3 Socialist/Marxist-Leninist states
Trotskyist parties 5 See also 6 References
Names The term "politburo" in English comes from the Russian Politbyuro (Политбюро), itself a contraction of Politicheskoye Byuro (Политическое бюро, "Political Bureau"). The Spanish term Politburó is directly loaned from Russian, as is the German Politbüro. Chinese uses a calque (Chinese: 政治局; pinyin: Zhèngzhìjú), from which the Vietnamese (Bộ Chính trị), and Korean (정치국, 政治局 Jeongchiguk) terms derive.
The first politburo was created in
Russia by the Bolshevik Party
Bolshevik Party in 1917 to provide strong and continuous leadership during the Russian Revolution occurring during the same year. The first Politburo
Politburo had seven members: Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, Sokolnikov, and Bubnov. During the 20th century, nations that had a politburo included the USSR, East Germany, Afghanistan, Czechoslovakia and China, amongst others. Today, there are five countries that have a politburo system (which are also the only communist countries left), China, North Korea, Laos, Vietnam, and Cuba.
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In Marxist-Leninist states, the party is seen as the vanguard of the
people and from that legitimizes itself to lead the state. In that
way, the party officials in the
Politburo informally lead the state. Officially, the Party Congress
Party Congress elects a Central Committee which, in turn, elects the Politburo
Politburo and General Secretary in a process termed democratic centralism. The Politburo
Politburo was theoretically answerable to the Central Committee. Under Stalin this model was reversed, and it was the General Secretary who determined the composition of the Politburo
Politburo and Central Committee. This tendency decreased to some extent after Stalin's death, though in practice the Politburo
Politburo remained a self-perpetuating body whose decisions de facto had the force of law.
Trotskyist parties In Trotskyist
Trotskyist parties, the Politburo
Politburo is a bureau of the Central Committee tasked with making day-to-day political decisions, which must later be ratified by the Central Committee. It is appointed by the Central Committee from among its members. The post of General Secretary carries far less weight in this model. See, for example, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party.
Eastern Bloc politics
Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Politburo
Politburo of the Communist Party of China Politburo
Politburo of the Communist Party of Cuba Politburo
Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam Politburo
Politburo of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) Politburo
Politburo of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party Politburo
Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania Politburo
Politburo of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan Politburo
Politburo of the Polish United Workers' Party Politburo
Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea Political Bureau of the Central Committee of FRELIMO Politburo
Politburo of the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front Presidium References
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^ "USSR: Communist Party: Politburo". Archontology.org. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
Politburo (Soviet political body) – Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
^ Dmitri Volkogonov, Lenin. A New Biography, translated and edited by Harold Shukman (New York: The Free Press, 1994), p. 185.
^ "A List of Current Communist Countries". Geography.about.com. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.