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A politburo (/ˈpɒlɪtbjʊəroʊ/) or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.[1]

Contents

1 Names 2 History 3 Socialist/Marxist-Leninist states 4 Trotskyist
Trotskyist
parties 5 See also 6 References

Names[edit] The term "politburo" in English comes from the Russian Politbyuro (Политбюро), itself a contraction of Politicheskoye Byuro (Политическое бюро, "Political Bureau"). The Spanish term Politburó is directly loaned from Russian, as is the German Politbüro. Chinese uses a calque (Chinese: 政治局; pinyin: Zhèngzhìjú), from which the Vietnamese (Bộ Chính trị), and Korean (정치국, 政治局 Jeongchiguk) terms derive.

History[edit] The first politburo was created in Russia
Russia
by the Bolshevik Party
Bolshevik Party
in 1917 to provide strong and continuous leadership during the Russian Revolution occurring during the same year.[2][3] The first Politburo
Politburo
had seven members: Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, Sokolnikov, and Bubnov.[4] During the 20th century, nations that had a politburo included the USSR, East Germany, Afghanistan, Czechoslovakia and China, amongst others. Today, there are five countries that have a politburo system (which are also the only communist countries left), China, North Korea, Laos, Vietnam, and Cuba.[5]

Socialist/Marxist-Leninist states[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) In Marxist-Leninist states, the party is seen as the vanguard of the people and from that legitimizes itself to lead the state. In that way, the party officials in the Politburo
Politburo
informally lead the state. Officially, the Party Congress
Party Congress
elects a Central Committee which, in turn, elects the Politburo
Politburo
and General Secretary in a process termed democratic centralism. The Politburo
Politburo
was theoretically answerable to the Central Committee. Under Stalin this model was reversed, and it was the General Secretary who determined the composition of the Politburo
Politburo
and Central Committee. This tendency decreased to some extent after Stalin's death, though in practice the Politburo
Politburo
remained a self-perpetuating body whose decisions de facto had the force of law.

Trotskyist
Trotskyist
parties[edit] In Trotskyist
Trotskyist
parties, the Politburo
Politburo
is a bureau of the Central Committee tasked with making day-to-day political decisions, which must later be ratified by the Central Committee. It is appointed by the Central Committee from among its members. The post of General Secretary carries far less weight in this model. See, for example, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party.

See also[edit]

Communism portal Central Committee Eastern Bloc politics Executive committee Orgburo Politburo
Politburo
of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Politburo
Politburo
of the Communist Party of China Politburo
Politburo
of the Communist Party of Cuba Politburo
Politburo
of the Communist Party of Vietnam Politburo
Politburo
of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) Politburo
Politburo
of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party Politburo
Politburo
of the Party of Labour of Albania Politburo
Politburo
of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan Politburo
Politburo
of the Polish United Workers' Party Politburo
Politburo
of the Workers' Party of Korea Political Bureau of the Central Committee of FRELIMO Politburo
Politburo
of the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front Presidium References[edit]

^ "Received 2012-02-02". Merriam-webster.com. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ "USSR: Communist Party: Politburo". Archontology.org. Retrieved 16 June 2014.

^ " Politburo
Politburo
(Soviet political body) – Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014.

^ Dmitri Volkogonov, Lenin. A New Biography, translated and edited by Harold Shukman (New York: The Free Press, 1994), p. 185.

^ "A List of Current Communist Countries". Geography.about.com. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.

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