres have been found, along with a palaestra or gymnasium. A hotel (of 1,000 square metres) was found a short distance from the town; it is now nicknamed the "Grand Hotel Murecine". Geothermal energy supplied channelled district heating for baths and houses.[13] At least one building, the Lupanar, was dedicated to prostitution.[14] In 2002, another discovery at the mouth of the Sarno River
Sarno River
near Sarno revealed that the port also was populated and that people lived in palafittes (stilt-houses), within a system of channels that suggested a likeness to Venice
Venice
to some scientists. AD 62–79 Main article: Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
Precursors and foreshocks The inhabitants of Pompeii
Pompeii
had long been used to minor quaking (indeed, the writer Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger
wrote that earth tremors "were not particularly alarming because they are frequent in Campania"), but on 5 February 62,[15] a severe earthquake did considerable damage around the bay, and particularly to Pompeii. It is believed that the earthquake would have registered between about 5 and 6 on the Richter magnitude scale.[16] On that day in Pompeii, there were to be two sacrifices, as it was the anniversary of Augustus being named "Father of the Nation" and also a feast day to honour the guardian spirits of the city. Chaos followed the earthquake. Fires, caused by oil lamps that had fallen during the quake, added to the panic. Nearby cities of Herculaneum
Herculaneum
and Nuceria were also affected.[16] Temples, houses, bridges, and roads were destroyed. It is believed that almost all buildings in the city of Pompeii
Pompeii
were affected. In the days after the earthquake, anarchy ruled the city, where theft and starvation plagued the survivors. In the time between 62 and the eruption in 79, some rebuilding was done, but some of the damage had still not been repaired at the time of the eruption.[16] Although it is unknown how many, a considerable number of inhabitants moved to other cities within the Roman Empire while others remained and rebuilt. An important field of current research concerns structures that were being restored at the time of the eruption (presumably damaged during the earthquake of 62). Some of the older, damaged paintings could have been covered with newer ones, and modern instruments are being used to catch a glimpse of the long hidden frescoes. The probable reason why these structures were still being repaired around 17 years after the earthquake was the increasing frequency of smaller quakes that led up to the eruption. Eruption of Vesuvius Main article: Eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
in AD 79 By the 1st century AD, Pompeii
Pompeii
was one of a number of towns near the base of the volcano, Mount Vesuvius. The area had a substantial population, which had grown prosperous from the region's renowned agricultural fertility. Many of Pompeii's neighbouring communities, most famously Herculaneum, also suffered damage or destruction during the 79 eruption. The eruption occurred on 24 August AD 79, just one day after Vulcanalia, the festival of the Roman god of fire, including that from volcanoes.[17]

Pompeii
Pompeii
and other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash and cinder. Modern coast lines are shown.

Roman fresco with a banquet scene from the Casa dei Casti Amanti, Pompeii

A multidisciplinary volcanological and bio-anthropological study of the eruption products and victims, merged with numerical simulations and experiments, indicates that at Pompeii
Pompeii
and surrounding towns heat was the main cause of death of people, previously believed to have died by ash suffocation. The results of the study, published in 2010, show that exposure to at least 250 °C (482 °F) hot surges (known as pyroclastic flows) at a distance of 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the vent was sufficient to cause instant death, even if people were sheltered within buildings.[18] The people and buildings of Pompeii
Pompeii
were covered in up to 12 different layers of tephra, in total 25 metres (82.0 ft) deep, which rained down for about six hours. Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger
provided a first-hand account of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
from his position across the Bay of Naples
Naples
at Misenum, in a version he wrote 25 years after the event. His uncle, Pliny the Elder, with whom he had a close relationship, died while attempting to rescue stranded victims. As admiral of the fleet, Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
had ordered the ships of the Imperial Navy stationed at Misenum
Misenum
to cross the bay to assist evacuation attempts. Volcanologists have recognised the importance of Pliny the Younger's account of the eruption by calling similar events "Plinian". The eruption was documented by contemporary historians and is generally accepted as having started on 24 August 79, relying on one version of the text of Pliny's letter. However the archeological excavations of Pompeii
Pompeii
suggest that the city was buried about three months later.[19] This is supported by another version of the letter,[20] which gives the date of the eruption as November 23. People buried in the ash appear to have been wearing heavier clothing than the light summer clothes typical of August. The fresh fruit and vegetables in the shops are typical of October – and conversely the summer fruit typical of August was already being sold in dried, or conserved form. Wine fermenting jars had been sealed, which would have happened around the end of October. Coins found in the purse of a woman buried in the ash include one with a 15th imperatorial acclamation among the emperor's titles. These coins could not have been minted before the second week of September. There is no definitive theory as to why there should be such an apparent discrepancy.[20] Rediscovery

Beginning in 1757, the eight volumes of Le Antichità di Ercolano brought knowledge of Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum
Herculaneum
to the fore.

"Garden of the Fugitives". Plaster
Plaster
casts of victims still in situ; many casts are in the Archaeological Museum of Naples.

Roman fresco from the Villa dei Misteri

Fresco
Fresco
from the Casa del Centenario bedroom

After thick layers of ash covered Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum, they were abandoned and eventually their names and locations were forgotten. The first time any part of them was unearthed was in 1599, when the digging of an underground channel to divert the river Sarno
Sarno
ran into ancient walls covered with paintings and inscriptions. The architect Domenico Fontana
Domenico Fontana
was called in; he unearthed a few more frescoes, then covered them over again, and nothing more came of the discovery. A wall inscription had mentioned a decurio Pompeii
Pompeii
("the town councillor of Pompeii") but its reference to the long-forgotten Roman city was missed. Fontana's covering over the paintings has been seen both as a broad-minded act of preservation for later times, and as censorship in view of the frequent sexual content of such paintings, as he would have known that paintings of the hedonistic kind later found in some Pompeian villas were not considered in good taste in the climate of the counter-reformation.[21] Herculaneum
Herculaneum
was properly rediscovered in 1738 by workmen digging for the foundations of a summer palace for the King of Naples, Charles of Bourbon. Pompeii
Pompeii
was rediscovered as the result of intentional excavations in 1748 by the Spanish military engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre.[22] These towns have since been excavated to reveal many intact buildings and wall paintings. Charles of Bourbon took great interest in the findings even after becoming king of Spain
Spain
because the display of antiquities reinforced the political and cultural power of Naples.[23] Karl Weber directed the first real excavations;[24] he was followed in 1764 by military engineer Franscisco la Vega. Franscisco la Vega was succeeded by his brother, Pietro, in 1804.[25] During the French occupation Pietro worked with Christophe Saliceti.[26] Giuseppe Fiorelli
Giuseppe Fiorelli
took charge of the excavations in 1863.[27] During early excavations of the site, occasional voids in the ash layer had been found that contained human remains. It was Fiorelli who realised these were spaces left by the decomposed bodies and so devised the technique of injecting plaster into them to recreate the forms of Vesuvius's victims. This technique is still in use today, with a clear resin now used instead of plaster because it is more durable, and does not destroy the bones, allowing further analysis.[28] The discovery of erotic art in Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum
Herculaneum
left the archaeologists with a dilemma – between the mores of sexuality in ancient Rome
Rome
and in Counter-Reformation Europe lay a clash of cultures. An unknown number of discoveries were hidden away again. A wall fresco depicting Priapus, the ancient god of sex and fertility, with his extremely enlarged penis, was covered with plaster. An older reproduction was locked away "out of prudishness" and opened only on request—and only rediscovered in 1998 due to rainfall.[29] A large number of artefacts from the buried cities are preserved in the Naples
Naples
National Archaeological Museum. In 1819, when King Francis visited the Pompeii
Pompeii
exhibition there with his wife and daughter, he was so embarrassed by the erotic artwork that he decided to have it locked away in a so-called "secret cabinet" (gabinetto segreto), a gallery within the museum accessible only to "people of mature age and respected morals". Re-opened, closed, re-opened again and then closed again for nearly 100 years, the Naples
Naples
"Secret Museum" was briefly made accessible again at the end of the 1960s (the time of the sexual revolution) and was finally re-opened for viewing in 2000. Minors are still allowed entry only in the presence of a guardian or with written permission.[30] Tourism

A paved street. Pedestrians used the blocks in the road to cross the street without having to step onto the road, which doubled up as Pompeii's drainage and sewage disposal system. The spaces between the blocks let vehicles pass along the road.

The House of the Faun.

Pompeii
Pompeii
has been a popular tourist destination for over 250 years;[31] it was on the Grand Tour. By 2008, it was attracting almost 2.6 million visitors per year, making it one of the most popular tourist sites in Italy.[32] It is part of a larger Vesuvius
Vesuvius
National Park and was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1997. To combat problems associated with tourism, the governing body for Pompeii, the Soprintendenza Archaeological di Pompei, have begun issuing new tickets that allow for tourists to also visit cities such as Herculaneum
Herculaneum
and Stabiae
Stabiae
as well as the Villa Poppaea, to encourage visitors to see these sites and reduce pressure on Pompeii. Pompeii
Pompeii
is also a driving force behind the economy of the nearby town of Pompei. Many residents are employed in the tourism and hospitality business, serving as taxi or bus drivers, waiters or hotel operators. The ruins can be easily reached on foot from the Circumvesuviana
Circumvesuviana
train stop called Pompei
Pompei
Scavi, directly at the ancient site. There are also car parks nearby. Excavations in the site have generally ceased due to the moratorium imposed by the superintendent of the site, Professor Pietro Giovanni Guzzo. Additionally, the site is generally less accessible to tourists, with less than a third of all buildings open in the 1960s being available for public viewing today. Nevertheless, the sections of the ancient city open to the public are extensive, and tourists can spend several days exploring the whole site. Conservation Main article: Conservation issues of Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum Objects buried beneath Pompeii
Pompeii
were well-preserved for almost 2,000 years. The lack of air and moisture let objects remain underground with little to no deterioration. Once excavated, the site provided a wealth of source material and evidence for analysis, giving detail into the lives of the Pompeiians. However, once exposed, Pompeii
Pompeii
has been subject to both natural and man-made forces, which have rapidly increased deterioration. Weathering, erosion, light exposure, water damage, poor methods of excavation and reconstruction, introduced plants and animals, tourism, vandalism and theft have all damaged the site in some way. Two-thirds of the city has been excavated, but the remnants of the city are rapidly deteriorating.[33] The concern for conservation has continually troubled archaeologists. The ancient city was included in the 1996 World Monuments Watch
1996 World Monuments Watch
by the World Monuments Fund, and again in 1998 and in 2000. In 1996 the organisation claimed that Pompeii
Pompeii
"desperately need[ed] repair" and called for the drafting of a general plan of restoration and interpretation.[34] The organisation supported conservation at Pompeii with funding from American Express
American Express
and the Samuel H. Kress Foundation.[35] Today, funding is mostly directed into conservation of the site; however, due to the expanse of Pompeii
Pompeii
and the scale of the problems, this is inadequate in halting the slow decay of the materials. An estimated US$335 million is needed for all necessary work on Pompeii.[citation needed] A recent study has recommended an improved strategy for interpretation and presentation of the site as a cost-effective method of improving its conservation and preservation in the short term.[36] In June 2013 UNESCO
UNESCO
declared: If restoration and preservation works “fail to deliver substantial progress in the next two years,” Pompeii
Pompeii
could be placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger.[37]

Fencing in the temple of Venus prevents vandalism of the site, as well as theft.

Indian art
Indian art
also found its way into Pompeii, within the context of Indo-Roman trade: in 1938 the Pompeii Lakshmi
Pompeii Lakshmi
was found in the ruins of Pompeii.

House of the Gladiators collapse The 2,000-year-old Schola Armatorum (House of the Gladiators) collapsed on 6 November 2010. The structure was not open to visitors, but the outside was visible to tourists. There was no immediate determination as to what caused the building to collapse, although reports suggested water infiltration following heavy rains might have been responsible. There has been fierce controversy after the collapse, with accusations of neglect.[38][39] In popular culture Main article: Pompeii
Pompeii
in popular culture

A Roman fresco from Pompeii, 1st century AD, depicting a man in a theatre mask and a woman wearing a garland while playing a lyre (a Greco-Roman stringed instrument); it is now housed in the National Archaeological Museum (Museo Archeologico Nazionale) of Naples

Pompeii
Pompeii
was the setting for the British comedy television series Up Pompeii! and the movie of the series. Pompeii
Pompeii
also featured in the second episode of the fourth season of revived BBC
BBC
science fiction series Doctor Who, named The Fires of Pompeii,[40] which featured Caecilius as a character. In 1971, the rock band Pink Floyd
Pink Floyd
filmed a live concert titled Pink Floyd: Live at Pompeii, in which they performed six songs in the ancient Roman amphitheatre in the city. The audience consisted only of the film's production crew and some local children. Pompeii
Pompeii
is a novel written by Robert Harris (published in 2003) featuring the account of the aquarius' race to fix the broken aqueduct in the days leading up to the eruption of Vesuvius, inspired by actual events and people. Pompeii
Pompeii
is a song by the British band Bastille, released 24 February 2013. The lyrics refer to the city and the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Pompeii
Pompeii
is a 2014 German-Canadian historical disaster film produced and directed by Paul W. S. Anderson.[41] In 2016, 45 years after the Pink Floyd
Pink Floyd
recordings, band guitarist David Gilmour
David Gilmour
returned to the Pompeii
Pompeii
amphiteatre to perform a live concert for his Rattle That Lock world tour. This event was considered the first one in the amphiteatre to feature an audience since the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius.[42][43] Documentaries

"In Search Of" Episode #82 focuses entirely on Pompeii, it premiered on November 29, 1979. The National Geographic special In the Shadow of Vesuvius
Vesuvius
(1987) explores the sites of Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum, interviews (then) leading archaeologists, and examines the events leading up to the eruption of Vesuvius.[44] Ancient Mysteries: Pompeii: Buried Alive (1996), an A&E television documentary narrated by Leonard Nimoy.[45] Pompeii: The Last Day (2003), an hour-long drama produced for the BBC that portrays several characters (with historically attested names, but fictional life-stories) living in Pompeii, Herculaneum
Herculaneum
and around the Bay of Naples, and their last hours, including a fuller and his wife, two gladiators, and Pliny the Elder. It also portrays the facts of the eruption. It is heavily influenced by Edward Bulwer-Lytton's book The Last Days of Pompeii
Pompeii
(see Pompeii
Pompeii
in popular culture#Books and other printed works), which – while being responsible for the popularisation of Pompeii
Pompeii
in Western culture – has been dismissed for its lack of historical credibility. To give some historical reality to the characters, the death throes of the characters portrayed are based on actual skeletons and bodies found during excavations in the 18th century, while Pliny the Elder's death is shown as based on the accounts of how he actually died. Although in the story the narrator uses reports that Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
died from inhaling the fumes of the final and greatest pyroclastic surge, as many reports have found, he most likely had suffered a heart attack or stroke.[citation needed] Pompeii
Pompeii
and the AD 79 eruption (2004), a two-hour Tokyo Broadcasting System documentary. Pompeii
Pompeii
Live (June 28, 2006), a Channel 5 production featuring a live archaeological dig at Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum[46][47] Pompeii: The Mystery of the People Frozen in Time (2013), a BBC
BBC
One drama documentary presented by Dr. Margaret Mountford.[48] "The Riddle of Pompeii" (May 23, 2014), Discovery Channel[49]

See also

Eumachia House of Julia Felix House of Loreius Tiburtinus House of Menander House of Sallust House of the Tragic Poet House of the Vettii Macellum
Macellum
of Pompeii Mastroberardino, a project with the Italian winery Mastroberardino
Mastroberardino
to replant the vineyards of Pompeii Robert Rive, 1850s photographer of Pompeii Suburban Baths (Pompeii) Temple of Isis (Pompeii)

Volcanic destruction

Armero tragedy, a city in Colombia that suffered a similar fate in 1985 Joya de Cerén, a pre-Columbian farming village in El Salvador known as the " Pompeii
Pompeii
of the Americas" Plymouth, Montserrat, former capital city buried by volcanic ash from the Soufrière Hills volcano in the 1990s Saint-Pierre, Martinique, town similarly destroyed by the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelee, in 1902

Other

Dura-Europos, also known as the " Pompeii
Pompeii
of the desert"

References

^ Ozgenel, Lalo, A Tale of Two Cities: In Search of Ancient Pompeii and Herculaneum. ^ "Dossier Musei 2008" (PDF) (in Italian). Touring Club Italiano. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 18, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ Kraus 1975, p. [page needed] ^ Wilson, Andrew (2011). "City Sizes and Urbanization in the Roman Empire". In Bowman, Alan; Wilson, Andrew. Settlement, Urbanization, and Population. Oxford Studies on the Roman Economy. 2. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 171–172. ISBN 978-0-19-960235-3.  ^ Senatore, Stanley & Pescatore 2004, p. [page needed] ^ Lorenz, Wayne (June 2011). " Pompeii
Pompeii
(and Rome) Water Supply Systems" (PDF). Wright Paleohydrological Institute. p. 26. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ De Carolis & Patricelli 2003, p. 83. ^ Clarke 2006, pp. 262–264. ^ Berinato, Scott (May 18, 2007). "Crowd Control in Ancient Pompeii". CSO. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ Meyer, Frederick G (edited by Wilhelmina Feemster Jashemski) (2002). The natural history of Pompeii
Pompeii
(1. publ. ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0521800549.  ^ a b c d Bernick, Christie. "Agriculture in Pompeii". Wall Paintings of the Pompeii
Pompeii
Forum. Retrieved 3 August 2014.  ^ Meyer, Frederick G. (October–December 1980). "Carbonized Food Plants of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and the Villa at Torre Annunziata". New York Botanical Garden: Economic Botany. 34 (4): 419. JSTOR 4254221.  ^ Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2001). Geothermal District Energy System Analysis, Design, and Development (PDF). International Summer School. International Geothermal Association. p. 213(1). Retrieved November 28, 2015. Lay summary – Stanford School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences. During Roman times, warm water was circulated through open trenches to provide heating for buildings and baths in Pompeii.  ^ Day, Michael (November 16, 2015). " Prostitution
Prostitution
in Pompeii: 2,000 years after explosion, sex-for-cash is still rife". The Independent. the city's most extravagant brothel, the Lupanare – from the Latin word lupa for prostitute  ^ "Patterns of Reconstruction at Pompeii". University of Virginia. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ a b c "Visiting Pompeii". Current Archaeology. p. 3. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ "The Destruction of Pompeii, AD 79". EyeWitness to History. 1999. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ Mastrolorenzo et al. 2010, p. e11127. ^ Gabi Laske. "The A.D. 79 Eruption at Mt. Vesuvius". Lecture notes for UCSD-ERTH15: "Natural Disasters". Archived from the original on 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2008-07-28.  ^ a b Stefani 2006, pp. 10–14. ^ Ozgenel 2008, p. 13. ^ Ozgenel 2008, p. 13. ^ Ozgenel 2008, p. 19. ^ Parslow 1995, p. [page needed] ^ Pagano 1997, p. [page needed] ^ POMPEIA d'Ernest Breton (3eme éd. 1870) "Introduction – La résurrection de la ville" in French. ^ Nappo, Salvatore Ciro (February 17, 2011). "Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation". BBC. Retrieved March 2, 2013. Giuseppe Fiorelli directed the Pompeii
Pompeii
excavation from 1863 to 1875  ^ Gracco, Tiberio (28 April 2017). "Orto dei Fuggiaschi". Pompei Online. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ As reported by the Evangelist pressedienst press agency in March, 1998. ^ Karl Schefold (2003), Die Dichtung als Führerin zur Klassischen Kunst. Erinnerungen eines Archäologen (Lebenserinnerungen Band 58), edd. M. Rohde-Liegle et al., Hamburg. p. 134 ISBN 3-8300-1017-6. ^ Rowland 2014. ^ Nadeau, Barbie Selling Pompeii, Newsweek, April 14, 2008. ^ Popham, Peter (May 2010). "Ashes to ashes: the latter-day ruin of Pompeii". Prospect Magazine. London. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ "World Monuments Fund, ''List of 100 Most Endangered Sites – 1996,'' New York, NY: 1996, p. 31" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-20. Retrieved 2012-07-07.  ^ World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund
(2017). "Ancient Pompeii". Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ Wallace, Alia (2012). "Presenting Pompeii: Steps towards Reconciling Conservation and Tourism at an Ancient Site". Papers from the Institute of Archaeology. Ubiquity Press. 22: 115–136. doi:10.5334/pia.406.  ^ Hammer, Joshua. "The Fall and Rise and Fall of Pompeii". Retrieved 2015-07-01.  ^ " Pompeii
Pompeii
collapse prompts charges of official neglect".  ^ " Pompeii
Pompeii
Gladiator
Gladiator
Training Centre Collapses".  ^ "Doctor Who – News – Rome
Rome
Sweet Rome". BBC. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ Sandy Schaefer (September 18, 2012). "Paul W.S. Anderson To Helm 'Pompeii'". Retrieved 2014-02-27.  ^ Kreps, Daniel (March 16, 2016). " David Gilmour
David Gilmour
Sets First Pompeii Shows Since Pink Floyd's Concert Film". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 11, 2017.  ^ " David Gilmour
David Gilmour
live at Pompeii
Pompeii
– a photo essay". The Guardian. July 14, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2017. It is the first time since the eruption of Vesuvius
Vesuvius
in AD79 that there has been an event with an audience in the venue.  ^ "In the Shadow of Vesuvius". National Geographic. Retrieved August 1, 2014.  ^ "Ancient Mysteries: Season 3, Episode 22". A&E. February 2, 1996. Retrieved February 17, 2016.  ^ Shelley Hales; Joanna Paul (2011). Pompeii
Pompeii
in the Public Imagination from Its Rediscovery to Today. Oxford University Press. p. 367. doi:10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569366.001.0001. ISBN 9780199569366. The recent UK Channel 5 programme, transmitted live from Herculaneum
Herculaneum
on 29 June 2006...  ^ "Shows". Five. Archived from the original on 2006-06-03.  ^ "Pompeii: The Mystery of the People Frozen in Time". BBC. Retrieved April 6, 2013.  ^ The Riddle of Pompeii. 23 May 2014 – via YouTube. 

Further reading

Beard, Mary (2008). Pompeii: The Life of a Roman Town. Profile Books. ISBN 978-1-86197-596-6.  Butterworth, Alex; Laurence, Ray (2005). Pompeii: The Living City. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-35585-2.  Cioni, Rafaello; Gurioli, L; Lanza, R; Zanella, E (2004). "Temperatures of the A.D. 79 pyroclastic density current deposits (Vesuvius, Italy)". Journal of Geophysical Research. 109: 2207. Bibcode:2004JGRB..109.2207C. doi:10.1029/2002JB002251.  Clarke, John (2006). Visual Representation and Non-Elite Viewers in Italy, 100 BC – AD 315. University of California. ISBN 978-0-520-24815-1.  De Carolis, Ernesto; Patricelli, Giovanni (2003). Vesuvius, A.D. 79: the destruction of Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum. L'erma Di Bretschneider. ISBN 978-88-8265-199-2.  Fletcher, John (1835). The whole works of...John Flecter. Oxford University. *Grant, Michael (2001). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Phoenix. ISBN 9781842122198.  Hodge, Trevor (2001). Roman Aqueducts & Water Supply. Duckworth. ISBN 9780715631713.  Kraus, Theodor (1975). Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum: The Living Cities of the Dead. H. N. Abrams. ISBN 9780810904187.  Maiuri, Amedeo (1994). "Pompeii". Scientific American.  Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe; Petrone, Pierpaolo; Pappalardo, Lucia; Guarino, Fabio (2010). Langowski, Jörg, ed. "Lethal Thermal Impact at Periphery of Pyroclastic Surges: Evidences at Pompeii". PLOS ONE. 5 (6): e11127. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...511127M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011127. PMC 2886100 . PMID 20559555.  Ozgenel, Lalo (15 April 2008). "A Tale of Two Cities: In Search of Ancient Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum" (PDF). Journal of the Faculty of Archaeology. Ankara: Middle East Technical University. 25 (1): 1–25. Retrieved 26 January 2018.  Pagano, Mario (1997). I Diari di Scavo di Pompeii, Ercolano e Stabiae di Francesco e Pietro la Vega (1764–1810) (in Italian). L'Erma di Bretschneidein. ISBN 88-7062-967-8.  Parslow, Christopher (1995). Rediscovering antiquity: Karl Weber and the excavation of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47150-8.  Perring, Stefania (1991). Pompeii: The Wonders of the Ancient World Brought to Life in Vivid See-Through Reconstructions: Then and Now. Macmillan Books. ISBN 0-02-599461-1.  Rodríguez, Cristina (2008). Les mystères de Pompéi (in French). Éditions du Masque. ISBN 2-702-43404-5.  Rowland, Ingrid D. (2014). From Pompeii: The Afterlife of a Roman Town. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0674047938.  Senatore, Maria; Stanley, Jean-Daniel; Pescatore, Tullio (November 7–10, 2004). "Avalanche-associated mass flows damaged Pompeii several times before the Vesuvius
Vesuvius
catastrophic eruption in the 79 CE". 2004 Denver Annual Meeting.  Stefani, Grete (October 2006). La vera data dell'eruzione. Archeo.  Steven, Ellis (2004). "The distribution of bars at Pompeii: Archaeological, spatial and viewshed analyses". Journal of Roman Archaeology. 17 (1). ISSN 1047-7594.  Zarmati, Louise (2005). Heinemann ancient and medieval history: Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum. Heinemann. ISBN 1-74081-195-X. 

External links

Find more aboutPompeiiat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website Pompeii
Pompeii
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Data on new excavations from the International Association for Classical Archaeology (AIAC) Ancient History Encyclopedia - Pompeii Forum of Pompeii
Pompeii
Digital Media Archive (creative commons-licensed photos, laser scans, panoramas), data from a University of Ferrara/ CyArk
CyArk
research partnership Romano-Campanian Wall-Painting (English, Italian, Spanish and French introduction) mainly focusing on wall-paintings from Pompeian houses and villas N. Purcell; R. Talbert; T. Elliott; S. Gillies. "Places: 433032 (Pompeii)". Pleiades. Retrieved March 8, 2012.  Pompeii: The Mystery Of People Frozen In Time Annotated Google map and satellite view

v t e

Archaeological sites in Campania

Province of Avellino

Aeclanum Compsa

Province of Benevento

Benevento

Arch of Trajan Roman Theatre

Caudium Ligures Baebiani Saticula

Province of Caserta

Allifae Ausona Calatia Cales Santa Maria Capua
Capua
Vetere

Arch of Hadrian (Capua)

Casilinum Sant'Angelo in Formis Sinuessa Trebula Balliensis Vescia

Province of Naples

Atella Baiae Cumae

Grotta di Cocceio

Herculaneum

Villa of the Papyri

Liternum Miseno

Piscina Mirabilis

Naples

Aqua Augusta Bourbon Tunnel Catacombs of San Gaudioso Catacombs of San Gennaro Crypta Neapolitana

Virgil's tomb

Macellum
Macellum
of Naples

Oplontis

Villa Poppaea

Palazzo a Mare Pompeii Pozzuoli

Flavian Amphitheater (Pozzuoli) Lucrinus Lacus Lake Avernus Macellum
Macellum
of Pozzuoli Portus Julius

Stabiae Suessula Castello Barbarossa Villa Jovis Villa Boscoreale

Province of Salerno

Monte Pruno Paestum

Heraion at the mouth of the Sele Temple of Athena Second Temple of Hera Tomb of the Diver

Pertosa Caves Velia Villa Romana of Minori

v t e

Pompeii

History

Pompei Mount Vesuvius 62 Pompeii
Pompeii
earthquake Eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
in 79

Villas of Pompeii‎

Villa of the Mysteries

Domus
Domus
of Pompeii‎

House of the Faun House of Sallust House of the Centenary House of Julia Felix House of Loreius Tiburtinus House of Menander House of the surgeon House of the Silver Wedding House of the Tragic Poet House of the Vettii Lupanar

Public buildings of Pompeii‎

Aqua Augusta Macellum
Macellum
of Pompeii

Recreational buildings of Pompeii‎

Amphitheatre Suburban Baths

Temples of Pompeii

Temple of Apollo Temple of Isis Temple of Jupiter

Other sites destroyed in the 79 Eruption

Herculaneum

Villa of the Papyri

Oplontis

Villa Poppaea

Stabiae Villa Boscoreale

Archaeological Museum

Naples
Naples
National Archaeological Museum

Art in Pompeii

Achilles and Briseis Alexander Mosaic Portrait of Paquius Proculo Erotic art in Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum Pompeian Styles Conservation issues of Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum Pompeii
Pompeii
in popular culture

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Italy

Northwest

Crespi d'Adda Genoa Mantua
Mantua
and Sabbioneta Monte San Giorgio1 Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre

Corniglia Manarola Monterosso al Mare Riomaggiore Vernazza

Residences of the Royal House of Savoy

Castle of Moncalieri Castle of Racconigi Castle of Rivoli Castello del Valentino Royal Palace of Turin Palazzo Carignano Palazzo Madama, Turin Palace of Venaria Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi Villa della Regina

Rhaetian Railway
Rhaetian Railway
in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1 Rock Drawings in Valcamonica Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe- Roero
Roero
and Monferrato

Northeast

Aquileia The Dolomites Ferrara Modena Cathedral, Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina
and Piazza Grande, Modena Orto botanico di Padova Ravenna Venice Verona City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto

Central

Assisi Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri
Cerveteri
and Tarquinia Florence Hadrian's Villa Medici villas Piazza del Duomo, Pisa Pienza Rome2 San Gimignano Siena Urbino Val d'Orcia Villa d'Este

South

Alberobello Amalfi Coast Castel del Monte, Apulia Cilento
Cilento
and Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano
National Park, Paestum
Paestum
and Velia, Certosa di Padula Herculaneum Oplontis
Oplontis
and Villa Poppaea Naples Palace of Caserta, Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
and San Leucio
San Leucio
Complex Pompeii Sassi di Matera

Islands

Aeolian Islands Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale Archaeological Area of Agrigento Barumini nuraghes Mount Etna Syracuse and Necropolis
Necropolis
of Pantalica Val di Noto

Caltagirone Catania Militello in Val di Catania Modica Noto Palazzolo Acreide Ragusa Scicli

Villa Romana del Casale

Countrywide

Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)

Brescia Cividale del Friuli Castelseprio Spoleto Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus
located at Campello sul Clitunno Santa Sofia located at Benevento Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
located at Monte Sant'Angelo

Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3 Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4 Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5

Bergamo Palmanova Peschiera del Garda

1 Shared with Switzerland 2 Shared with the Holy See 3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland 4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain
Spain
and Ukraine 5 Shared with Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro

v t e

Landmarks of Campania

Amalfi Cathedral Ancient remains of Capua Cumae Caserta Palace Cilento
Cilento
and Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano
National Park Faraglioni Herculaneum Paestum Pompeii Santa Sofia, Benevento Solfatara Sorrento Peninsula Stabiae Trinità della Cava Vesuvius
Vesuvius
National Park Villa Poppaea

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248524211 LCCN: sh85104771 GND: 40467

.