HOME
The Info List - Pomerelia





Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(Latin: Pomerelia; German: Pomerellen, Pommerellen), also referred to as Eastern Pomerania
Pomerania
(Polish: Pomorze Wschodnie) or as Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Pomerania
Pomerania
(Polish: Pomorze Gdańskie), is a historical region in northern Poland. Pomerelia
Pomerelia
lay on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea, west of the Vistula
Vistula
river and east of the Łeba river. Its biggest city was Gdańsk. Since 1999 the region has formed the core of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Pomerelia
Pomerelia
formed part of the historical region of Prussia and is traditionally divided into Kashubia
Kashubia
and Kociewie.

Contents

1 Early history 2 As part of Poland 3 Danish conquest and independence 4 Duchy of Pomerelia 5 Polish rule 6 Pomerelia
Pomerelia
as a part of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
state and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 7 Pomerelia
Pomerelia
as the western part of Prussia and Polish Corridor 8 Population 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Early history[edit] Main article: Early history of Pomerania

Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(named M: Gdańsk) within Poland
Poland
on a map showing West-Slavic peoples before 1125

In its early history, the territory which later became known as Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was the site of the Pomeranian Culture
Pomeranian Culture
(also called the Pomerelian face urn culture, 650-150 BC),[1] the Oksywie culture
Oksywie culture
(150 BC-AD 1, associated with parts of the Rugii
Rugii
and Lemovii),[2] and the Wielbark Culture
Wielbark Culture
(AD 1-450, associated with Veneti, Goths, Rugii, Gepids).[3] In the mid-6th century Jordanes
Jordanes
mentioned the Vistula estuary as the home of the Vidivarii.[4] Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was settled by West Slavic tribes[5] in the 7th and 8th centuries.[6] As part of Poland[edit] For a list of Polish monarchs, see List of Polish monarchs. For a list of dukes, see Pomeranian duchies and dukes. In the tenth century, Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was already settled by Slavic Pomeranians. The area was conquered and incorporated into early medieval Poland
Poland
either by Duke Mieszko I
Mieszko I
– the first historical Polish ruler - in the second half of the tenth century[7] or even earlier, by his father, in the 940s or 950s[8] – the date of incorporation is unknown.[9] Mieszko founded Gdańsk
Gdańsk
to control the mouth of the Vistula
Vistula
between 970 and 980,.[10] According to Józef Spors, despite some cultural differences the inhabitants of the whole of Pomerania
Pomerania
had very close ties with residents of other Piast provinces,[11] from which Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was separated by large stretches of woodlands and swamps.[9] The Piasts introduced Christianity
Christianity
to pagan Pomerelia, though it is disputed to what extent the conversion materialized.[12] In the eleventh century the region had loosened its close connections with the kingdom of Poland
Poland
and subsequently for some years formed an independent duchy.[13] Most scholars suggest that Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was still part of Poland
Poland
during the reign of king Bolesław I of Poland
Poland
and his son Mieszko II Lambert. However, there are also different opinions e.g. Peter Oliver Loew
Peter Oliver Loew
suggests the Slavs in Pomerelia
Pomerelia
severed their ties with the Piasts and reverted the Piasts' introduction of Christianity
Christianity
already in the first years of the 11th century.[14] The exact date of separation is however unknown. It was suggested that the inhabitants of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
participated in the Pagan reaction in Poland, actively supported Miecław who intended to detach Masovia
Masovia
from the power of the rulers of Poland, but after the defeat of Miecław in 1047 accepted the rule of duke Casimir I the Restorer
Casimir I the Restorer
and that the province remained a part of Poland
Poland
till the 1060s, when Pomerelian troops took part in the expedition of the Polish king Bolesław II the Generous against Bohemia in 1061 or 1068. Duke Bolesław suffered a defeat during the siege of Hradec and had to retreat to Poland. Soon after Pomerelia
Pomerelia
separated from his realm.[15] A campaign by Piast
Piast
duke Władysław I Herman
Władysław I Herman
to conquer Pomerelia
Pomerelia
in 1090–91 was unsuccessful, but resulted in the burning of many Pomerelian forts during the retreat.[9] In 1116 direct control over Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was reestablished by Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland,[16] who by 1122 had also conquered the central and western parts of Pomerania.[17] While the latter regions (forming the Duchy of Pomerania) regained independence quickly, Pomerelia remained within the Polish realm. It was administered by governors of a local dynasty, the Samborides, and subordinated to the bishopric of Włocławek.[9] In 1138, following the death of Bolesław III, Poland was fragmented into several semi-independent principalities. The principes in Pomerelia
Pomerelia
gradually gained more local power, evolving into semi-independent entities, much like other fragmented Polish territories, with the difference that the other parts of the realm were governed by Piast
Piast
descendants of Bolesław III. The Christian centre became Oliva Abbey
Oliva Abbey
near Gdańsk. Two Samborides
Samborides
administering Pomerelia
Pomerelia
in the 12th century are known by name: Sobieslaw I and his son, Sambor I.[9] Danish conquest and independence[edit] In 1210, king Valdemar II of Denmark
Valdemar II of Denmark
invaded Pomerelia, whose princeps Mestwin I became his vassal.[18] The Danish suzerainty did however not last long. Mestwin had already gained more independence from Poland and expanded southward, and his son Swietopelk II, who succeeded him in 1217,[19] gained full independence in 1227.[13] Duchy of Pomerelia[edit] After Mestwin I's death, Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was internally divided among his sons Swietopelk II, Wartislaw, Sambor II and Ratibor.[20] Swietopelk II, who took his seat in Gdańsk, assumed a leading position over his brothers: Sambor II, who received the castellany of Lubieszewo (the center later moved to Tczew), and Ratibor, who received the Białogard area, were initially under his tutelage.[20] The fourth brother, Wartislaw, took his seat in Świecie, thus controlling the second important area besides Gdańsk.[20] Wartislaw died before 27 December 1229, his share was to be given to Oliva Abbey
Oliva Abbey
by his brothers.[21] The remaining brothers engaged in a civil war: Sambor II and Ratibor allied with the Teutonic Order[21][22] and the Duke of Kuyavia[21] against Swietopelk, who in turn allied with the Old Prussians,[22] took Ratibor prisoner and temporarily assumed control over the latter's share.[21] The revolt of the Old Prussians
Old Prussians
against the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
in 1242 took place in the context of these alliances.[22] Peace was restored only in the Treaty of Christburg (Dzierzgoń) in 1249, mediated by the later pope Urban IV, then papal legate and archidiacone of Lüttich (Liege).[22] In the west, the Pomerelian dukes' claim to the lands of Schlawe (Sławno) and Stolp (Słupsk), where the last Ratiboride duke Ratibor II had died after 1223, was challenged by the Griffin dukes of Pomerania, Barnim I and Wartislaw III.[23] In this conflict, Swietopelk II
Swietopelk II
initially won the upper hand, but could not force a final decision.[23] Swietopelk II, who styled himself dux. since 1227, chartered the town of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
with Lübeck law and invited the Dominican Order.[19] His conflicts with the Teutonic Order, who had become his eastern neighbor in 1230, were settled in 1253 by exempting the order from the Vistula dues.[19] With Swietopelk II's death in 1266, the rule of his realm passed to his sons Wartislaw and Mestwin II.[19] These brothers initiated another civil war, with Mestwin II
Mestwin II
allying with and pledging allegiance to the Brandenburg margraves (Treaty of Arnswalde/Choszczno 1269).[19] The margraves, who in the 1269 treaty also gained the land of Białogard, were also supposed to help Mestwin II
Mestwin II
securing the lands of Schlawe (Sławno) and Stolp (Słupsk), which after Swietopelk II's death were in part taken over by Barnim III.[24] With the margraves' aid, Mestwin II
Mestwin II
succeeded in expelling Wartislaw from Gdansk in 1270/71.[19] The lands of Schlawe/Slawno however were taken over by Mestwin II's nephew Wizlaw II, prince of Rügen in 1269/70, who founded the town of Rügenwalde
Rügenwalde
(now Darlowo) near the fort of Dirlow.[24] In 1273 Mestwin found himself in open conflict against the margraves who refused to remove their troops from Gdańsk, Mestwin's possession, which he had been forced to temporarily lease to them during his struggles against Wartisław and Sambor. Since the lease had now expired, through this action, the Margrave Conrad broke the Treaty of Arnswalde/ Choszczno
Choszczno
and subsequent agreements. His aim was to capture as much of Mestwin's Pomerelia
Pomerelia
as possible. Mestwin, unable to dislodge the Brandenburgian troops himself called in the aid of Bolesław the Pious, whose troops took the city with a direct attack. The war against Brandenburg ended in 1273 with a treaty [25] (possibly signed at Drawno
Drawno
Bridge), in which Brandenburg returned Gdańsk
Gdańsk
to Mestwin while he paid feudal homage to the margraves for the lands of Schlawe (Sławno) and Stolp (Słupsk).[26] On February 15, 1282, High Duke of Poland
Poland
and Wielkopolska
Wielkopolska
Przemysł II and the Duke of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
Mestwin II, signed the Treaty of Kępno which transferred the suzerainty over Pomerelia
Pomerelia
to Przemysł.[27] As a result of the treaty the period of Pomerelian independence ended and the region was again part of Poland. Przemysł adopted the title dux Polonie et Pomeranie (Duke of Poland
Poland
and Pomerania).[28] Mestwin, per the agreement, retained de facto control over the province until his death in 1294, at which time Przemysł, who was already the de jure ruler of the territory, took it under his direct rule.[27] Polish rule[edit] After the death of Mestwin II
Mestwin II
of Pomerania
Pomerania
in 1294, his co-ruler Przemysł II
Przemysł II
of Poland, according to the Treaty of Kępno, took control over Pomerelia. He was crowned as king of Poland
Poland
in 1295, but ruled directly only over Pomerelia
Pomerelia
and Greater Poland, while the rest of the country (Silesia, Lesser Poland, Masovia) was ruled by other Piasts. However, Przemysł was murdered soon afterwards and succeeded by Władysław I the Elbow-high. Władysław, sold his rights to the Duchy of Kraków
Duchy of Kraków
to King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
in 1297 and accepted him as his suzerain in 1299. However he lost control of Greater Poland and Pomerelia
Pomerelia
in 1300 after a nobility revolt.[29] These were captured by Wenceslaus who now, after gaining most of the Polish lands, was crowned in Gniezno
Gniezno
as king of Poland
Poland
by archbishop Jakub Świnka[30] Upon the deaths of Wenceslaus and his successor Wenceslaus III and with them the extinction of the Přemyslid dynasty, Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was recaptured by Władysław I the Elbow-high
Władysław I the Elbow-high
in 1306. Pomerelia
Pomerelia
as a part of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
state and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[edit]

Pomerelia
Pomerelia
as a part of the Teutonic Knights' state in the early 14th century

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main articles: Teutonic takeover of Danzig, Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
state, Royal Prussia, and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth During Władysław's rule, the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg
staked its claim on the territory in 1308, leading Władysław I the Elbow-high to request assistance from the Teutonic Knights, who evicted the Brandenburgers but took the area for themselves, annexed and incorporated it into the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
state in 1309 (Teutonic takeover of Danzig (Gdańsk) and Treaty of Soldin/Myślibórz). At the same time, Słupsk
Słupsk
and Sławno
Sławno
became part of Duchy of Pomerania. This event caused a long-lasting dispute between Poland
Poland
and the Teutonic Order over the control of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Pomerania. It resulted in a series of Polish–Teutonic Wars throughout 14th and 15th centuries. Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was made part of Polish Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
as the Pomeranian Voivodeship in 1466. Lauenburg and Bütow Land
Lauenburg and Bütow Land
have been a Polish fief ruled by Pomeranian dukes. In the early modern times Gdańsk
Gdańsk
was the biggest city of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and most of its export (especially grain) used to be made through this port. Gdańsk
Gdańsk
and Żuławy Wiślane
Żuławy Wiślane
were German/Dutch Lutheran
Lutheran
or Reformed, while most of the region remained Polish/Kashubian Catholic. In the 17th century Pomerelia
Pomerelia
has been attacked and destroyed by Swedish army. Pomerelia
Pomerelia
as the western part of Prussia and Polish Corridor[edit] Main articles: Partitions of Poland, West Prussia, and Polish Corridor As part of Royal Prussia, Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the 18th century Partitions of Poland, becoming part of the new Province of West Prussia. After World War I (1914–1918), the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
transferred most of the region from Weimar Germany to the new Second Polish Republic, forming the Pomeranian Voivodeship (Greater Pomerania
Pomerania
as of 1938) in the so-called Polish Corridor. Gdańsk
Gdańsk
with Żuławy became the Free City of Danzig. In 1939 whole Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was occupied and illegally annexed by Nazi Germany, but in 1945 it returned to Poland, while Germans escaped and were expelled. After the war it has been roughly similar to Gdańsk Voivodeship, as well as the dioceses of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
and Pelplin. Population[edit]

Administrative divisions and languages in West Prussia, which included Pomerelia
Pomerelia
according to falsified German census of 1910;the numbers in the census included German military stationed in the region, as well as civil clerks and officials, who were settled as part of German state's official policy of Germanisation
Germanisation
of Polish areas.Bi-lingual Poles
Poles
who knew German were classified as Germans[31][32][33][34][35] . Legend for the districts:   German language   Polish language   Kashubian language   others or bilingual

Starting in the High Middle Ages, Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was settled with many German and Dutch settlers during the Ostsiedlung. German Pomeranians dominated in many towns, while in the rural areas the descendants of the Kashubians
Kashubians
and Slavic Pomeranians
Slavic Pomeranians
dominated (i.e. Kociewiacy, and Borowiacy) most of whom considered themselves Poles.[disputed – discuss] The Vistula
Vistula
delta was settled by the Vistula
Vistula
Germans after the Teutonic takeover of Danzig
Teutonic takeover of Danzig
(Gdańsk) when many former inhabitants were murdered during the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
massacre. During the period of Partitions of Poland
Poland
the amount of German inhabitants rose, due to the German state's official policy of Germanisation. This was halted after most of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
formed a part of the reborn Polish state, when many clerks and officials as well as German military had left Pomerelia. Following Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II, the remaining German population fled or was forcibly expelled. Settlement of Latvian speaking Kursenieki
Kursenieki
along the coast of Baltic Sea extended into Pomerelia, reaching the hinterlands of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
in 1649.[citation needed] Eventually Germanization
Germanization
as well as the events of the first half of the 20th century, including the Soviet and German occupations of the Baltic States
Baltic States
and later East Prussia, led to the near extinction of the language, making it severely endangered. Several remaining native speakers still live in Germany, having been expelled in the ethnic cleansing that took place in East Prussia
East Prussia
after World War II. See also[edit]

Pomerania Kashubia Kursenieki History of Pomerania List of Pomeranian duchies and dukes Olędrzy Żuławy Wiślane

References[edit]

^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.23, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 ^ J. B. Rives on Tacitus, Germania, Oxford University Press, 1999, p.311, ISBN 0-19-815050-4 ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.25, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 ^ Andrew H. Merrills, History and Geography in Late Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p.325, ISBN 0-521-84601-3 ^ Gerhard Köbler, Historisches Lexikon der Deutschen Länder: die deutschen Territorien vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, 7th edition, C.H.Beck, 2007, p.532, ISBN 3-406-54986-1 ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.29, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 ^ Jerzy Strzelczyk [in:] The New Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 523 ISBN 0-521-36447-7 Google Books ^ J. Spors (in:) J. Borzyszkowski (red.) Pomorze w dziejach Polski, Nr 19 - Pomorze Gdańskie, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1991, p. 68 ^ a b c d e Loew, Peter Oliver: Danzig. Biographie einer Stadt, Munich 2011, p. 32. ^ J. Spors (in:) J. Borzyszkowski (red.) Pomorze w dziejach Polski, Nr 19 - Pomorze Gdańskie, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1991, p. 69–70 ^ J. Spors (in:) J. Borzyszkowski (red.) Pomorze w dziejach Polski, Nr 19 - Pomorze Gdańskie, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1991, p. 67 ^ Machilek, Franz: Strukturen und Repräsentanten der Kirche Polens im Mittelalter, in Dietmar Popp, Robert Suckale (eds.): Die Jagiellonen. Kunst und Kultur einer europäischen Dynastie an der Wende zur Neuzeit (Wissenschaftliche Beibände zum Anzeiger des Germanischen Nationalmuseums, Bd. 21), Nürnberg 2002, pp. 109–122; 109. ^ a b James Minahan, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, p. 375, ISBN 0-313-30984-1 ^ Loew, Peter Oliver: Danzig. Biographie einer Stadt, Munich 2011, p. 32; while James Minahan, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, p. 375 generally speaks of the 11th century. ^ J. Spors (in:) J. Borzyszkowski (red.) Pomorze w dziejach Polski, Nr 19 - Pomorze Gdańskie, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1991, p. 73, B. Śliwiński (red.) Wielka Historia Polski, t. I do 1320, Kraków 1997, p. 89-90. Both these authors connect the unsuccessful campaign against he Czechs with the loss of Pomerelia. ^ Andrzej Chwalba
Andrzej Chwalba
(2000). Wydawnictwo Literackie, ed. Kalendarium Historii Polski (in Polish). Kraków. pp. :45. ISBN 83-08-03136-6.  ^ Andrzej Chwalba
Andrzej Chwalba
(2000). Wydawnictwo Literackie, ed. Kalendarium Historii Polski (in Polish). Kraków. pp. :45–56. ISBN 83-08-03136-6.  ^ Andrzej Chwalba
Andrzej Chwalba
(2000). Wydawnictwo Literackie, ed. Kalendarium Historii Polski (in Polish). Kraków. pp. :58. ISBN 83-08-03136-6.  ^ a b c d e f Loew, Peter Oliver: Danzig. Biographie einer Stadt, Munich 2011, p. 33. ^ a b c Lingenberg, Heinz: Die Anfänge des Klosters Oliva und die Entstehung der deutschen Stadt Danzig. Die frühe Geschichte der beiden Gemeinwesen bis 1308/10 (Kieler historische Studien, Bd. 30), Stuttgart 1982, p. 191. ^ a b c d Hirsch, Theodor et al. (eds.): Scriptores rerum Prussicarum, vol. 1, Leipzig 1861, pp. 67, 686-687. ^ a b c d Wichert, Sven: Das Zisterzienskloster Doberan im Mittelalter (Studien zur Geschichte, Kunst und Kultur der Zisterzienser, vol. 9), Berlin 2000, p. 208 ^ a b Schmidt, Roderich: Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse, Köln/Weimar 2007, pp. 141-142. ^ a b Schmidt, Roderich: Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse, Köln/Weimar 2007, p. 143. ^ Full text of the treaty of Drage Bridge (1273) (in Latin) in Morin FH (1838): Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis I, p. 121. ^ B. Śliwiński (red.) Wielka Historia Polski, t. I do 1320, Kraków 1997, p. 205 ^ a b Muzeum Historii Polski (2010). "Układ w Kępnie między Przemysłem II a Mszczujem II Pomorskim". Muzhp.pl. Retrieved 2011-09-11.  ^ Aneta Kwiatkowska (March 12, 2008). "O przesławnych książętach pomorskich". dziedzictwo.polska.pl. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  ^ Andrzej Chwalba
Andrzej Chwalba
(2000). Wydawnictwo Literackie, ed. Kalendarium Historii Polski (in Polish). Kraków. pp. :70–71. ISBN 83-08-03136-6.  ^ Andrzej Chwalba
Andrzej Chwalba
(2000). Wydawnictwo Literackie, ed. Kalendarium Historii Polski (in Polish). Kraków. pp. :71. ISBN 83-08-03136-6.  ^ Andrzej Chwalba
Andrzej Chwalba
- Historia Polski 1795-1918 pages 461-463 ^ Anna Cienciala Lecture Notes 11 The Rebirth of Poland, The University of Kansas ^ Poloźenie mniejszości niemieckej w Polsce, 1918-1938 1969 Stanisław Kazimierz Potocki Wydawn. Morskie, page 30 ^ Ruch polski na Śląsku Opolskim w latach 1922-1939 - page 15 Marek Masnyk - 1989 ^ Dzieje robotników przemysłowych w Polsce pod zaborami Elżbieta Kaczyńska Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe, 1970, page 75To show lower number of Poles, settled German soldiers were automatically included. The census of 1910 was most likely falsified

External links[edit]

Map of Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(within a map of the Holy Roman Empire, 1138–1254)

v t e

History of Pomerania

10,000 BC – 600 AD 600–1100 1100–1300 1300–1500 1500–1806 1806–1933 1933–1945 1945–present

Administrative

Western Pomerania Farther Pomerania (before 1945)

Billung March Northern March Principality of Rügen Duchy of Pomerania

House of Pomerania List of Dukes Cammin Gützkow Schlawe-Stolp Lauenburg-Bütow Partitions Pomerania-Stolp

Swedish Pomerania Brandenburgian Pomerania
Pomerania
(Draheim) Province of Pomerania
Pomerania
1815–1945

Neumark Köslin Region Stettin Region Stralsund Region Posen- West Prussia
West Prussia
Region List of placenames

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Zachodniopomorskie (after 1945)

Szczecin Voivodeship Koszalin Voivodeship Słupsk
Słupsk
Voivodeship West Pomeranian Voivodeship

Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(Kashubia)

Medieval duchies (Samborides) State of the Teutonic Order Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
( Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
1466–1772) Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
1807–1814 West Prussia Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
1919–1939 (Polish Corridor) Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
1920–1939 Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia Pomeranian Voivodeship

Ecclesiastical

Roman Catholic

Historical

Conversion of Pomerania Diocese of Kolberg (Congress of Gniezno) Diocese of Cammin Diocese of Culm Diocese of Roskilde Diocese of Włocławek (Leslau) Prelature of Schneidemühl

Extant

Archdiocese of Berlin Archdiocese of Szczecin-Kamień Diocese of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg Diocese of Pelplin

Protestant

Protestant Reformation Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in Northern Germany Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Pentecostal Church in Poland Evangelical State Church in Prussia
Evangelical State Church in Prussia
(extinct) Pomeranian Evangelical Church
Pomeranian Evangelical Church
(extinct)

Demography

Archaeological cultures

Hamburg Maglemosian Ertebølle-Ellerbek Linear Pottery Funnelbeaker Havelland Corded Ware Comb Ceramic Nordic Bronze Age Lusatian Jastorf Pomeranian Oksywie Wielbark Gustow Dębczyn (Denzin)

Peoples

Gepids Goths Lemovii Rugii Vidivarii Vistula
Vistula
Veneti Slavic Pomeranians Prissani Rani Ukrani Veleti Lutici Velunzani German Pomeranians Kashubians Poles Slovincians

Major demographic events

Migration Period Ostsiedlung WWII flight and expulsion of Germans Post-WWII settlement of Poles
Poles
and Ukrainians

Languages and dialects

West Germanic

Low German

Low Prussian Central Pomeranian Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch East Pomeranian West Pomeranian

Standard German

West Slavic

Polabian Polish Pomeranian

Kashubian Slovincian

Treaties

1200–1500

Kremmen (1236) Landin (1250) Kępno (1282) Soldin (1309) Templin (1317) Stralsund (1354) Stralsund (1370) Thorn (1411) Soldin (1466) Thorn (1466) Prenzlau (1448 / 1472 / 1479) Pyritz (1493)

1500–1700

Grimnitz (1529) Stettin (1570) Franzburg (1627) Stettin (1630) Westphalia (1648) Stettin (1653) Labiau (1656) Wehlau and Bromberg (1657) Oliva (1660) Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679) Lund (1679)

1700–present

Stockholm (1719 / 1720) Frederiksborg (1720) Kiel (1814) Vienna (1815) Versailles (1919) Potsdam (1945)

Coordinates: 54°22′00″N 18°38′00″E / 54.366667°N 18.633333°E / 54.366667; 18.633333

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 240792917 GND: 4046742-9 SUDOC: 030966280 BNF: cb1222

.