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The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland
Poland
in exile (Polish: Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland
Invasion of Poland
of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland
Poland
by Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic. Despite the occupation of Poland
Poland
by hostile powers, the government-in-exile exerted considerable influence in Poland
Poland
during World War II
World War II
through the structures of the Polish Underground State and its military arm, the Armia Krajowa
Armia Krajowa
(Home Army) resistance. Abroad, under the authority of the government-in-exile, Polish military units that had escaped the occupation fought under their own commanders as part of Allied forces in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. After the war, as the Polish territory came under the control of the People's Republic of Poland, a Soviet satellite state, the government-in-exile remained in existence, though largely unrecognized and without effective power. Only after the end of Communist rule in Poland
Poland
did the government-in-exile formally pass on its responsibilities to the new government of the Third Polish Republic
Third Polish Republic
in December 1990. The government-in-exile was based in France during 1939 and 1940, first in Paris
Paris
and then in Angers. From 1940, following the Fall of France, the government moved to London, and remained in the United Kingdom until its dissolution in 1990.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Establishment 1.2 Wartime history 1.3 Postwar history

2 Government and politics

2.1 Presidents 2.2 Prime ministers

3 Armed forces 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

8.1 Multimedia

History[edit] Establishment[edit] On 17 September 1939, the President of the Polish Republic, Ignacy Mościcki, who was then in the small town of Kuty
Kuty
(now Ukraine)[1] near the southern Polish border, issued a proclamation about his plan to transfer power and appointing Władysław Raczkiewicz, the Marshal of the Senate, as his successor.[2][3] This was done in accordance with Article 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, adopted in April 1935.[4][5] Article 24 provided as follows:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 In event of war, the term of the President's office shall be prolonged until three months after the conclusion of peace; the President of the Republic shall then, by a special act promulgated in the Official Gazette, appoint his successor, in case the office falls vacant before the conclusion of peace. Should the President's successor assume office, the term of his office shall expire at the end of three months after the conclusion of peace.[3]

It was not until 29[5] or 30[4][3][6] September 1939 that Mościcki resigned. Raczkiewicz, who was already in Paris, immediately took his constitutional oath at the Polish Embassy and became President of the Republic of Poland. Raczkiewicz then appointed General Władysław Sikorski
Władysław Sikorski
to be Prime Minister.[6][7] After Edward Rydz-Śmigły
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
stepped down, Raczkiewicz also made Sikorski Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces.[7][8] Most of the Polish Navy escaped to Britain,[9] and tens of thousands of Polish soldiers and airmen escaped through Hungary
Hungary
and Romania
Romania
or across the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to continue the fight in France.[10] Many Poles
Poles
subsequently took part in Allied operations: in Norway
Norway
(Narvik[11]), in France in 1940 and in 1944, in the Battle of Britain, in the Battle of the Atlantic, in North Africa (notably Tobruk[12]), Italy (notably at Cassino and Ancona), at Arnhem, Wilhelmshaven, and elsewhere. Under the Sikorski–Mayski agreement
Sikorski–Mayski agreement
of July 1941 Polish soldiers taken prisoner by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1939, were released to form Anders' Army, intended to fight Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in the USSR, but instead transferred via Iran
Iran
to fight with US and British forces. Berling's Army, formed in the USSR in 1944, remained there and fought under Soviet command.

Wartime history[edit] Władysław Sikorski, first Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile. The Polish government in exile, based first in Paris, then in Angers, France,[13] where Władysław Raczkiewicz
Władysław Raczkiewicz
lived at the Château de Pignerolle
Château de Pignerolle
near Angers
Angers
from 2 December 1939 until June 1940.[14] Escaping from France the government relocated to London, it was recognized by all the Allied governments. Politically, it was a coalition of the Polish Peasant Party, the Polish Socialist Party, the Labour Party and the National Party,[5] although these parties maintained only a vestigial existence in the circumstances of war.

"The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland", by the Polish government-in-exile
Polish government-in-exile
addressed to the wartime allies of the then-United Nations, 1942 When Germany launched a war against the Soviets in 1941, the Polish government in exile established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union against Hitlerism, but also in order to help Poles
Poles
persecuted by the NKVD.[15][16] On 12 August 1941 the Kremlin signed a one-time amnesty,[17] extending to thousands of Polish soldiers who had been taken prisoner in 1939 by the Red Army in eastern Poland, including many Polish civilian prisoners and deportees entrapped in Siberia.[18] The amnesty allowed the Poles
Poles
to create eight military divisions known as the Anders Army.[18] They were evacuated to Iran
Iran
and the Middle East, where they were desperately needed by the British, hard pressed by Rommel's Afrika Korps. These Polish units formed the basis for the Polish II Corps, led by General Władysław Anders, which together with other, earlier-created Polish units fought alongside the Allies.[18]

See also: The Polish White Book, The Black Book of Poland, Raczyński's Note, and Witold's Report During the war, especially from 1942 on, the Polish government in exile provided the Allies with some of the earliest and most accurate accounts of the ongoing Holocaust of European Jews[19][20][21] and, through its representatives, like the Foreign Minister Count Edward Raczyński and the courier of the Polish Underground movement, Jan Karski, called for action, without success, to stop it. The note the Foreign Minister, Count Edward Raczynski, sent on 10 December 1942 to the Governments of the United Nations was the first official denunciation by any Government of the mass extermination and of the Nazi aim of total extermination of the Jewish population. It was also the first official document singling out the sufferings of European Jews as Jews and not only as citizens of their respective countries of origin.[19][22] The note of 10 December 1942 and the Polish Government efforts triggered the Declaration of the Allied Nations of 17 December 1942.[19] In April 1943, the Germans announced that they had discovered at Katyn Wood, near Smolensk, Russia, mass graves of 10,000 Polish officers[23][24] (the German investigation later found 4,443 bodies[25]) who had been taken prisoner in 1939 and murdered by the Soviets. The Soviet government said that the Germans had fabricated the discovery. The other Allied governments, for diplomatic reasons, formally accepted this; the Polish government in exile refused to do so. Stalin then severed relations with the Polish government in exile. Since it was clear that it would be the Soviet Union, not the western Allies, who would liberate Poland
Poland
from the Germans, this breach had fateful consequences for Poland. In an unfortunate coincidence, Sikorski, widely regarded as the most capable of the Polish exile leaders, was killed in an air crash at Gibraltar
Gibraltar
in July 1943.[26] He was succeeded as head of the Polish government in exile by Stanisław Mikołajczyk. During 1943 and 1944, the Allied leaders, particularly Winston Churchill, tried to bring about a resumption of talks between Stalin and the Polish government in exile. But these efforts broke down over several matters. One was the Katyń massacre
Katyń massacre
(and others at Kalinin and Kharkiv). Another was Poland's postwar borders. Stalin insisted that the territories annexed by the Soviets in 1939, which had millions of Poles
Poles
in addition to Ukrainian and Belarusian populations,[27] should remain in Soviet hands, and that Poland
Poland
should be compensated with lands to be annexed from Germany. Mikołajczyk, however, refused to compromise on the question of Poland's sovereignty over her prewar eastern territories. A third matter was Mikołajczyk's insistence that Stalin not set up a Communist government in postwar Poland.

Postwar history[edit] Standard of the President in exile. Mikołajczyk and his colleagues in the Polish government-in-exile insisted on making a stand in the defense of Poland's pre-1939 eastern border (retaining its Kresy
Kresy
region) as a basis for the future Polish-Soviet border.[28] However, this was a position that could not be defended in practice – Stalin was in occupation of the territory in question. The government-in-exile's refusal to accept the proposed new Polish borders infuriated the Allies, particularly Churchill, making them less inclined to oppose Stalin on issues of how Poland's postwar government would be structured. In the end, the exiles lost on both issues: Stalin annexed the eastern territories, and was able to impose the communist-dominated Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland as the legitimate authority of Poland. However, Poland
Poland
preserved its status as an independent state, despite the arguments of some influential Communists, such as Wanda Wasilewska, in favor of Poland becoming a republic of the Soviet Union. In November 1944, despite his mistrust of the Soviets, Mikołajczyk resigned[29] to return to Poland
Poland
and take office in the Provisional Government of National Unity, a new government established under the auspices of the Soviet occupation authorities comprising his faction and much of the old Provisional Government. Many Polish exiles opposed this action, believing that this government was a façade for the establishment of Communist rule in Poland. This view was later proven correct in 1947, when the Communist-dominated Democratic Bloc won a rigged election. The Communist-dominated bloc was credited with over 80 percent of the vote, a result that was only obtained through large-scale fraud. The opposition claimed it would have won in a landslide (as much as 80 percent, by some estimates) had the election been honest. Mikołajczyk would have likely become prime minister had the election been truly free. In November, at a meeting with the Silesian society, Mikołajczyk was informed that he was to be arrested along with his advisor Paweł Zaleski. The order was already signed. They immediately took action to escape. Mikołajczyk headed north, while Paweł escaped through the southern channel. From the danger zone, Paweł was taken away in a straw cart. His brother Jan Zaleski from Boyko helped in the escape. Paweł waited a few days with Mikołaj and his father-in-law, Aries of Kamionka in Korfantów near Głuchołazy, before a transfer was organized. Then through the Czech Republic, Pawel got to the west and Mikołajczyk was taken by ship from Szczecin. This was their last stay in Poland. Meanwhile, the Polish government in exile had maintained its existence, but France on 29 June 1945,[5] then the United States and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 5 July 1945[5][30] withdrew their recognition. The Polish Armed Forces in exile were disbanded in 1945, and most of their members, unable to safely return to Communist Poland, settled in other countries. The London
London
Poles
Poles
had to vacate the Polish embassy on Portland Place and were left only with the president's private residence at 43 Eaton Place. The government in exile became largely symbolic of continued resistance to foreign occupation of Poland, while retaining some important archives from prewar Poland. The Republic of Ireland, Francoist Spain and the Vatican City
Vatican City
(until 1979) were the last countries to recognize the government in exile, though the Vatican – through Secretary of State Domenico Tardini – had withdrawn diplomatic privileges from the envoy of the Polish pre-war government in 1959.[31] In 1954, political differences led to a split in the ranks of the government in exile. One group, claiming to represent 80% of 500,000 anti-Communist Poles
Poles
exiled since the war, was opposed to President August Zaleski's continuation in office when his seven-year term expired. It formed a Council of National Unity
Council of National Unity
in July 1954, and set up a Council of Three to exercise the functions of head of state, comprising Tomasz Arciszewski, General Władysław Anders, and Edward Raczyński. Only after Zaleski's death in 1972 did the two factions reunite. Some supporters of the government in exile eventually returned to Poland, such as Prime Minister Hugon Hanke in 1955 and his predecessor Stanisław Mackiewicz in 1956. The Soviet-installed government in Warsaw
Warsaw
campaigned for the return of the exiles, promising decent and dignified employment in communist Polish administration and forgiveness of past transgressions. Despite these setbacks, the government in exile continued in existence. When Soviet influence over Poland
Poland
came to an end in 1989, there was still a president and a cabinet of eight meeting every two weeks in London, commanding the loyalty of about 150,000 Polish veterans and their descendants living in Britain, including 35,000 in London
London
alone. In December 1990, when Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
became the first non-Communist president of Poland
Poland
since the war, he received the symbols of the Polish Republic (the presidential banner, the presidential and state seals, the presidential sashes, and the original text of the 1935 Constitution) from the last president of the government in exile, Ryszard Kaczorowski.[32] In 1992, military medals and other decorations awarded by the government in exile were officially recognized in Poland.

Government and politics[edit] Presidents[edit]

President Took office Left office Time in office Party 1 Raczkiewicz, WładysławWładysław Raczkiewicz(1885–1947)30 September 19396 June 1947 †7 years, 249 daysIndependent 2 Zaleski, AugustAugust Zaleski(1883–1972)9 June 19478 April 1972 †24 years, 304 daysIndependent 3 Ostrowski, StanisławStanisław Ostrowski(1892–1982)9 April 197224 March 19796 years, 349 daysPPS 4 Raczyński, EdwardEdward Bernard Raczyński(1891–1993)8 April 19798 April 19867 years, 0 daysIndependent 5 Sabbat, KazimierzKazimierz Sabbat(1913–1989)8 April 198619 July 1989 †3 years, 102 daysIndependent 6 Kaczorowski, RyszardRyszard Kaczorowski(1919–2010)[a]19 July 198922 December 19901 year, 156 daysIndependent

Prime ministers[edit]   Polish Socialist Party   Labor Party   Polish People's Party   Polish Independence League   Independent

L.p.

Portrait

Name

Entered office

Left office

1.

Władysław Sikorski(2nd term)

30 September 193920 July 1940 18 July 19404 July 1943

2.

Stanisław Mikołajczyk

14 July 1943 24 November 1944

3.

Tomasz Arciszewski

29 November 1944 2 July 1947

4.

Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski

2 July 1947 10 February 1949

5.

Tadeusz Tomaszewski

7 April 1949 25 September 1950

6.

Roman Odzierzyński

25 December 1950 8 December 1953

7.

Jerzy Hryniewski

18 January 1954 13 May 1954

8.

Stanisław Cat-Mackiewicz

8 June 1954 21 June 1955

9.

Hugon Hanke

8 August 1955 10 September 1955

10.

Antoni Pająk

10 September 1955 14 June 1965

11.

Aleksander Zawisza

25 June 1965 9 June 1970

12.

Zygmunt Muchniewski

20 July 1970 13 July 1972

13.

Alfred Urbański

18 July 1972 15 July 1976

14.

Kazimierz Sabbat

5 August 1976 8 April 1986

15.

Edward Szczepanik

8 April 1986 22 December 1990

Armed forces[edit] Main article: Polish contribution to World War II Association of Armed Struggle (Związek Walki Zbrojnej, ZWZ) Home Army (Armia Krajowa) Grey Ranks (Szare Szeregi) Polish resistance movement in World War II Polish Armed Forces in the West Polish Armed Forces in the East See also[edit]

Poland
Poland
portal Jan Karski, resistance fighter Tadeusz Chciuk-Celt, special envoy of the government Ignacy Schwarzbart Szmul Zygielbojm Henryk Leon Strasburger, Finance Minister and Minister in the Middle East for the Sikorski government; Ambassador to London
London
for Mikolajczyk Juliusz Nowina-Sokolnicki, alternative President of the Republic of Poland
Poland
(1972–1990) Polish Committee of National Liberation
Polish Committee of National Liberation
(Polish: Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego; PKWN), 1944–1945 Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland
Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland
(Polish: Rząd Tymczasowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej; RTRP), 1945 Provisional Government of National Unity
Provisional Government of National Unity
(Polish: Tymczasowy Rząd Jedności Narodowej; TRJN), 1945–1947 People's Republic of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa; PRL), 1944–1952 (unofficially), 1952–1989 (officially) "Western betrayal" Notes[edit]

^ Transferred authority to Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
on his inauguration. Died on 10 April 2010 in 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash
2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash
in Smolensk.

References[edit]

^ John Coutouvidis, Jamie Reynolds. Poland
Poland
1939-1947 .mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em ISBN 0-7185-1211-1 Page 20

^ Count Edward Raczynski. In Allied London. Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1962 Page 39

^ a b c Jozef Pilsudski, Waclaw Jedrzejewicz (Editor). Poland
Poland
in the British Parliament 1939-1945. Volume I, 1946. Pages 317-318

^ a b Jozef Garlinski. Poland
Poland
in the Second World War, ISBN 0-333-39258-2 Pages 48-49

^ a b c d e Wojciech Rojek, Peter D. Stachura (Editor). The Poles
Poles
in Britain 1940-2000 ISBN 0-7146-8444-9 Chapter 4, Page 33

^ a b Coutouvidis and Reynolds, Page 26

^ a b Keith Sword (Editor). Sikorski: Soldier and Statesman ISBN 0-901149-33-0

^ Garlinski, Page 49

^ Garlinski, Pages 17-18

^ Garlinski, Pages 55-56

^ Bogusław Brodecki; Zbigniew Wawer; Tadeusz Kondracki; Janusz Błaszczyk. Polacy na frontach II wojny światowej (The Poles
Poles
on the Battlefronts of the Second World War) Warsaw: Bellona. 2005. Page 29

^ Brodecki et al, Page 37

^ Jozef Garlinski Poland
Poland
in the Second World War, ISBN 0-333-39258-2 Page 81

^ "Pignerolle dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale".

^ Stanislaw Mikolajczyk The Pattern of Soviet Domination Sampson Low, Marston & Co 1948 Page 17

^ Wojciech Roszkowski The Shadow of Yalta ISBN 83-60142-00-9 Page 27

^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (2004). "Amnesty". The Polish Deportees of World War II: Recollections of Removal to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Dispersal Throughout the World. McFarland. pp. 93–94, 102. ISBN 978-0786455362 – via Google Books.

^ a b c Stanisław Mikołajczyk (1948). The Pattern of Soviet Domination. Sampson Low, Marston & Co. pp. 19, 26. OCLC 247048466.

^ a b c Engel (2014)

^ Note of the Foreign Minister Edward Raczynski "The mass extermination of Jews in German occupied Poland, Note addressed to the Governments of the United Nations on December 10th 1942", also published (30 December 1942) by the Polish Foreign Ministry as a public document with the aim to reach the public opinions of the Free World. See: http://www.projectinposterum.org/docs/mass_extermination.htm

^ Martin Gilbert, Auschwitz and the Allies, 1981 (Pimlico edition, p.101) "On december 10, the Polish Ambassador in London, Edward Raczynski sent Eden an extremely detailed twenty-one point summary of all the most recent information regarding the killing of Jews in Poland; confirmation, he wrote, "that the German authorities aim with systematic deliberation at the total extermination of the Jewish population of Poland" as well as of the "many thousands of Jews" whom the Germans had deported to Poland
Poland
from western and Central Europe, and from the German Reich itself."

^ Krzysztof Kania, Edward Raczynski, 1891-1993, Dyplomata i Polityk (Edward Raczynski, 1891-1993, Diplomat and Politician), Wydawnictwo Neriton, Warszawa, 2014, p. 232

^ J.K.Zawodny Death in the Forest ISBN 0-87052-563-8 Page 15

^ Louis Fitzgibbon Katyn Massacre ISBN 0-552-10455-8 Page 126

^ J.K.Zawodny Death in the Forest ISBN 0-87052-563-8 Page 24

^ John Coutouvidis & Jamie Reynolds Poland
Poland
1939-1947 ISBN 0-7185-1211-1 Page 88

^ Elżbieta Trela-Mazur
Elżbieta Trela-Mazur
(1997). Włodzimierz Bonusiak; Stanisław Jan Ciesielski; Zygmunt Mańkowski; Mikołaj Iwanow (eds.). Sowietyzacja oświaty w Małopolsce Wschodniej pod radziecką okupacją 1939–1941. Sovietization of education in eastern Lesser Poland during the Soviet occupation 1939–1941. Kielce: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna im. Jana Kochanowskiego. pp. 294–. ISBN 978-8371331008 – via Google Books. Of the 13.5 million civilians living in Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union according to the last official Polish census, the population was over 38% Poles
Poles
(5.1 million), 37% Polish Ukrainians (4.7 million), 14.5% Belarusians, 8.4% Jews, 0.9% Russians and 0.6% Germans. Also in: Wrocławskie Studia Wschodnie, Wrocław, 1997.

^ John Coutouvidis & Jamie Reynolds Poland
Poland
1939-1947 ISBN 0-7185-1211-1 Pages 103-104

^ John Coutouvidis & Jamie Reynolds Poland
Poland
1939-1947 ISBN 0-7185-1211-1 Page 107

^ Peter D. Stachura, Editor The Poles
Poles
in Britain 1940–2000, Frank Cass, 2004, ISBN 0-7146-8444-9, Paperback First Edition, p. 8.

^ Phantoms in Rome, TIME Magazine, 19 January 1959

^ Peter D. Stachura, Editor The Poles
Poles
in Britain 1940–2000, Frank Cass, 2004, ISBN 0-7146-8444-9, Paperback First Edition, p. 45.

Bibliography[edit] Engel, David (2014). In the Shadow of Auschwitz: The Polish Government-in-exile and the Jews, 1939-1942. UNC Press Books. ISBN 9781469619576. Cienciala, Anna M. "The Foreign Policy of the Polish Government-in-Exile, 1939–1945: Political and Military Realities versus Polish Psychological Reality" in: John S. Micgiel and Piotr S. Wandycz eds., Reflections on Polish Foreign Policy, New York: 2005. online Davies, Norman. God's Playground: A History of Poland, Vol. 2: 1795 to the Present (2005) Kochanski, Halik. The Eagle Unbowed: Poland
Poland
and the Poles
Poles
in the Second World War (2012) excerpt and text search External links[edit] Statement of the Polish government in exile following the death of General Sikorski (1943) Publications on the Polish government (in exile) 1939-1990 Stamp Issues by the Polish government in exile Polish Chancellery website: Prime Ministers IInd Republic of Poland
Poland
in exile[permanent dead link] Polish World War II
World War II
website on the Polish government in exile Multimedia[edit] Anti-nazi color film Calling mr. Smith (1943) about nazi crimes and nazi lies created by Polish government in exile. Republic in Exile tells the story of the Polish government-in-exile
Polish government-in-exile
in the form of five short episodes available on the YouTube
YouTube
channel: Polish Embassy UK

"Republic in Exile, Episode 1: War" on YouTube
YouTube
(12 December 2014), Polish Embassy UK "Republic in Exile, Episode 2: Poland
Poland
outside Poland
Poland
on YouTube
YouTube
(19 December 2014), Polish Embassy UK "Republic in Exile, Episode 3: Polish voice in the world on YouTube (26 December 2014), Polish Embassy UK "Republic in Exile, Episode 4: Solidarity on YouTube
YouTube
(9 January 2015), Polish Embassy UK "Republic in Exile, Episode 5: Free Poland
Poland
on YouTube
YouTube
(16 January 2015), Polish Embassy UK vteGovernments in exile during World War II Belgium
Belgium
Prime Minister: Hubert Pierlot Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
President: Edvard BenešPrime Minister: Jan Šrámek France Charles de Gaulle Henri Giraud French Committee of National Liberation
French Committee of National Liberation
(from 1943) Greece King George IIPrime Minister: Emmanouil Tsouderos
Emmanouil Tsouderos
(1941–1944) , Sofoklis Venizelos
Sofoklis Venizelos
(1944) , Georgios Papandreou
Georgios Papandreou
(1944-1945) Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Grand Duchess CharlottePrime Minister: Pierre Dupong Netherlands
Netherlands
Queen WilhelminaPrime Minister: Dirk Jan de Geer
Dirk Jan de Geer
(1940) , Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy (1940–1945) Norway
Norway
King Haakon VIIPrime Minister: Johan Nygaardsvold Poland
Poland
President: Władysław RaczkiewiczPrime Minister: Władysław Sikorski (1939–1943) , Stanisław Mikołajczyk (1943–1944) , Tomasz Arciszewski (1944–1945) Yugoslavia King Peter IIPrime Minister: Dušan Simović
Dušan Simović
(1941–1942) , Slobodan Jovanović (1942–1943) , Miloš Trifunović [sr] (1943) , Božidar Purić (1943–1944) , Ivan Šubašić
Ivan Šubašić
(1944–1945) Unrecognised groups Austria Denmark Thailand

Coordinates: 52°13′N 21°02′E / 52.217°N 21.033°E

.