Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the
Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Pompeii, along with
Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding
area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m (13 to
20 ft) of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount
Vesuvius in AD 79.
Archaeologists believe that the town was founded in the 7th or 6th
century BC by the
Osci or Oscans. It came under the domination of Rome
in the 4th century BC, and was conquered and became a Roman colony in
80 BC after it joined an unsuccessful rebellion against the Roman
Republic. By the time of its destruction, 160 years later, its
population was estimated at 11,000 people, and the city had a complex
water system, an amphitheatre, a gymnasium, and a port.
The eruption destroyed the city, killing its inhabitants and burying
it under tons of ash. Evidence for the destruction originally came
from a surviving letter by Pliny the Younger, who saw the eruption
from a distance and described the death of his uncle Pliny the Elder,
an admiral of the Roman fleet, who tried to rescue citizens. The site
was lost for about 1,500 years until its initial rediscovery in 1599
and broader rediscovery almost 150 years later by Spanish engineer
Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre in 1748. The objects that lay beneath
the city have been preserved for more than a millennium because of the
long lack of air and moisture. These artefacts provide an
extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city during the
Pax Romana. During the excavation, plaster was used to fill in the
voids in the ash layers that once held human bodies. This allowed
archaeologists to see the exact position the person was in when he or
Pompeii has been a tourist destination for over 250 years. Today it
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular
tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors
3.1 Early history
3.2 First century AD
3.3 AD 62–79
3.4 Eruption of Vesuvius
5.1 House of the Gladiators collapse
6 In popular culture
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Pompeii from above, with
Vesuvius in the background
Pompeii (pronounced [pɔmˈpɛjjiː]) in Latin is a second
declension plural (Pompeiī, -ōrum). According to Theodor Kraus, "The
root of the word
Pompeii would appear to be the Oscan word for the
number five, pompe, which suggests that either the community consisted
of five hamlets or, perhaps, it was settled by a family group (gens
The Temple of Jupiter with
Vesuvius in the distance
The ruins of
Pompeii are located near the modern suburban town of
Pompei (nowadays written with one 'i'). It stands on a spur formed by
a lava flow to the north of the mouth of the
Sarno River (known in
ancient times as the Sarnus).
Pompeii - Forum and Vesuvius. Brooklyn Museum
Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
Today it is some distance inland, but in ancient times was nearer to
Pompeii is about 8 km (5.0 mi) away from Mount
Vesuvius. It covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares (170 acres) and was
home to approximately 11,000 to 11,500 people on the basis of
household counts. It was a major city in the region of Campania.
The archaeological digs at the site extend to the street level of the
AD 79 volcanic event; deeper digs in older parts of
Pompeii and core
samples of nearby drillings have exposed layers of jumbled sediment
that suggest that the city had suffered from other seismic events
before the eruption. Three sheets of sediment have been found on top
of the lava that lies below the city and, mixed in with the sediment,
archaeologists have found bits of animal bone, pottery shards and
Carbon dating has placed the oldest of these layers from the
8th–6th centuries BC (around the time the city was founded). The
other two strata are separated either by well-developed soil layers or
Roman pavement, and were laid in the 4th century BC and 2nd century
BC. It is theorised that the layers of the jumbled sediment were
created by large landslides, perhaps triggered by extended
The town was founded around the 7th–6th century BC by the
Oscans, a people of central Italy, on what was an important crossroad
Nola and Stabiae. It had already been used as a safe
port by Greek and Phoenician sailors. According to Strabo,
also captured by the Etruscans, and in fact recent[timeframe?]
excavations have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions and a
6th-century BC necropolis.
Pompeii was captured for the first time by
the Greek colony of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, between 525 and 474
In the 5th century BC, the
Samnites conquered it (and all the other
towns of Campania); the new rulers imposed their architecture and
enlarged the town. After the
Samnite Wars (4th century BC), Pompeii
was forced to accept the status of socium of Rome, maintaining,
however, linguistic and administrative autonomy. In the 4th century
BC, it was fortified.
Pompeii remained faithful to
Rome during the
Second Punic War.
The present Temple of Apollo was built in the 2nd century BC as the
city's most important religious structure.
Pompeii took part in the war that the towns of
against Rome, but in 89 BC it was besieged by Sulla. Although the
battle-hardened troops of the Social League, headed by Lucius
Cluentius, helped in resisting the Romans, in 80 BC
Pompeii was forced
to surrender after the conquest of Nola, culminating in many of
Sulla's veterans being given land and property, while many of those
who went against
Rome were ousted from their homes. It became a Roman
colony with the name of Colonia Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum. The
town became an important passage for goods that arrived by sea and had
to be sent toward
Rome or southern
Italy along the nearby Appian Way.
It was fed with water by a spur from
Aqua Augusta (Naples)
Aqua Augusta (Naples) built c. 20
BC by Agrippa; the main line supplied several other large towns, and
finally the naval base at Misenum. The castellum in
Pompeii is well
preserved, and includes many details of the distribution network and
First century AD
Illustrated reconstruction, from a CyArk/University of Ferrara
research partnership, of how the Temple of Apollo may have looked
The same location today.
Annotated map of Pompeii
The main Forum in Pompeii
The Forum with
Vesuvius in the distance
Amphitheatre of Pompeii
Ruins of Roman
Villa Poppaea at Torre Annunziata
The excavated city offers a snapshot of Roman life in the 1st century,
frozen at the moment it was buried on 24 August AD 79. The forum,
the baths, many houses, and some out-of-town villas like the Villa of
the Mysteries remain well preserved.
Details of everyday life are preserved. For example, on the floor of
one of the houses (Sirico's), a famous inscription Salve, lucru
("Welcome, profit") indicates a trading company owned by two partners,
Sirico and Nummianus (but this could be a nickname, since nummus means
"coin; money"). Other houses provide details concerning professions
and categories, such as for the "laundry" workers (Fullones). Wine
jars have been found bearing what is apparently the world's earliest
known marketing pun (technically a blend), Vesuvinum (combining
Vesuvius and the Latin for wine, vinum).
The numerous graffiti carved on the walls and inside rooms provides a
wealth of information regarding Vulgar Latin, the form of Latin spoken
colloquially rather than the literary language of the classical
Portrait of Terentius Neo with his wife found on the wall of a Pompeii
house. (Portrait of Paquius Proculo)
In 89 BC, after the final occupation of the city by Roman General
Lucius Cornelius Sulla,
Pompeii was finally annexed by the Roman
Republic. During this period,
Pompeii underwent a vast process of
infrastructural development, most of which was built during the
Augustan period. These include an amphitheatre, a palaestra with a
central natatorium (cella natatoria) or swimming pool and an aqueduct
that provided water for more than 25 street fountains, at least four
public baths, and a large number of private houses (domūs) and
businesses. The amphitheatre has been cited by modern scholars as a
model of sophisticated design, particularly in the area of crowd
The aqueduct branched through three main pipes from the Castellum
Aquae, where the waters were collected before being distributed to the
city. In extreme drought, the water supply would first fail to reach
the public baths (the least vital service), then private houses and
businesses—and if there were no water flow at all, the system would
fail to supply the public fountains (the most vital service) in the
streets of Pompeii. The pools in
Pompeii were mostly for decoration.
The large number of well-preserved frescoes provide information on
everyday life and have been a major advance in art history of the
ancient world, with the innovation of the Pompeian Styles
(First/Second/Third Style). Some aspects of the culture were
distinctly erotic, including frequent use of the phallus as
apotropaion or good-luck charm in various types of decoration. A large
collection of erotic votive objects and frescoes were found at
Pompeii. Many were removed and kept until recently in a secret
collection at the University of Naples.
At the time of the eruption, the town may have had some 11,000
inhabitants, and was located in an area where Romans had holiday
villas. William Abbott explains, "At the time of the eruption, Pompeii
had reached its high point in society as many Romans frequently
Pompeii on vacations." It is the only ancient town of which
the whole topographic structure is known precisely as it was, with no
later modifications or additions. Due to the difficult terrain, it was
not distributed on a regular plan as most Roman towns were, but its
streets are straight and laid out in a grid in the Roman tradition.
They are laid with polygonal stones, and have houses and shops on both
sides of the street. It followed its decumanus (main east/west road)
and its cardo (main north/south road), centred on the forum.
Modern archaeologists have excavated garden sites and urban domains to
reveal the agricultural staples in Pompeii’s economy prior to AD 79.
Pompeii was fortunate to have a fruitful, fertile region of soil for
harvesting a variety of crops. The soils surrounding Mount Vesuvius
even preceding its eruption have been revealed to have good
water-holding capabilities, implying access to productive agriculture.
The Tyrrhenian Sea’s airflow provided hydration to the soil despite
the hot, dry climate.
The rural areas surrounding
Pompeii had abundant agricultural land
that was very fertile and could produce much larger quantities of
goods than the city needed. Some speculate that much of the flat land
in Campania, surrounding the areas of
Pompeii was dedicated to grain
and wheat production. Cereal, barley, wheat, and millet were all
produced by the locals in Pompeii. These grains, along with wine and
olive oil, were produced in abundance for export to other regions.
Evidence of wine imported nationally from
Pompeii in its most
prosperous years can be found from recovered artefacts such as wine
bottles in Rome. For this reason, vineyards were of utmost
importance to Pompeii’s economy. Agricultural policymaker Columella
suggested that each vineyard in
Rome produced a quota of three cullei
of wine per jugerum, otherwise the vineyard would be uprooted. The
nutrient-rich lands near
Pompeii were extremely efficient at this and
were often able to exceed these requirements by a steep margin,
therefore providing the incentive for local wineries to establish
themselves. While wine was exported for Pompeii’s economy, the
majority of the other agricultural goods were likely produced in
quantities relevant to the city’s consumption.
Remains of large formations of constructed wineries were found in
Forum Boarium, covered by cemented casts from the eruption of
Vesuvius. It is speculated that these historical vineyards are
strikingly similar in structure to the modern day vineyards across
Italy. Water depressions have also been found in close proximity to
the wineries and served as water wells for the produce and livestock.
Carbonised food plant remains, roots, seeds and pollens, have been
found from gardens in Pompeii,
Herculaneum and from the Roman villa at
Torre Annunziata. They revealed that emmer wheat, Italian millet,
common millet, walnuts, pine nuts, chestnuts, hazel nuts, chickpeas,
bitter vetch, broad beans, olives, figs, pears, onions, garlic,
peaches, carob, grapes, and dates were consumed. All except the dates
could have been produced locally.
Besides the forum, many other services were found: the
food market), the Pistrinum (mill), the
Thermopolium (sort of bar that
served cold and hot beverages), and cauponae (small restaurants). An
amphitheatre and two theatres have been found, along with a palaestra
or gymnasium. A hotel (of 1,000 square metres) was found a short
distance from the town; it is now nicknamed the "Grand Hotel
Murecine". Geothermal energy supplied channelled district heating for
baths and houses. At least one building, the Lupanar, was
dedicated to prostitution.
In 2002, another discovery at the mouth of the
Sarno River near Sarno
revealed that the port also was populated and that people lived in
palafittes (stilt-houses), within a system of channels that suggested
a likeness to
Venice to some scientists.
Mount Vesuvius Precursors and foreshocks
The inhabitants of
Pompeii had long been used to minor quaking
(indeed, the writer
Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger wrote that earth tremors "were
not particularly alarming because they are frequent in Campania"), but
on 5 February 62, a severe earthquake did considerable damage
around the bay, and particularly to Pompeii. It is believed that the
earthquake would have registered between about 5 and 6 on the Richter
On that day in Pompeii, there were to be two sacrifices, as it was the
anniversary of Augustus being named "Father of the Nation" and also a
feast day to honour the guardian spirits of the city. Chaos followed
the earthquake. Fires, caused by oil lamps that had fallen during the
quake, added to the panic. Nearby cities of
Herculaneum and Nuceria
were also affected.
Temples, houses, bridges, and roads were destroyed. It is believed
that almost all buildings in the city of
Pompeii were affected. In the
days after the earthquake, anarchy ruled the city, where theft and
starvation plagued the survivors. In the time between 62 and the
eruption in 79, some rebuilding was done, but some of the damage had
still not been repaired at the time of the eruption. Although it
is unknown how many, a considerable number of inhabitants moved to
other cities within the Roman Empire while others remained and
An important field of current research concerns structures that were
being restored at the time of the eruption (presumably damaged during
the earthquake of 62). Some of the older, damaged paintings could have
been covered with newer ones, and modern instruments are being used to
catch a glimpse of the long hidden frescoes. The probable reason why
these structures were still being repaired around 17 years after the
earthquake was the increasing frequency of smaller quakes that led up
to the eruption.
Eruption of Vesuvius
Main article: Eruption of
Mount Vesuvius in AD 79
By the 1st century AD,
Pompeii was one of a number of towns near the
base of the volcano, Mount Vesuvius. The area had a substantial
population, which had grown prosperous from the region's renowned
agricultural fertility. Many of Pompeii's neighbouring communities,
most famously Herculaneum, also suffered damage or destruction during
the 79 eruption. The eruption occurred on 24 August AD 79, just one
day after Vulcanalia, the festival of the Roman god of fire, including
that from volcanoes.
Pompeii and other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash and cinder.
Modern coast lines are shown.
Roman fresco with a banquet scene from the Casa dei Casti Amanti,
A multidisciplinary volcanological and bio-anthropological study of
the eruption products and victims, merged with numerical simulations
and experiments, indicates that at
Pompeii and surrounding towns heat
was the main cause of death of people, previously believed to have
died by ash suffocation. The results of the study, published in 2010,
show that exposure to at least 250 °C (482 °F) hot surges
(known as pyroclastic flows) at a distance of 10 kilometres (6 miles)
from the vent was sufficient to cause instant death, even if people
were sheltered within buildings.
The people and buildings of
Pompeii were covered in up to 12 different
layers of tephra, in total 25 metres (82.0 ft) deep, which rained
down for about six hours.
Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger provided a first-hand
account of the eruption of
Mount Vesuvius from his position across the
Naples at Misenum, in a version he wrote 25 years after the
event. His uncle, Pliny the Elder, with whom he had a close
relationship, died while attempting to rescue stranded victims. As
admiral of the fleet,
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder had ordered the ships of the
Imperial Navy stationed at
Misenum to cross the bay to assist
evacuation attempts. Volcanologists have recognised the importance of
Pliny the Younger's account of the eruption by calling similar events
The eruption was documented by contemporary historians and is
generally accepted as having started on 24 August 79, relying on one
version of the text of Pliny's letter. However the archeological
Pompeii suggest that the city was buried about three
months later. This is supported by another version of the
letter, which gives the date of the eruption as November 23.
People buried in the ash appear to have been wearing heavier clothing
than the light summer clothes typical of August. The fresh fruit and
vegetables in the shops are typical of October – and conversely
the summer fruit typical of August was already being sold in dried, or
conserved form. Wine fermenting jars had been sealed, which would have
happened around the end of October. Coins found in the purse of a
woman buried in the ash include one with a 15th imperatorial
acclamation among the emperor's titles. These coins could not have
been minted before the second week of September. There is no
definitive theory as to why there should be such an apparent
Beginning in 1757, the eight volumes of Le Antichità di Ercolano
brought knowledge of
Herculaneum to the fore.
"Garden of the Fugitives".
Plaster casts of victims still in situ;
many casts are in the Archaeological Museum of Naples.
Roman fresco from the Villa dei Misteri
Fresco from the Casa del Centenario bedroom
After thick layers of ash covered
Pompeii and Herculaneum, they were
abandoned and eventually their names and locations were forgotten. The
first time any part of them was unearthed was in 1599, when the
digging of an underground channel to divert the river
Sarno ran into
ancient walls covered with paintings and inscriptions. The architect
Domenico Fontana was called in; he unearthed a few more frescoes, then
covered them over again, and nothing more came of the discovery. A
wall inscription had mentioned a decurio
Pompeii ("the town councillor
of Pompeii") but its reference to the long-forgotten Roman city was
Fontana's covering over the paintings has been seen both as a
broad-minded act of preservation for later times, and as censorship in
view of the frequent sexual content of such paintings, as he would
have known that paintings of the hedonistic kind later found in some
Pompeian villas were not considered in good taste in the climate of
Herculaneum was properly rediscovered in 1738 by workmen digging for
the foundations of a summer palace for the King of Naples, Charles of
Pompeii was rediscovered as the result of intentional
excavations in 1748 by the Spanish military engineer Rocque Joaquin de
Alcubierre. These towns have since been excavated to reveal many
intact buildings and wall paintings. Charles of Bourbon took great
interest in the findings even after becoming king of
Spain because the
display of antiquities reinforced the political and cultural power of
Karl Weber directed the first real excavations; he was followed in
1764 by military engineer Franscisco la Vega. Franscisco la Vega was
succeeded by his brother, Pietro, in 1804. During the French
occupation Pietro worked with Christophe Saliceti.
Giuseppe Fiorelli took charge of the excavations in 1863. During
early excavations of the site, occasional voids in the ash layer had
been found that contained human remains. It was Fiorelli who realised
these were spaces left by the decomposed bodies and so devised the
technique of injecting plaster into them to recreate the forms of
Vesuvius's victims. This technique is still in use today, with a clear
resin now used instead of plaster because it is more durable, and does
not destroy the bones, allowing further analysis.
The discovery of erotic art in
Herculaneum left the
archaeologists with a dilemma – between the mores of sexuality
Rome and in Counter-Reformation Europe lay a clash of
cultures. An unknown number of discoveries were hidden away again. A
wall fresco depicting Priapus, the ancient god of sex and fertility,
with his extremely enlarged penis, was covered with plaster. An older
reproduction was locked away "out of prudishness" and opened only on
request—and only rediscovered in 1998 due to rainfall.
A large number of artefacts from the buried cities are preserved in
Naples National Archaeological Museum. In 1819, when King Francis
Pompeii exhibition there with his wife and daughter, he
was so embarrassed by the erotic artwork that he decided to have it
locked away in a so-called "secret cabinet" (gabinetto segreto), a
gallery within the museum accessible only to "people of mature age and
respected morals". Re-opened, closed, re-opened again and then closed
again for nearly 100 years, the
Naples "Secret Museum" was briefly
made accessible again at the end of the 1960s (the time of the sexual
revolution) and was finally re-opened for viewing in 2000. Minors are
still allowed entry only in the presence of a guardian or with written
A paved street. Pedestrians used the blocks in the road to cross the
street without having to step onto the road, which doubled up as
Pompeii's drainage and sewage disposal system. The spaces between the
blocks let vehicles pass along the road.
The House of the Faun.
Pompeii has been a popular tourist destination for over 250 years;
it was on the Grand Tour. By 2008, it was attracting almost 2.6
million visitors per year, making it one of the most popular tourist
sites in Italy. It is part of a larger
Vesuvius National Park and
was declared a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO in 1997. To combat
problems associated with tourism, the governing body for Pompeii, the
Soprintendenza Archaeological di Pompei, have begun issuing new
tickets that allow for tourists to also visit cities such as
Stabiae as well as the Villa Poppaea, to encourage
visitors to see these sites and reduce pressure on Pompeii.
Pompeii is also a driving force behind the economy of the nearby town
of Pompei. Many residents are employed in the tourism and hospitality
business, serving as taxi or bus drivers, waiters or hotel operators.
The ruins can be easily reached on foot from the
Pompei Scavi, directly at the ancient site. There are also
car parks nearby.
Excavations in the site have generally ceased due to the moratorium
imposed by the superintendent of the site, Professor Pietro Giovanni
Guzzo. Additionally, the site is generally less accessible to
tourists, with less than a third of all buildings open in the 1960s
being available for public viewing today. Nevertheless, the sections
of the ancient city open to the public are extensive, and tourists can
spend several days exploring the whole site.
Main article: Conservation issues of
Pompeii and Herculaneum
Objects buried beneath
Pompeii were well-preserved for almost 2,000
years. The lack of air and moisture let objects remain underground
with little to no deterioration. Once excavated, the site provided a
wealth of source material and evidence for analysis, giving detail
into the lives of the Pompeiians. However, once exposed,
been subject to both natural and man-made forces, which have rapidly
Weathering, erosion, light exposure, water damage, poor methods of
excavation and reconstruction, introduced plants and animals, tourism,
vandalism and theft have all damaged the site in some way. Two-thirds
of the city has been excavated, but the remnants of the city are
The concern for conservation has continually troubled archaeologists.
The ancient city was included in the
1996 World Monuments Watch
1996 World Monuments Watch by the
World Monuments Fund, and again in 1998 and in 2000. In 1996 the
organisation claimed that
Pompeii "desperately need[ed] repair" and
called for the drafting of a general plan of restoration and
interpretation. The organisation supported conservation at Pompeii
with funding from
American Express and the Samuel H. Kress
Today, funding is mostly directed into conservation of the site;
however, due to the expanse of
Pompeii and the scale of the problems,
this is inadequate in halting the slow decay of the materials. An
estimated US$335 million is needed for all necessary work on
Pompeii. A recent study has recommended an improved
strategy for interpretation and presentation of the site as a
cost-effective method of improving its conservation and preservation
in the short term.
In June 2013
UNESCO declared: If restoration and preservation works
“fail to deliver substantial progress in the next two years,”
Pompeii could be placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Fencing in the temple of Venus prevents vandalism of the site, as well
Indian art also found its way into Pompeii, within the context of
Indo-Roman trade: in 1938 the
Pompeii Lakshmi was found in the ruins
House of the Gladiators collapse
The 2,000-year-old Schola Armatorum (House of the Gladiators)
collapsed on 6 November 2010. The structure was not open to visitors,
but the outside was visible to tourists. There was no immediate
determination as to what caused the building to collapse, although
reports suggested water infiltration following heavy rains might have
been responsible. There has been fierce controversy after the
collapse, with accusations of neglect.
In popular culture
Pompeii in popular culture
A Roman fresco from Pompeii, 1st century AD, depicting a man in a
theatre mask and a woman wearing a garland while playing a lyre (a
Greco-Roman stringed instrument); it is now housed in the National
Archaeological Museum (Museo Archeologico Nazionale) of Naples
Pompeii was the setting for the British comedy television series Up
Pompeii! and the movie of the series.
Pompeii also featured in the
second episode of the fourth season of revived
BBC science fiction
series Doctor Who, named The Fires of Pompeii, which featured
Caecilius as a character.
In 1971, the rock band
Pink Floyd filmed a live concert titled Pink
Floyd: Live at Pompeii, in which they performed six songs in the
ancient Roman amphitheatre in the city. The audience consisted only of
the film's production crew and some local children.
Pompeii is a novel written by Robert Harris (published in 2003)
featuring the account of the aquarius' race to fix the broken aqueduct
in the days leading up to the eruption of Vesuvius, inspired by actual
events and people.
Pompeii is a song by the British band Bastille, released 24 February
2013. The lyrics refer to the city and the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
Pompeii is a 2014 German-Canadian historical disaster film produced
and directed by Paul W. S. Anderson.
In 2016, 45 years after the
Pink Floyd recordings, band guitarist
David Gilmour returned to the
Pompeii amphiteatre to perform a live
concert for his Rattle That Lock world tour. This event was considered
the first one in the amphiteatre to feature an audience since the AD
79 eruption of Vesuvius.
"In Search Of" Episode #82 focuses entirely on Pompeii, it premiered
on November 29, 1979.
The National Geographic special In the Shadow of
explores the sites of
Pompeii and Herculaneum, interviews (then)
leading archaeologists, and examines the events leading up to the
eruption of Vesuvius.
Ancient Mysteries: Pompeii: Buried Alive (1996), an A&E television
documentary narrated by Leonard Nimoy.
Pompeii: The Last Day (2003), an hour-long drama produced for the BBC
that portrays several characters (with historically attested names,
but fictional life-stories) living in Pompeii,
Herculaneum and around
the Bay of Naples, and their last hours, including a fuller and his
wife, two gladiators, and Pliny the Elder. It also portrays the facts
of the eruption. It is heavily influenced by Edward Bulwer-Lytton's
book The Last Days of
Pompeii in popular culture#Books
and other printed works), which – while being responsible for
the popularisation of
Pompeii in Western culture – has been
dismissed for its lack of historical credibility. To give some
historical reality to the characters, the death throes of the
characters portrayed are based on actual skeletons and bodies found
during excavations in the 18th century, while Pliny the Elder's death
is shown as based on the accounts of how he actually died. Although in
the story the narrator uses reports that
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder died from
inhaling the fumes of the final and greatest pyroclastic surge, as
many reports have found, he most likely had suffered a heart attack or
Pompeii and the AD 79 eruption (2004), a two-hour Tokyo Broadcasting
Pompeii Live (June 28, 2006), a Channel 5 production featuring a live
archaeological dig at
Pompeii and Herculaneum
Pompeii: The Mystery of the People Frozen in Time (2013), a
drama documentary presented by Dr. Margaret Mountford.
"The Riddle of Pompeii" (May 23, 2014), Discovery Channel
House of Julia Felix
House of Loreius Tiburtinus
House of Menander
House of Sallust
House of the Tragic Poet
House of the Vettii
Macellum of Pompeii
Mastroberardino, a project with the Italian winery
replant the vineyards of Pompeii
Robert Rive, 1850s photographer of Pompeii
Suburban Baths (Pompeii)
Temple of Isis (Pompeii)
Armero tragedy, a city in Colombia that suffered a similar fate in
Joya de Cerén, a pre-Columbian farming village in El Salvador known
as the "
Pompeii of the Americas"
Plymouth, Montserrat, former capital city buried by volcanic ash from
the Soufrière Hills volcano in the 1990s
Saint-Pierre, Martinique, town similarly destroyed by the volcanic
eruption of Mount Pelee, in 1902
Dura-Europos, also known as the "
Pompeii of the desert"
^ Ozgenel, Lalo, A Tale of Two Cities: In Search of Ancient Pompeii
^ "Dossier Musei 2008" (PDF) (in Italian). Touring Club Italiano.
Archived from the original (PDF) on March 18, 2009. Retrieved
September 30, 2012.
^ Kraus 1975, p. [page needed]
^ Wilson, Andrew (2011). "City Sizes and Urbanization in the Roman
Empire". In Bowman, Alan; Wilson, Andrew. Settlement, Urbanization,
and Population. Oxford Studies on the Roman Economy. 2. Oxford,
England: Oxford University Press. pp. 171–172.
^ Senatore, Stanley & Pescatore 2004, p. [page needed]
^ Lorenz, Wayne (June 2011). "
Pompeii (and Rome) Water Supply Systems"
(PDF). Wright Paleohydrological Institute. p. 26. Retrieved 23
^ De Carolis & Patricelli 2003, p. 83.
^ Clarke 2006, pp. 262–264.
^ Berinato, Scott (May 18, 2007). "Crowd Control in Ancient Pompeii".
CSO. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
^ Meyer, Frederick G (edited by Wilhelmina Feemster Jashemski) (2002).
The natural history of
Pompeii (1. publ. ed.). New York: Cambridge
University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0521800549.
^ a b c d Bernick, Christie. "Agriculture in Pompeii". Wall Paintings
Pompeii Forum. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
^ Meyer, Frederick G. (October–December 1980). "Carbonized Food
Plants of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and the Villa at Torre Annunziata".
New York Botanical Garden: Economic Botany. 34 (4): 419.
^ Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2001). Geothermal District Energy System
Analysis, Design, and Development (PDF). International Summer School.
International Geothermal Association. p. 213(1). Retrieved
November 28, 2015. Lay summary – Stanford School of Earth, Energy
& Environmental Sciences. During Roman times, warm water was
circulated through open trenches to provide heating for buildings and
baths in Pompeii.
^ Day, Michael (November 16, 2015). "
Prostitution in Pompeii: 2,000
years after explosion, sex-for-cash is still rife". The Independent.
the city's most extravagant brothel, the Lupanare – from the Latin
word lupa for prostitute
^ "Patterns of Reconstruction at Pompeii". University of Virginia.
Retrieved September 30, 2012.
^ a b c "Visiting Pompeii". Current Archaeology. p. 3. Archived
from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved September 30,
^ "The Destruction of Pompeii, AD 79". EyeWitness to History. 1999.
Retrieved September 30, 2012.
^ Mastrolorenzo et al. 2010, p. e11127.
^ Gabi Laske. "The A.D. 79 Eruption at Mt. Vesuvius". Lecture notes
for UCSD-ERTH15: "Natural Disasters". Archived from the original on
2008-12-29. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
^ a b Stefani 2006, pp. 10–14.
^ Ozgenel 2008, p. 13.
^ Ozgenel 2008, p. 13.
^ Ozgenel 2008, p. 19.
^ Parslow 1995, p. [page needed]
^ Pagano 1997, p. [page needed]
^ POMPEIA d'Ernest Breton (3eme éd. 1870) "Introduction – La
résurrection de la ville" in French.
^ Nappo, Salvatore Ciro (February 17, 2011). "Pompeii: Its Discovery
and Preservation". BBC. Retrieved March 2, 2013. Giuseppe Fiorelli
Pompeii excavation from 1863 to 1875
^ Gracco, Tiberio (28 April 2017). "Orto dei Fuggiaschi". Pompei
Online. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
^ As reported by the Evangelist pressedienst press agency in March,
Karl Schefold (2003), Die Dichtung als Führerin zur Klassischen
Kunst. Erinnerungen eines Archäologen (Lebenserinnerungen Band 58),
edd. M. Rohde-Liegle et al., Hamburg. p. 134 ISBN 3-8300-1017-6.
^ Rowland 2014.
^ Nadeau, Barbie Selling Pompeii, Newsweek, April 14, 2008.
^ Popham, Peter (May 2010). "Ashes to ashes: the latter-day ruin of
Pompeii". Prospect Magazine. London. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
^ "World Monuments Fund, ''List of 100 Most Endangered Sites –
1996,'' New York, NY: 1996, p. 31" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2013-03-20. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund (2017). "Ancient Pompeii". Retrieved 23 June
^ Wallace, Alia (2012). "Presenting Pompeii: Steps towards Reconciling
Conservation and Tourism at an Ancient Site". Papers from the
Institute of Archaeology. Ubiquity Press. 22: 115–136.
^ Hammer, Joshua. "The Fall and Rise and Fall of Pompeii". Retrieved
Pompeii collapse prompts charges of official neglect".
Gladiator Training Centre Collapses".
^ "Doctor Who – News –
Rome Sweet Rome". BBC. Retrieved
^ Sandy Schaefer (September 18, 2012). "Paul W.S. Anderson To Helm
'Pompeii'". Retrieved 2014-02-27.
^ Kreps, Daniel (March 16, 2016). "
David Gilmour Sets First Pompeii
Shows Since Pink Floyd's Concert Film". Rolling Stone. Retrieved
October 11, 2017.
David Gilmour live at
Pompeii – a photo essay". The Guardian.
July 14, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2017. It is the first time since
the eruption of
Vesuvius in AD79 that there has been an event with an
audience in the venue.
^ "In the Shadow of Vesuvius". National Geographic. Retrieved August
^ "Ancient Mysteries: Season 3, Episode 22". A&E. February 2,
1996. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
^ Shelley Hales; Joanna Paul (2011).
Pompeii in the Public Imagination
from Its Rediscovery to Today. Oxford University Press. p. 367.
ISBN 9780199569366. The recent UK Channel 5 programme,
transmitted live from
Herculaneum on 29 June 2006...
^ "Shows". Five. Archived from the original on 2006-06-03.
^ "Pompeii: The Mystery of the People Frozen in Time". BBC. Retrieved
April 6, 2013.
^ The Riddle of Pompeii. 23 May 2014 – via YouTube.
Beard, Mary (2008). Pompeii: The Life of a Roman Town. Profile Books.
Butterworth, Alex; Laurence, Ray (2005). Pompeii: The Living City. St.
Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-35585-2.
Cioni, Rafaello; Gurioli, L; Lanza, R; Zanella, E (2004).
"Temperatures of the A.D. 79 pyroclastic density current deposits
(Vesuvius, Italy)". Journal of Geophysical Research. 109: 2207.
Clarke, John (2006). Visual Representation and Non-Elite Viewers in
Italy, 100 BC – AD 315. University of California.
De Carolis, Ernesto; Patricelli, Giovanni (2003). Vesuvius, A.D. 79:
the destruction of
Pompeii and Herculaneum. L'erma Di Bretschneider.
Fletcher, John (1835). The whole works of...John Flecter. Oxford
University. *Grant, Michael (2001). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii
and Herculaneum. Phoenix. ISBN 9781842122198.
Hodge, Trevor (2001). Roman Aqueducts & Water Supply. Duckworth.
Kraus, Theodor (1975).
Pompeii and Herculaneum: The Living Cities of
the Dead. H. N. Abrams. ISBN 9780810904187.
Maiuri, Amedeo (1994). "Pompeii". Scientific American.
Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe; Petrone, Pierpaolo; Pappalardo, Lucia;
Guarino, Fabio (2010). Langowski, Jörg, ed. "Lethal Thermal Impact at
Periphery of Pyroclastic Surges: Evidences at Pompeii". PLOS ONE. 5
(6): e11127. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...511127M.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011127. PMC 2886100 .
Ozgenel, Lalo (15 April 2008). "A Tale of Two Cities: In Search of
Pompeii and Herculaneum" (PDF). Journal of the Faculty of
Archaeology. Ankara: Middle East Technical University. 25 (1): 1–25.
Retrieved 26 January 2018.
Pagano, Mario (1997). I Diari di Scavo di Pompeii, Ercolano e Stabiae
di Francesco e
Pietro la Vega (1764–1810) (in Italian). L'Erma di
Bretschneidein. ISBN 88-7062-967-8.
Parslow, Christopher (1995). Rediscovering antiquity: Karl Weber and
the excavation of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-47150-8.
Perring, Stefania (1991). Pompeii: The Wonders of the Ancient World
Brought to Life in Vivid See-Through Reconstructions: Then and Now.
Macmillan Books. ISBN 0-02-599461-1.
Rodríguez, Cristina (2008). Les mystères de Pompéi (in French).
Éditions du Masque. ISBN 2-702-43404-5.
Rowland, Ingrid D. (2014). From Pompeii: The Afterlife of a Roman
Town. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0674047938.
Senatore, Maria; Stanley, Jean-Daniel; Pescatore, Tullio (November
7–10, 2004). "Avalanche-associated mass flows damaged Pompeii
several times before the
Vesuvius catastrophic eruption in the 79 CE".
2004 Denver Annual Meeting.
Stefani, Grete (October 2006). La vera data dell'eruzione.
Steven, Ellis (2004). "The distribution of bars at Pompeii:
Archaeological, spatial and viewshed analyses". Journal of Roman
Archaeology. 17 (1). ISSN 1047-7594.
Zarmati, Louise (2005). Heinemann ancient and medieval history:
Pompeii and Herculaneum. Heinemann. ISBN 1-74081-195-X.
Find more aboutPompeiiat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
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News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Pompeii at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Data on new excavations from the International Association for
Classical Archaeology (AIAC)
Ancient History Encyclopedia - Pompeii
Pompeii Digital Media Archive (creative commons-licensed
photos, laser scans, panoramas), data from a University of
CyArk research partnership
Romano-Campanian Wall-Painting (English, Italian, Spanish and French
introduction) mainly focusing on wall-paintings from Pompeian houses
N. Purcell; R. Talbert; T. Elliott; S. Gillies. "Places: 433032
(Pompeii)". Pleiades. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
Pompeii: The Mystery Of People Frozen In Time
Annotated Google map and satellite view
Archaeological sites in Campania
Province of Avellino
Province of Benevento
Arch of Trajan
Province of Caserta
Arch of Hadrian (Capua)
Sant'Angelo in Formis
Province of Naples
Grotta di Cocceio
Villa of the Papyri
Catacombs of San Gaudioso
Catacombs of San Gennaro
Macellum of Naples
Palazzo a Mare
Flavian Amphitheater (Pozzuoli)
Macellum of Pozzuoli
Province of Salerno
Heraion at the mouth of the Sele
Temple of Athena
Second Temple of Hera
Tomb of the Diver
Villa Romana of Minori
Mount Vesuvius in 79
Villas of Pompeii
Villa of the Mysteries
Domus of Pompeii
House of the Faun
House of Sallust
House of the Centenary
House of Julia Felix
House of Loreius Tiburtinus
House of Menander
House of the surgeon
House of the Silver Wedding
House of the Tragic Poet
House of the Vettii
Public buildings of Pompeii
Macellum of Pompeii
Recreational buildings of Pompeii
Temples of Pompeii
Temple of Apollo
Temple of Isis
Temple of Jupiter
Other sites destroyed in the 79 Eruption
Villa of the Papyri
Naples National Archaeological Museum
Art in Pompeii
Achilles and Briseis
Portrait of Paquius Proculo
Erotic art in
Pompeii and Herculaneum
Conservation issues of
Pompeii and Herculaneum
Pompeii in popular culture
World Heritage Sites in Italy
Mantua and Sabbioneta
Monte San Giorgio1
Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre
Monterosso al Mare
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
Castle of Moncalieri
Castle of Racconigi
Castle of Rivoli
Castello del Valentino
Royal Palace of Turin
Palazzo Madama, Turin
Palace of Venaria
Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi
Villa della Regina
Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe-
Roero and Monferrato
Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande, Modena
Orto botanico di Padova
City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto
Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi
Etruscan Necropolises of
Cerveteri and Tarquinia
Piazza del Duomo, Pisa
Castel del Monte, Apulia
Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano National Park,
Paestum and Velia, Certosa
Oplontis and Villa Poppaea
Palace of Caserta,
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli and
San Leucio Complex
Sassi di Matera
Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale
Archaeological Area of Agrigento
Necropolis of Pantalica
Val di Noto
Militello in Val di Catania
Villa Romana del Casale
Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)
Cividale del Friuli
Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus located at Campello sul Clitunno
Santa Sofia located at Benevento
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo located at Monte Sant'Angelo
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3
Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4
Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5
Peschiera del Garda
1 Shared with Switzerland
2 Shared with the Holy See
3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland
4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain and Ukraine
5 Shared with
Croatia and Montenegro
Landmarks of Campania
Ancient remains of Capua
Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano National Park
Santa Sofia, Benevento
Trinità della Cava
Vesuvius National Park