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Polish victory;

No diplomatic relations between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
until the ultimatum of 1938

Territorial changes Polish control of Suwałki
Suwałki
and Vilnius
Vilnius
regions

Belligerents

Poland Lithuania

Commanders and leaders

Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski
(Marshal of Poland) Adam Nieniewski Lucjan Żeligowski

Silvestras Žukauskas Antanas Smetona Mykolas Sleževičius

v t e

Establishment of the Second Polish Republic

Greater Poland
Poland
(1918–19) Ukraine
Ukraine
(1918–19) Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
(1919–21) Czechoslovakia (1919) Sejny
Sejny
(1919) Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
(1919–21) Lithuania
Lithuania
(1920)

The Polish–Lithuanian War
Polish–Lithuanian War
was an armed conflict between newly independent Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland
Poland
in the aftermath of World War I. The conflict primarily concerned territorial control of the Vilnius Region, including Vilnius, and the Suwałki
Suwałki
Region, including the towns of Suwałki, Augustów, and Sejny. The conflict was largely shaped by the progress in the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
and international efforts to mediate at the Conference of Ambassadors
Conference of Ambassadors
and later the League of Nations. There are major differences in Polish and Lithuanian historiography regarding treatment of the war. According to Lithuanian historians, the war was part of the Lithuanian Wars of Independence and spanned from spring 1919 to November 1920. According to Poland, the war included only fighting over the Suwałki Region
Suwałki Region
in September–October 1920 and was part of the Polish–Soviet War. In April 1919, Poland
Poland
captured Vilnius
Vilnius
and came in contact with the Lithuanian Army fighting in the Lithuanian–Soviet War. Faced with a common enemy, the Polish–Lithuanian relations
Polish–Lithuanian relations
were not immediately hostile. Poland
Poland
hoped to persuade Lithuania
Lithuania
to join some kind of Polish–Lithuanian union (see the Międzymorze
Międzymorze
federation), which Lithuania
Lithuania
saw as loss of independence to Polish federalism. As bilateral relations worsened, the Entente drew two demarcation lines in hopes to stall further open hostilities. The lines did not please anyone and were ignored. When a Polish coup against the Lithuanian government failed in August 1919, the front stabilized until summer 1920. In July 1920, Poland
Poland
was losing the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
and was in full retreat. The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
followed retreating Polish troops to secure the territory, assigned to Lithuania
Lithuania
by the Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty. The Soviets were the first to enter Vilnius. When Poland achieved a major victory in the Battle of Warsaw
Warsaw
and forced the Soviets to retreat in August 1920, Lithuanians
Lithuanians
defended their new borders. Poland
Poland
did not recognize the Peace Treaty and claimed that Lithuania
Lithuania
had become a Soviet ally. Fighting broke out in the Suwałki Region. During the Battle of the Niemen River, Poland
Poland
attacked Lithuania
Lithuania
on a wide front. The battle drastically altered the military situation and left Vilnius
Vilnius
open to an attack. Under pressure from the League of Nations, Poland
Poland
signed the Suwałki
Suwałki
Agreement on October 7, 1920. The agreement drew a new demarcation line, which was incomplete and did not provide protection to Vilnius. On October 8, 1920, Polish general Lucjan Żeligowski
Lucjan Żeligowski
staged a mutiny among Polish troops and marched on Vilnius
Vilnius
to "defend the right of self-determination of local Poles." The mutiny was planned and authorized by Polish chief of state Józef Piłsudski. Żeligowski's forces captured Vilnius, but further advances were stopped by the Lithuanian troops. Żeligowski proclaimed creation of the Republic of Central Lithuania
Lithuania
with capital in Vilnius. On November 29, a ceasefire was signed. The prolonged mediation by the League of Nations
League of Nations
did not change the situation and status quo was accepted in 1923. The Republic of Central Lithuania
Lithuania
was incorporated into Poland
Poland
as the Wilno Voivodeship in 1922. Lithuania
Lithuania
did not recognize these developments and continued to claim Vilnius
Vilnius
as its constitutional capital. There were no diplomatic relations between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
until the Polish ultimatum of 1938.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Military developments 1.2 Diplomatic developments

2 May–September 1919: rising tensions

2.1 Demarcation lines 2.2 Sejny
Sejny
Uprising 2.3 Polish coup attempt

3 September 1919 – June 1920: minor incidents 4 July 1920: Soviet advance and Polish retreat

4.1 Diplomatic developments 4.2 Territorial changes 4.3 Lithuanian neutrality

5 August–October 1920: struggles for the Suwałki
Suwałki
Region

5.1 Polish advance and Soviet retreat 5.2 Direct negotiations and League of Nations 5.3 Battle of the Niemen River 5.4 Suwałki
Suwałki
Agreement

6 October–November 1920: struggles for the Vilnius
Vilnius
Region

6.1 Żeligowski's Mutiny 6.2 Capture of Vilnius
Vilnius
and other military attacks 6.3 Mediation and diplomatic measures

7 Aftermath 8 Notes 9 References

Background[edit] Military developments[edit]

The advance of Polish (blue arrows), Lithuanian/German (dark purple arrows) against the Soviet forces in early 1919. The blue line shows the Polish front in May 1920.

World War I
World War I
ended on November 11, 1918 when Germany signed the Compiègne Armistice. On November 13, Soviet Russia renounced the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk[4] and began the Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
followed retreating German troops and attacked Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland
Poland
from the east trying to prevent their independence. They attempted to spread the global proletarian revolution, establish Soviet republics
Soviet republics
in the region, and join the German and the Hungarian Revolutions.[5] The Soviet offensive sparked a series of local wars, including the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
and the Lithuanian–Soviet War. At first, the Soviets were successful, but came to a halt in February 1919. In March–April both Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Poles began their offensives against the Soviets. The three armies met in the Vilnius
Vilnius
Region. Polish–Lithuanian relations
Polish–Lithuanian relations
at the time were not immediately hostile, but grew worse as each side refused to compromise. On April 19, 1919, the Polish Army
Polish Army
captured Vilnius.[6] At first, both Poles and Lithuanians
Lithuanians
cooperated against the Soviets, but soon the cooperation gave way to increasing hostility.[7] Lithuania
Lithuania
claimed neutrality in the Polish–Soviet War. As the Polish Army forced its way further into Lithuania, the first clashes between Polish and Lithuanian soldiers occurred on April 26 and May 8, 1919, near Vievis.[8] Though there was no formal state of war and few casualties, by July newspapers reported increasing clashes between Poles and Lithuanians, primarily around the towns of Merkinė
Merkinė
and Širvintos.[9] Direct negotiations in Kaunas
Kaunas
between May 28 and June 11, 1919, collapsed as neither side agreed to compromise. Lithuania tried to avoid direct military conflict and submitted its case for mediation to the Conference of Ambassadors.[10] Diplomatic developments[edit] Due to Polish-Lithuanian tensions, the allied powers withheld diplomatic recognition of Lithuania
Lithuania
until 1922.[11] Poland
Poland
did not recognize independence of Lithuania
Lithuania
as Polish leader Józef Piłsudski hoped to revive the old Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(see the Międzymorze
Międzymorze
federation) and campaigned for some kind of Polish–Lithuanian union in the Paris Peace Conference.[12] Poland also did not intend to make any territorial concessions, justifying its actions not only as part of a military campaign against the Soviets but also as the right of self-determination of local Poles.[13] According to the 1897 Russian census, the disputed city of Vilnius
Vilnius
had an ethnic breakdown of 30% Poles, 40% Jews, and 2% Lithuanians;[14][15] however the percentage of Lithuanians
Lithuanians
was higher in the surrounding countryside.[16] According to the 1916 German census, Poles were the most numerous among all local nationalities and constituted 53%[17] or 53,67% of the city's population,[18] 50% in the entire Vilnius
Vilnius
census region and the vast majority in the Vilnius census district.[17] The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
claimed Vilnius
Vilnius
as their historical capital and refused any federation with Poland, desiring an independent Lithuanian state. They regarded Polish federalism as recreation of Polish cultural and political dominance.[12] The Lithuanian government in Kaunas, designated as the temporary capital, saw the Polish presence in Vilnius
Vilnius
as occupation.[19] In addition to the Vilnius
Vilnius
Region, the Suwałki Region
Suwałki Region
was also disputed. It had mixed Polish and Lithuanian population.[20] At the time international situations of newly independent Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
were unequal. Poland, much larger in territory and population, was dedicated point #13 in Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. It was recognized by all nations of the Entente, officially invited to the Paris Peace Conference, and became one of the founding members of the League of Nations.[21] Poland
Poland
also enjoyed a close alliance with France. Lithuania
Lithuania
did not receive international recognition (it was first recognized de jure in July 1920 by Soviet Russia) as the Entente hoped to revive the Russian Empire within its former territory, which included Lithuania.[22] Not invited to any post-war diplomatic conferences, it also had to battle negative propaganda that the Council of Lithuania
Lithuania
was a German puppet, that Lithuanians
Lithuanians
harbored pro-Bolshevik attitudes,[21] or that Lithuania was too small and weak to survive without a union with Poland.[23] May–September 1919: rising tensions[edit] Demarcation lines[edit]

Map of demarcation lines of June 18 (light green) and July 26 (dark green) between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania. Poland
Poland
ignored both lines[12] and continued to advance up to the orange line. Railroads are marked by black stitched lines.

The Conference of Ambassadors
Conference of Ambassadors
drew the first demarcation line on June 18.[24] The line, drawn about 5 km (3.1 mi) west of the Warsaw
Warsaw
– Saint Petersburg Railway, was based on the military situation on the ground rather than ethnic composition.[24][25] Neither Poles nor Lithuanians
Lithuanians
were content with the line. The Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs rejected the line as it would require the Polish forces to retreat up to 35 km (22 mi).[25] The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
protested leaving Vilnius
Vilnius
and Hrodna
Hrodna
under Polish control.[25] As German volunteers were departing from Lithuania
Lithuania
and Lithuanian forces were preoccupied with battles against the Soviets in northern Lithuania, Poland
Poland
mounted an offensive on 100 km (62 mi) wide front moving 20–30 km (12–19 mi) deeper into the Lithuanian territory.[26] On July 18, Ferdinand Foch
Ferdinand Foch
proposed the second demarcation line, known as the Foch Line.[27] It was approved by the Entente on July 26. The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
were informed about the new line only on August 3.[28] Two major modifications favorable to the Poles were made: the Suwałki Region was assigned to Poland
Poland
and the entire line was moved about 7 km (4.3 mi) west.[29] Again, both Poles and Lithuanians protested the line as it would require them to withdraw their armies from the Vilnius
Vilnius
and Suwałki
Suwałki
Regions respectively. German administration, which had not yet retreated from the Suwałki
Suwałki
Region, also opposed the Foch Line.[30] The new line did not immediately halt the hostilities. After a couple of Polish attacks on July 29 and August 2, the front stabilized.[31] Sejny
Sejny
Uprising[edit] Main article: Sejny
Sejny
Uprising The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
obeyed the Foch Line
Foch Line
and retreated from Suwałki
Suwałki
on August 7, 1919.[32] However, they stopped in ethnically mixed Sejny and formed a line on the Czarna Hańcza
Czarna Hańcza
river – Wigry Lake.[33] They showed their intention to stay there permanently, which caused concern among the local Poles. On August 12, they organized a rally of about 100 people demanding incorporation into Poland.[33] The Sejny
Sejny
branch of Polish Military Organization
Polish Military Organization
(PMO) began preparing for an uprising, scheduled for the night of August 22 to 23, 1919. Between 900[33] and 1,200 partisans[27] joined PMO forces. On August 23, the Poles captured Sejny
Sejny
and attacked Lazdijai
Lazdijai
and Kapčiamiestis, towns on the Lithuanian side of the Foch Line.[33] The insurgents planned to march as far as Simnas.[27] Lithuanians
Lithuanians
recaptured Sejny
Sejny
on August 25 for a few hours. On August 26, Polish regular forces – the 41st Infantry Regiment – joined the PMO volunteers.[27] On September 5, the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
agreed to withdraw behind the Foch Line
Foch Line
by September 7.[34] Poland
Poland
secured Sejny
Sejny
and repressed Lithuanian cultural life: the Sejny
Sejny
Priest Seminary was expelled, Lithuanian schools and cultural organizations closed.[35] After the uprising, the mistrust of Poles prompted Lithuanian intelligence to intensify its investigations of Polish activities in Lithuania. This helped to detect and prevent a planned coup d'état in Kaunas
Kaunas
to overthrow the government of Lithuania.[27] Polish coup attempt[edit] Main article: 1919 Polish coup d'état attempt in Lithuania Sometime in mid-July 1919,[36] PMO forces in Vilnius
Vilnius
began planning a coup to replace the Lithuanian government with a pro-Polish cabinet, which would agree to a union with Poland
Poland
(the proposed Międzymorze federation). Polish leader Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski
believed there were enough Polish sympathizers in Lithuania
Lithuania
to carry out the coup.[27] On August 3, a Polish diplomatic mission, led by Leon Wasilewski, in Kaunas
Kaunas
had a double purpose: propose a plebiscite in the contested territories[37] and assess preparedness for the coup.[38] On August 6, the Lithuanian government rejected the plebiscite proposal, stating that the disputed territories constitute ethnographic Lithuania.[37] PMO planned to capture and hold Kaunas
Kaunas
for a few hours until arrival of the regular Polish troops, situated only some 40–50 km (25–31 mi) east from the city.[39] The coup would be portrayed as an initiative of local population to "free Lithuania
Lithuania
from German influence" while denouncing any involvement of the Polish government.[40] Polish newspapers ran a propaganda campaign claiming that the Council of Lithuania
Lithuania
was simply a German puppet.[41] The coup was initially scheduled for the night of August 27 to 28, but was postponed to September 1.[42] Lithuanian intelligence discovered the coup, but did not have a list of PMO members. Lithuanian authorities began mass arrests of some 200 Polish activists, including some officers of the Lithuanian Army.[43] Kaunas
Kaunas
was declared under the state of siege. Polish press saw mass arrests of Polish activists "to whom no charge can be ascribed other than being Poles" as proof of systematic anti-Polish policies of the German-ridden Lithuanian government.[40] PMO was little affected by the arrests and scheduled another coup attempt for the end of September. However, Lithuanians obtained a full PMO membership list and liquidated the organization in Lithuania.[44] September 1919 – June 1920: minor incidents[edit] After the failure of the coup in Kaunas, there were numerous small border incidents. On September 19, 1919, Polish troops attacked Gelvonai
Gelvonai
and encroached towards Ukmergė.[45] On several occasions fights broke out regarding strategically important bridge over the Šventoji River
Šventoji River
near Vepriai.[46] In October, when main Lithuanian forces were deployed against the Bermontians
Bermontians
in northwestern Lithuania, the attacks intensified. Poles captured Salakas
Salakas
on October 5[39] and attacked Kapčiamiestis
Kapčiamiestis
on October 12.[34] The front stabilized, but harassment of border guards and local villagers continued throughout late 1919 and early 1920. In March 1920, the Poles attacked along the railroad stations in Kalkūni and Turmantas.[47] The situation was investigated by British and French observers and reported to the Entente. The situation somewhat improved only in late spring 1920 when most Polish troops were deployed in Ukraine
Ukraine
during the Polish–Soviet War.[39] At the time Lithuania
Lithuania
faced a severe budget crisis – in 1919 its revenue was 72 million while expenses reached 190 million German marks.[48] While the government was struggling to obtain financial assistance and loans, deep cuts affected the army. Instead of increasing its armed forces to 40,000 men, Lithuania
Lithuania
was forced to cut them to about 25,000.[49] July 1920: Soviet advance and Polish retreat[edit] Diplomatic developments[edit]

Advance of Soviet forces (red arrows) against Polish troops in June–August 1920

In April 1920 Poland
Poland
launched the large-scale Kiev Offensive in hopes to capture Ukraine. Initially successful, the Polish Army
Polish Army
started retreating after Russian counterattacks in early June 1920.[50] Soon the Soviet forces began to threaten Poland's independence as they reached and crossed the Polish borders. On July 9, Polish Prime Minister Władysław Grabski
Władysław Grabski
asked the Allied Powers in the Spa Conference for military assistance in the war with the Soviets.[51] The conference proposed that the Polish forces would withdraw behind the Curzon Line, the Soviet forces would stop 50 km (31 mi) to the east of the line, the Lithuanian forces would take control of Vilnius, and all other disputes would be settled via negotiations in London.[13] Grabski opposed the transfer of Vilnius, but under pressure of British Prime Minister Lloyd George, agreed to the resolution on July 10.[52] At the same time Soviets and Lithuanians
Lithuanians
negotiated the Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty, which was signed on July 12, 1920. Russia recognized Lithuanian independence and withdrew any territorial claims. The treaty drew the eastern border of Lithuania, which the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
continued to claim as their de jure state border until World War II. Vilnius
Vilnius
Region, including Brasłaŭ, Hrodna, Lida, and Vilnius, was recognized to Lithuania.[53] On August 6, after long and heated negotiations, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Soviet Russia signed a convention regarding withdrawal of Russian troops from the recognized Lithuanian territory.[54] However, the troops began to retreat only after the Red Army suffered a heavy defeat in Poland.[55] Territorial changes[edit] The Bolshevik forces reached the Lithuanian territory on July 7, 1920, and continued to push the Polish troops.[39] The Lithuanian Army moved to secure territories abandoned by the retreating Polish forces. They took Turmantas
Turmantas
on July 7, Tauragnai
Tauragnai
and Alanta
Alanta
on July 9, Širvintos and Musninkai
Musninkai
on July 10, Kernavė, Molėtai, and Giedraičiai
Giedraičiai
on July 11,[56] Maišiagala
Maišiagala
and Pabradė
Pabradė
on July 13.[57] On July 13 the Polish command decided to transfer Vilnius
Vilnius
to the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
in accordance with the resolution of the Spa Conference.[58] Lithuanians
Lithuanians
moved in, but their trains were stopped by Polish soldiers near Kazimieriškės.[57] This delay meant that the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
were the first to enter Vilnius
Vilnius
on July 14. By the time first Lithuanian troops entered the city on July 15, it was already secured by the Soviets.[59] Poland
Poland
sought to have Russians in the city as it would create much less complications when Polish Army
Polish Army
counterattacked.[59] Despite the Peace Treaty, the Soviets did not intend to transfer the city to the Lithuanians.[58] Indeed, there were indications that the Soviets planned a coup against the Lithuanian government in hopes to re-establish the Lithuanian SSR.[50][60] Despite the setback in Vilnius, the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
continued to secure territories in the Suwałki
Suwałki
Region. They took Druskininkai
Druskininkai
on July 17, Vištytis, Punsk, Giby, and Sejny
Sejny
on July 19, Suwałki
Suwałki
on July 29,[55] Augustów
Augustów
on August 8.[61] The Polish units, afraid of being surrounded and cut off from the main Polish forces, retreated towards Łomża. The Lithuanian authorities started to organize themselves in the regained areas.[61] Lithuanian neutrality[edit] Poland
Poland
claimed that Lithuania
Lithuania
violated its claim to neutrality in the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
and in effect became a Soviet ally.[62] A secret clause of the Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty
Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty
allowed Soviet forces unrestricted movement within the Soviet-recognized Lithuanian territory for the duration of Soviet hostilities with Poland.[50] This clause was of a practical matter: Soviet troops already occupied much of the assigned territory and could not withdraw while hostilities with Poland
Poland
continued.[63] Lithuanians
Lithuanians
were also simply unable to resist Soviet troops.[64] For example, when Lithuanians
Lithuanians
refused a permission to use a road, the Soviets ignored Lithuanian protests and transported their troops and equipment regardless.[54] At the same time Polish soldiers were disarmed and interned. The largest group, a brigade under colonel Pasławski, was interned on July 18, 1920, near Kruonis.[65] On August 10, Lithuanians
Lithuanians
held 103 Polish officers and 3,520 private soldiers.[61] Poland
Poland
also claimed that the Lithuanian troops actively participated in military operations of the Red Army.[66] This charge, based on memoirs of Soviet officials, lacks evidence.[67] Further military clashes between Polish and Lithuanian troops in the Suwałki Region
Suwałki Region
were interpreted by Poland
Poland
to show that "the Lithuanian government has become an instrument of the Soviet government."[68] Lithuania
Lithuania
responded that it was defending its borders.[68] August–October 1920: struggles for the Suwałki
Suwałki
Region[edit] Polish advance and Soviet retreat[edit]

Map of the Suwałki
Suwałki
Region. Its many forests and lakes complicated the military actions.

The Russians suffered a great defeat in the Battle of Warsaw
Warsaw
in mid-August 1920 and started withdrawing. They handed over Vilnius
Vilnius
to the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
on August 26.[58] The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
hastily made preparations to secure the border, as determined by the Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty. The soldiers were ordered to maintain neutrality: avoid hostilities and intern any Soviet or Polish troops that would cross the border.[69] On August 26, a Polish delegation, led by colonel Mieczysław Mackiewicz, arrived in Kaunas to negotiate the situation.[70] The Poles, lacking authority to discuss political issues, were concerned with military aspects. They sought permission to transport Polish troops through the territory of Lithuania, wanted access to a portion of the Warsaw
Warsaw
– Saint Petersburg Railway, and demanded that the Lithuanian troops would withdraw from the Suwałki Region
Suwałki Region
behind the Curzon Line.[70] The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
refused to discuss military matters without a clear political Polish–Lithuanian border, that would be respected after the war.[70] Due to these fundamental disagreements and Polish attacks, the negotiations broke down on August 30.[71] The Suwałki Region
Suwałki Region
had strategic importance in the Polish–Soviet War. Following orders of Edward Rydz-Śmigły, Polish forces took Augustów
Augustów
from Lithuanians
Lithuanians
in a surprise attack on August 28.[71] Confused and disoriented, Lithuanians
Lithuanians
retreated from Suwałki
Suwałki
and Sejny
Sejny
on August 30 and 31.[39] The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
reorganized, gathered their forces (11 battalions with 7,000 soldiers),[72] and organized a counterattack to "defend their border" on September 2.[39] The goal was to take and secure the Augustów–Lipsk– Hrodna
Hrodna
line. The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
succeeded in taking Sejny
Sejny
and Lipsk
Lipsk
and by September 4 reached the outskirts of Augustów.[39] On September 5, the Poles counterattacked and forced the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
to retreat.[73] On September 9, the Polish forces recaptured Sejny,[74] but the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
pushed back and regained Sejny
Sejny
and Giby
Giby
on September 13 and 14.[75] Pending direct negotiations, hostilities were ceased on both sides.[76] Direct negotiations and League of Nations[edit]

Map of the Battle of the Niemen River: Polish forces maneuvered through the Lithuanian front line (in pink) to the rear of Soviet troops

On September 6, Lithuanian Foreign Minister Juozas Purickis proposed direct negotiations in Marijampolė.[77] On September 8, during a planning meeting of the Battle of the Niemen River, the Poles decided to maneuver through the Lithuanian-held territory to the rear of the Soviet Army, stationed in Hrodna.[78] In an attempt to conceal the planned attack, Polish diplomats accepted the proposal to negotiate.[78] The negotiations started on September 16 in Kalvarija, but collapsed just two days later.[79] On September 5, 1920, Polish Foreign Minister Eustachy Sapieha delivered a diplomatic note to the League of Nations
League of Nations
alleging the Lithuania
Lithuania
violated its neutrality and asking to intervene in the Polish–Lithuanian War.[80][81] The League agreed to mediate and began its session on September 16. The resolution, adopted on September 20, urged both states to cease hostilities and adhere to the Curzon Line.[82] Poland
Poland
was asked to respect Lithuanian neutrality if Soviet Russia agreed to do the same. Also a special Control Commission was to be dispatched into the conflict zone to oversee implementation of the resolution.[83] It was clear that the League had only a narrow goal to prevent armed hostilities and not to resolve the underlying territorial dispute.[64][84] The Lithuanian government accepted the resolution, while Poland
Poland
reserved full freedom of action in preparation for the attack on the Soviets.[85][86] Battle of the Niemen River[edit] Main article: Battle of Sejny On September 22, 1920, Poland
Poland
attacked Lithuanian units in the Suwałki Region
Suwałki Region
on a wide front.[84] Overwhelmed by 4–5 times larger Polish forces,[87] some 1,700[86]–2,000[88] Lithuanian troops surrendered and were taken prisoner. Polish forces then marched, as planned on September 8, across the Neman River
Neman River
near Druskininkai
Druskininkai
and Merkinė
Merkinė
to the rear of the Soviet forces near Hrodna
Hrodna
and Lida.[89] The Red Army hastily retreated. The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
had had limited intelligence warning that such an attack might occur,[87] but chose an inadequate defensive strategy and spread their forces too thinly along the entire Polish–Lithuanian front[88] without sufficient forces to protect the bridges across the Neman.[90] This attack, just two days after the resolution by the League of Nations
League of Nations
to cease hostilities, put more pressure on Poland
Poland
to settle the dispute peacefully.[91] On September 26, the Poles captured Hrodna[89] and the Polish foreign minister proposed new negotiations in Suwałki.[92] The Battle of the Niemen River drastically altered the balance of power: Vilnius, in Lithuanian hands since August 26, was now exposed to a Polish attack.[93] Indeed, the Poles had already decided to capture the city and used the negotiations in Suwałki
Suwałki
to stall and buy the time necessary to make preparations.[94][95] The Lithuanian side was ready to give up the Suwałki Region
Suwałki Region
in exchange for Poland's recognition of the Lithuanian claims to Vilnius.[96] Suwałki
Suwałki
Agreement[edit] Main article: Suwałki
Suwałki
Agreement

Selected demarcation lines between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania. Line drawn by the Suwałki
Suwałki
Agreement is in yellow; the final interwar border is in orange.

The negotiations between Poles, led by colonel Mieczysław Mackiewicz, and Lithuanians, led by general Maksimas Katche, began in the evening of September 29, 1920.[96] Both sides agreed to an armistice, but only to the east of the Neman River
Neman River
(the Suwałki
Suwałki
Region).[97] Fighting to the west on the river continued around Marcinkonys, Zervynos, Perloja, Eišiškės.[98] The major point of contention, both diplomatic and military, was the train station in Varėna
Varėna
(Orany) on the Warsaw
Warsaw
– Saint Petersburg Railway. Major Lithuanian forces were still concentrated in the Suwałki Region
Suwałki Region
and moving them to protect Vilnius without the railway would be extremely difficult.[97] Fighting west of the Neman River
Neman River
ceased only on October 6, when Polish troops had already captured the train station in Varėna.[79] Negotiations regarding the demarcation line were difficult. In essence, the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
wanted a longer demarcation line to provide better protection for Vilnius. The Poles agreed only to a short line in order to provide the planned attack on Vilnius
Vilnius
with space for operation.[99] The Polish delegation was also stalling to buy time for necessary preparations for an attack on Vilnius.[94][97] While Vilnius was not a topic of debate, it was on everybody's mind.[84] On October 4, the Control Commission, sent by the League according to its resolution of September 20, arrived to Suwałki.[86] The Commission, led by French colonel Pierre Chardigny, re-energized the negotiations.[99] On October 7, at midnight,[99] the final agreement was signed. The treaty made not a single reference to Vilnius
Vilnius
or the Vilnius
Vilnius
Region.[100] The ceasefire was effective only along the demarcation line, which ran through the Suwałki Region
Suwałki Region
to the train station in Bastuny.[100] Thus the line was incomplete, did not provide protection to the Vilnius
Vilnius
Region,[101] but indicated it would be left on the Lithuanian side.[102] October–November 1920: struggles for the Vilnius
Vilnius
Region[edit] Main article: Żeligowski's Mutiny Żeligowski's Mutiny[edit]

Map of the Republic of Central Lithuania
Lithuania
(in green)

Polish chief of state Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski
ordered his subordinate, General Lucjan Żeligowski, to stage a mutiny with his 1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division (16 battalions with 14,000 soldiers)[103] in Lida
Lida
and capture Vilnius
Vilnius
in fait accompli. The rebellion had two main goals: capture Vilnius
Vilnius
and preserve Polish international reputation. The League of Nations
League of Nations
was mediating other Polish disputes, notably over the Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
and Upper Silesia, and direct aggression against Lithuania
Lithuania
could have hampered Polish bargaining positions.[104] While the Polish side officially held Żeligowski to be a deserter and did not support him,[60] Poland provided logistic support, including munitions and food rations,[105] to his units.[106][107] Żeligowski also received reinforcements, when, according to the official version, the mutiny spread further among the Polish troops.[79][108] His initial attack was secured on both sides by two Polish Armies.[109] The Żeligowski's Mutiny, in planning since mid-September,[91] began in the early morning on October 8, 1920, – just few hours after the signing of the Suwałki
Suwałki
Agreement.[110] A provisional agreement was made in the Polish–Soviet War, which freed up Polish units for the attack on Lithuania.[101] As part of the ruse, Żeligowski wrote a note to Polish command announcing his mutiny and expressing his disappointment with the Suwałki
Suwałki
Agreement.[110] He claimed that his troops marched to defend the right of self-determination of local Polish population.[110] Capture of Vilnius
Vilnius
and other military attacks[edit] The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
were not prepared for the assault. They had only two battalions, stationed near Jašiūnai
Jašiūnai
and Rūdninkai along the Merkys River, shielding the city from Poland.[79] Their main forces were still in the Suwałki Region
Suwałki Region
and to the west from Druskininkai
Druskininkai
and Varėna. Without the railway, Lithuanian units could not be easily redeployed to protect Vilnius.[101] After it became clear that Żeligowski would not stop in Vilnius, Commander of the Lithuanian Army Silvestras Žukauskas, who had recently taken the position on October 6, ordered the city evacuated on the afternoon on October 8.[79] They left the city's administration to Entente official Constantin Reboul.[111] Żeligowski entered Vilnius
Vilnius
the following evening. He did not recognize Reboul's authority and Entente officials left the city in protest.[112] On October 12, Żeligowski proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Central Lithuania, with Vilnius
Vilnius
as its capital.[113] The name aligned with Piłsudski's vision of historical Lithuania, divided into three cantons: Lithuanian-inhabited Western Lithuania
Lithuania
with its capital in Kaunas, Polish-inhabited Central Lithuania
Lithuania
with its capital in Vilnius, and Belarusian-inhabited Eastern Lithuania
Lithuania
with its capital in Minsk.[113] Further developments of other cantons was prevented by Polish National Democracy, a party opposed to Piłsudski's federalist ideas.[113] Żeligowski's units continued to advance: territories east of the city were taken without resistance[114] while Lithuanians
Lithuanians
defended in the west. Żeligowski took Švenčionys
Švenčionys
and Rūdiškės
Rūdiškės
on October 10, Nemenčinė
Nemenčinė
on October 11, Lentvaris
Lentvaris
on October 13, Rykantai
Rykantai
on October 15.[79] The front somewhat stabilized on the southern (left) side of the Neris River, but fighting continued on the northern (right) side of Neris.[115] When Polish cavalry maneuvered towards Riešė, it learned from local population the location of the command of the 1st Riflemen Division.[116] On October 21, the cavalry raided the village and took the entire command prisoner. Left without their commanders, the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
retreated and Poles took Maišiagala
Maišiagala
and Paberžė.[117] On October 26, another cavalry raid captured Dubingiai, Giedraičiai
Giedraičiai
and Želva
Želva
and threatened Ukmergė.[118] However, Lithuanians
Lithuanians
counterattacked and took back Želva
Želva
on October 30 and Giedraičiai
Giedraičiai
on November 1. For a while, the front stabilized.[115] On November 17, the mutineers began a major attack. They planned to capture Kaunas, thus threatening Lithuanian independence,[119] by encircling the city from north through Širvintos–Ukmergė–Jonava and Giedraičiai–Kavarskas–Kėdainiai.[115] Żeligowski's forces were about three times larger: 15 Polish battalions against 5 Lithuanian battalions.[120] One cavalry brigade managed to break through the Lithuanian defense lines near Dubingiai, reached Kavarskas, and continued towards Kėdainiai.[115] However, Lithuanians were successful in stopping an attack towards Ukmergė
Ukmergė
near Širvintos on November 19. About 200 Lithuanians
Lithuanians
maneuvered through swamps to the rear of three Polish battalions.[121] Attacked from the front and rear, some 200 Poles were taken prisoner while others retreated.[122] The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
continued to attack and captured Giedraičiai
Giedraičiai
on November 21. On the same day, a ceasefire was signed under pressure from the League of Nations.[123] The Polish cavalry brigade, pushed from Kėdainiai
Kėdainiai
and cut off from its main forces, retreated through Ramygala–Troškūnai–Andrioniškis–Lėliūnai[124] and rejoined Żeligowski's other units only on November 24.[123] Mediation and diplomatic measures[edit] On October 11, 1920, Lithuanian envoy in Paris Oscar Milosz
Oscar Milosz
asked the League of Nations
League of Nations
to intervene in the renewed conflict with Poland.[125] On October 14, Chairman of the League Léon Bourgeois issued a note condemning the aggression and asking Polish units to retreat.[126] Politicians in London even considered expelling Poland from the League.[127] When the League heard both arguments on October 26–28, Polish envoy Szymon Askenazy
Szymon Askenazy
claimed that there was no conflict between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
to mediate.[128] He maintained that the old conflict ended with signing ceasefires with Lithuania
Lithuania
on October 7 and with Soviet Russia on October 12 and the new conflict was caused by Żeligowski,[128] who acted without approval from the Polish command, but with moral support of the entire Polish nation.[129] Lithuanian envoy Augustinas Voldemaras
Augustinas Voldemaras
argued that Poland orchestrated the mutiny and demanded strict sanctions against Poland.[130] The League refused to validate Żeligowski's action.[129] It suggested to hold a plebiscite in the contested areas. On November 6 and 7, both sides agreed[130] and Lithuanians
Lithuanians
began preparatory work.[131] On November 19, Żeligowski proposed the Control Commission, led by Chardigny, to cease hostilities.[132] Lithuanians
Lithuanians
agreed and a ceasefire was signed on November 21. Later this episode was criticized by Lithuanian commentators as at the time the Lithuanian Army had initiative in the front and had a chance of marching on Vilnius.[119] However, the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
trusted the League of Nations
League of Nations
would resolve the dispute in their favor[104] and were afraid that in case of an attack on Vilnius
Vilnius
regular Polish forces would arrive to reinforce Żeligowski's units.[133] Negotiations for a more permanent armistice, under mediation of the Control Commission, began on November 27 in Kaunas.[133] Lithuania
Lithuania
did not agree to negotiate directly with Żeligowski and thus legitimizing his actions.[119] Therefore, Poland
Poland
stepped in as a mediator. Lithuania
Lithuania
agreed as it hoped to put the talks back into the context of the Suwałki
Suwałki
Agreement.[134] Poles rejected any withdrawal of Żeligowski's forces. No agreement could be reached regarding a demarcation line. On November 29, 1920, it was agreed only to cease hostilities on November 30, to entrust the Control Commission with establishment of a 6 km (3.7 mi) wide neutral zone, and to exchange prisoners.[133] This neutral zone existed until February 1923.[123] Aftermath[edit] In March 1921, the plans for a plebiscite were abandoned. Neither Lithuania, which was afraid of a negative result, nor Poland, which saw no reason to change status quo, wanted the plebiscite.[134] The parties could not agree in which territory to carry out the vote and how Żeligowski's forces should be replaced by League's forces.[134] The League of Nations
League of Nations
then moved on from trying to solve the narrow territorial dispute in the Vilnius Region
Vilnius Region
to shaping the fundamental relationship between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania. During 1921, Belgian Paul Hymans suggested several Polish–Lithuanian federation models, all rejected by both sides.[135] In January 1922, parliamentary election to the Wilno Diet ( Sejm
Sejm
wileński) resulted in a landslide Polish victory. In its first session on February 20, 1922, the Diet voted for incorporation into Poland
Poland
as the Wilno Voivodeship.[136] Polish Sejm accepted the resolution of the Diet.[136] The League of Nations
League of Nations
ended its efforts to mediate the dispute. After Lithuanians
Lithuanians
seized the Klaipėda Region
Klaipėda Region
in January 1923, the League saw recognition of Lithuanian interest in Klaipėda as adequate compensation for the loss of Vilnius.[137] The League accepted the status quo in February 1923 by dividing the neutral zone and setting a demarcation line, which was recognized in March 1923 as the official Polish–Lithuanian border.[137] Lithuania
Lithuania
did not recognize this border.[137] Historians have asserted that if Poland
Poland
had not prevailed in the Polish–Soviet War, Lithuania
Lithuania
would have been invaded by the Soviets, and would never have experienced two decades of independence.[138] Despite the Soviet–Lithuanian Treaty of 1920, Lithuania
Lithuania
was very close to being invaded by the Soviets in summer 1920 and being forcibly incorporated into that state, and only the Polish victory derailed this plan.[138] The dispute over Vilnius
Vilnius
remained one of the biggest foreign policy issues in Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland. Lithuania
Lithuania
broke off all diplomatic relations with Poland
Poland
and refused any actions that would recognize Poland's control of Vilnius
Vilnius
even de facto.[139] For example, Lithuania broke off diplomatic relations with the Holy See
Holy See
after the Concordat of 1925 established an ecclesiastical province in Wilno thereby acknowledging Poland's claims to the city.[140] Poland
Poland
refused to formally recognize the existence of any dispute regarding the region, since that would have lent legitimacy to the Lithuanian claims.[141] Railroad traffic and telegraph lines could not cross the border, and mail service was complicated. For example, a letter from Poland
Poland
to Lithuania
Lithuania
needed to be sent to a neutral country, repackaged in a new envelope to remove any Polish signs, and only then delivered to Lithuania.[142] Despite several attempts to normalize the relations, the situation of "no war, no peace" lasted until Poland
Poland
demanded to reestablish diplomatic relations by issuing the ultimatum of 1938.[137] These tensions were one of the reasons why Józef Piłsudski's Międzymorze
Międzymorze
federation was never formed.[106] The Soviet Union gave Vilnius
Vilnius
to Lithuania
Lithuania
after the Soviet invasion of Eastern Poland
Poland
in September 1939.[143] Notes[edit]

Notes

^ Seibt, Ferdinand (1992). Handbuch der europäischen Geschichte (in German). Friedrichstadt: Union Verlag. pp. 1072–1073. ISBN 3-12-907540-2.  ^ Wrzosek, Mieczysław; Grzegorz Łukomski; Bogusław Polak (1990). Wojna polsko-bolszewicka, 1919-1920: działania bojowe - kalendarium (in Polish). Koszalin: Wyższa Szkoła Inżynierska. pp. 136–142. ISSN 0239-7129.  ^ Račis, Antanas, ed. (2008). "Reguliariosios pajėgos". Lietuva (in Lithuanian). I. Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing Institute. pp. 454–456. ISBN 978-5-420-01639-8.  ^ Langstrom, Tarja (January 2003). Transformation in Russia and International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 52. ISBN 90-04-13754-8.  ^ Rauch (1970), p. 51 ^ Davies, Norman (2003) [1972]. White Eagle, Red Star: the Polish-Soviet War, 1919–20. Pimlico. p. 50. ISBN 0-7126-0694-7.  ^ Łossowski (1966), p. 47 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 252 ^ Łossowski (1966), p. 48 ^ Łossowski (1966), p. 49 ^ Salzmann, Stephanie C. (2013). Great Britain, Germany and the Soviet Union: Rapallo and After, 1922-1934. Boydell Press. p. 93. ISBN 9781-843-83840-1.  ^ a b c Lane (2001), p. 7 ^ a b Eidintas (1999), p. 72 ^ Łossowski, Piotr (1995). Konflikt polsko-litewski 1918–1920 (in Polish). Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. p. 11. ISBN 83-05-12769-9.  ^ (in Russian) Demoscope. ^ Eidintas (1999), pp. 220–221 ^ a b Borzecki, Jerzy (2008). The Soviet-Polish Peace of 1921 and the Creation of Interwar Europe. Yale University Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780-300-12121-6.  ^ Brensztejn, Michał Eustachy (1919). Spisy ludności m. Wilna za okupacji niemieckiej od. 1 listopada 1915 r (in Polish). Biblioteka Delegacji Rad Polskich Litwy i Białej Rusi, Warsaw.  ^ Endre Bojtár (1999). Foreword to the Past: A Cultural History of the Baltic People. Central European University Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-963-9116-42-9. Retrieved 14 May 2012.  ^ Saulius Sužiedėlis (7 February 2011). Historical Dictionary of Lithuania. Scarecrow Press. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-8108-4914-3. Retrieved 14 May 2012.  ^ a b Gerutis (1984), p. 166 ^ Vilkelis (2006), p. 57 ^ Vilkelis (2006), p. 58 ^ a b Eidintas (1999), p. 71 ^ a b c Łossowski (1966), pp. 49–50 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 254 ^ a b c d e f Mańczuk, Tadeusz (2003). "Z Orłem przeciw Pogoni. Powstanie sejneńskie 1919". Mówią Wieki (in Polish). 12 (258): 32–37. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23.  ^ Senn (1975), p. 134 ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 254, 257 ^ Łossowski (1966), p. 51 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 258 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 272 ^ a b c d Buchowski, Stanisław. "Powstanie Sejneńskie 23-28 sierpnia 1919 roku" (in Polish). Gimnazjum Nr. 1 w Sejnach. Retrieved 2007-09-27.  ^ a b Lesčius (2004), p. 277 ^ Buchowski, Krzysztof (2003). "Polish-Lithanian Relations in Seinai Region at the Turn of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries". The Chronicle of Lithuanian Catholic Academy of Sciences. 2 (XXIII). Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.  ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 261 ^ a b Łossowski (1966), pp. 56–57 ^ Senn (1966), p. 20 ^ a b c d e f g Ališauskas (1953–1966), p. 101 ^ a b Senn (1975), p. 149 ^ Senn (1975), p. 148 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 267 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 268 ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 269–270 ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 280–281 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 280 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 284 ^ Drilinga, Antanas, ed. (1995). Lietuvos Respublikos prezidentai (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Valstybės leidybos centras. p. 54. ISBN 9986-09-055-5.  ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 285, 287 ^ a b c Snyder (2003), p. 63 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 289 ^ Eidintas (1999), pp. 72–73 ^ Eidintas (1999), p. 69 ^ a b Lesčius (2004), p. 297 ^ a b Lesčius (2004), p. 298 ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 289–290 ^ a b Lesčius (2004), p. 291 ^ a b c Eidintas (1999), p. 73 ^ a b Senn (1966), p. 31 ^ a b Rauch (1977), p. 101 ^ a b c Lesčius (2004), p. 299 ^ Senn (1966), p. 32 ^ Čepėnas, Pranas (1986). Naujųjų laikų Lietuvos istorija (in Lithuanian). II. Chicago: Dr. Griniaus fondas. pp. 355–359. ISBN 5-89957-012-1.  ^ a b Senn (1966), p. 40 ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 292–293 ^ Eudin, Xenia Joukoff; Harold Henry Fisher (1957). Soviet Russia and the West, 1920–1927: A Documentary Survey. Stanford University Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 0-8047-0478-3.  ^ Senn (1966), p. 33 ^ a b Senn (1966), p. 37 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 301 ^ a b c Lesčius (2004), p. 304 ^ a b Lesčius (2004), p. 305 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 307 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 311 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 314 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 317 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 318 ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 319–321 ^ a b Vilkelis (2006), p. 66 ^ a b c d e f Ališauskas (1953–1966), p. 102 ^ Vilkelis (2006), p. 64 ^ Senn (1966), pp. 36–37 ^ Vilkelis (2006), p. 67 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 320 ^ a b c Eidintas (1999), p. 74 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 321 ^ a b c Vilkelis (2006), p. 68 ^ a b Lesčius (2004), p. 324 ^ a b Lesčius (2004), p. 330 ^ a b Borzęcki (2008), p. 106 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 329 ^ a b Vilkelis (2006), p. 69 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 344 ^ Vilkelis (2006), p. 70 ^ a b Vilkelis (2006), pp. 70–71 ^ Senn (1966), p. 44 ^ a b Łossowski, Piotr (1995). Konflikt polsko-litewski 1918–1920 (in Polish). Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. pp. 166–175. ISBN 83-05-12769-9.  ^ a b c Lesčius (2004), p. 345 ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 336–339 ^ a b c Vilkelis (2006), p. 71 ^ a b " Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland. Agreement with regard to the establishment of a provisional "Modus Vivendi", signed at Suwalki, October 7, 1920" (PDF). United Nations Treaty Collection. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011. Retrieved 2009-08-01.  ^ a b c Eidintas (1999), p. 75 ^ Lane (2001), p. 31 ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 349–350 ^ a b Vilkelis (2006), p. 75 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 377 ^ a b Łossowski, Piotr (1991). Polska-Litwa: Ostatnie sto lat (in Polish). Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Oskar. p. 110.  ^ Čepėnas, Pranas (1986). Naujųjų laikų Lietuvos istorija. Chicago: Dr. Griniaus fondas. p. 634.  ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 360 ^ Borzęcki (2008), p. 140 ^ a b c Lesčius (2004), p. 351 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 355 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 357 ^ a b c Snyder (2003), p. 64 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 365 ^ a b c d Ališauskas (1953–1966), p. 103 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 366 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 368 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 369 ^ a b c Eidintas (1999), p. 77 ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 377–378 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 385–386 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 386 ^ a b c Ališauskas (1953–1966), p. 104 ^ Lesčius (2004), pp. 394–399 ^ Vilkelis (2006), p. 73 ^ Vilkelis (2006), pp. 73–74 ^ Yearwood, Peter J. (2009-02-15). Guarantee of Peace: The League of Nations in British Policy 1914–1925. Oxford University Press US. p. 188. ISBN 0-19-922673-3.  ^ a b Vilkelis (2006), pp. 76–77 ^ a b Eidintas (1999), p. 76 ^ a b Vilkelis (2006), p. 77 ^ Vilkelis (2006), p. 80 ^ Lesčius (2004), p. 402 ^ a b c Lesčius (2004), p. 403 ^ a b c Eidintas (1999), p. 78 ^ Rauch (1977), p. 102 ^ a b Eidintas (1999), p. 84 ^ a b c d Eidintas (1999), p. 85 ^ a b Alfred Erich Senn, The Formation of the Lithuanian Foreign Office, 1918–1921, Slavic Review, Vol. 21, No. 3. (Sep., 1962), pp. 500–507.: "A Bolshevik victory over the Poles would have certainly meant a move by the Lithuanian communists, backed by the Red Army, to overthrow the Lithuanian nationalist government... Kaunas, in effect, paid for its independence with the loss of Vilna." Alfred Erich Senn, Lietuvos valstybes... p. 163: "If the Poles didn't stop the Soviet attack, Lithuania
Lithuania
would fell to the Soviets... Polish victory costs the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
the city of Wilno, but saved Lithuania itself." Antanas Ruksa, Kovos del Lietuvos nepriklausomybes, t.3, p. 417: "In summer 1920 Russia was working on a communist revolution in Lithuania... From this disaster Lithuania
Lithuania
was saved by the miracle at Vistula." Jonas Rudokas, Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski
– wróg niepodległości Litwy czy jej wybawca? (Polish translation of a Lithuanian article) "Veidas", 25 08 2005: [Piłsudski] "defended both Poland
Poland
and Lithuanian from Soviet domination" ^ "1938: Lithuania". Collier's Year Book. MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-03-14.  ^ Gerutis (1984), pp. 218–219 ^ Eidintas (1999), p. 146 ^ Lengyel, Emil (1939-03-20). " Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
in a Long Feud". The New York Times: 63.  ^ Ready, J. Lee (1995). World War Two. Nation by Nation. London: Cassell. p. 191. ISBN 1-85409-290-1. 

References[edit]

Ališauskas, Kazys (1953–1966). "Lietuvos kariuomenė (1918–1944)". Lietuvių enciklopedija (in Lithuanian). XV. Boston, Massachusetts: Lietuvių enciklopedijos leidykla. OCLC 14547758.  Borzęcki, Jerzy (2008-04-01). The Soviet–Polish Peace of 1921 and the Creation of Interwar Europe. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12121-6.  Eidintas, Alfonsas; Vytautas Žalys; Alfred Erich Senn
Alfred Erich Senn
(1999). Ed. Edvardas Tuskenis, ed. Lithuania
Lithuania
in European Politics: The Years of the First Republic, 1918-1940 (Paperback ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-22458-3.  Gerutis, Albertas (1984). "Independent Lithuania". In Ed. Albertas Gerutis. Lithuania: 700 Years. translated by Algirdas Budreckis (6th ed.). New York: Manyland Books. ISBN 0-87141-028-1. LCC 75-80057.  Lane, Thomas A. (2001). Lithuania: Stepping Westward. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26731-5.  Lesčius, Vytautas (2004). Lietuvos kariuomenė nepriklausomybės kovose 1918–1920 (PDF) (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Vilnius
Vilnius
University, Generolo Jono Žemaičio Lietuvos karo akademija. ISBN 9955-423-23-4.  Łossowski, Piotr (1966). Stosunki polsko-litewskie w latach 1918–1920 (in Polish). Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. OCLC 9200888.  Rauch, Georg von (1970). The Baltic States: The Years of Independence. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02600-4.  Senn, Alfred Erich (1966). The Great Powers: Lithuania
Lithuania
and the Vilna Question, 1920–1928. Studies in East European history. Brill Archive. LCC 67086623.  Senn, Alfred Erich (1975) [1959]. The Emergence of Modern Lithuania. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-7780-4.  Snyder, Timothy (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10586-X.  Vilkelis, Gintaras (2006). Lietuvos ir Lenkijos santykiai Tautų Sąjungoje (in Lithuanian). Versus aureus. ISBN 9955-601-92-2. 

v t e

World War I

Home fronts

Theatres

European

Balkans Western Front Eastern Front Italian Front

Middle Eastern

Gallipoli Sinai and Palestine Caucasus Persia Mesopotamia South Arabia

African

South West East Kamerun Togoland North

Asian and Pacific

Tsingtao German New Guinea and Samoa

At sea

North Atlantic U-boat campaign Mediterranean North Sea Baltic

Indian, Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans

Papeete Madras Penang Cocos Coronel Falkland Islands Más a Tierra

Principal participants (people)

Entente powers

Belgium Brazil China France

French Empire

Greece Italy Japan Montenegro Portuguese Empire Romania Russia

Russian Empire Russian Republic

Serbia United Kingdom

British Empire

United States

Central Powers

Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria

Timeline

Pre-War conflicts

Scramble for Africa
Scramble for Africa
(1880–1914) Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
(1905) First Moroccan (Tangier) Crisis (1905–06) Agadir Crisis
Agadir Crisis
(1911) Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
(1911–12) French conquest of Morocco
French conquest of Morocco
(1911–12) First Balkan War
First Balkan War
(1912–13) Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
(1913)

Prelude

Origins Sarajevo assassination Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo July Crisis

Autumn 1914

Battle of the Frontiers Battle of Cer First Battle of the Marne Siege of Tsingtao Battle of Tannenberg Battle of Galicia Battle of the Masurian Lakes Battle of Kolubara Battle of Sarikamish Race to the Sea First Battle of Ypres

1915

Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes Second Battle of Ypres Battle of Gallipoli Second Battle of Artois Battles of the Isonzo Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive Great Retreat Second Battle of Champagne Kosovo Offensive Siege of Kut Battle of Loos

1916

Erzurum Offensive Battle of Verdun Lake Naroch Offensive Battle of Asiago Battle of Jutland Battle of the Somme

first day

Brusilov Offensive Baranovichi Offensive Battle of Romani Monastir Offensive Battle of Transylvania

1917

Capture of Baghdad First Battle of Gaza Zimmermann Telegram Second Battle of Arras Second Battle of the Aisne Kerensky Offensive Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) Battle of Mărășești Battle of Caporetto Southern Palestine Offensive Battle of Cambrai Armistice
Armistice
of Erzincan

1918

Operation Faustschlag Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Spring Offensive Second Battle of the Marne Battle of Baku Hundred Days Offensive Vardar Offensive Battle of Megiddo Third Transjordan attack Meuse-Argonne Offensive Battle of Vittorio Veneto Battle of Aleppo Armistice
Armistice
of Salonica Armistice
Armistice
of Mudros Armistice
Armistice
of Villa Giusti Armistice
Armistice
with Germany

Other conflicts

Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
(1910–20) Somaliland Campaign
Somaliland Campaign
(1910–20) Libyan resistance movement (1911–43) Maritz Rebellion (1914–15) Zaian War
Zaian War
(1914–21) Indo-German Conspiracy (1914–19) Senussi Campaign
Senussi Campaign
(1915–16) Volta-Bani War
Volta-Bani War
(1915–17) Easter Rising
Easter Rising
(1916) Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition
Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition
(1916) Kaocen Revolt (1916–17) Central Asian Revolt (1916-17) Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
(1917) Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
(1918)

Post-War conflicts

Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(1917–21) Ukrainian–Soviet War
Ukrainian–Soviet War
(1917–21) Armenian–Azerbaijani War
Armenian–Azerbaijani War
(1918–20) Georgian–Armenian War
Georgian–Armenian War
(1918) German Revolution (1918–19) Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–20) Hungarian–Romanian War
Hungarian–Romanian War
(1918–19) Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1918–19) Estonian War of Independence
Estonian War of Independence
(1918–20) Latvian War of Independence
Latvian War of Independence
(1918–20) Lithuanian Wars of Independence
Lithuanian Wars of Independence
(1918–20) Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919) Egyptian Revolution (1919) Polish–Ukrainian War
Polish–Ukrainian War
(1918–19) Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
(1919–21) Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
(1919–21) Turkish War of Independence

Greco-Turkish War (1919–22) Turkish–Armenian War
Turkish–Armenian War
(1920)

Iraqi revolt (1920) Polish–Lithuanian War
Polish–Lithuanian War
(1920) Vlora War
Vlora War
(1920) Franco-Syrian War
Franco-Syrian War
(1920) Soviet–Georgian War (1921) Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
(1922–23)

Aspects

Opposition

Pacifism Anti-war movement

Deployment

Schlieffen Plan
Schlieffen Plan
(German) Plan XVII
Plan XVII
(French)

Warfare

Military engagements Naval warfare Convoy system Air warfare Cryptography

Room 40

Horse use Poison gas Railways Strategic bombing Technology Trench warfare Total war Christmas truce Last surviving veterans

Civilian impact Atrocities Prisoners

Casualties Economic history 1918 flu pandemic Destruction of Kalisz Rape of Belgium German occupation of Belgium German occupation of Luxembourg German occupation of northeastern France Ober Ost Ottoman people

Armenian Genocide Assyrian genocide Pontic Greek genocide

Urkun (Kyrgyzstan) Blockade of Germany Women

Australia

Popular culture German prisoners of war in the United States

Agreements

Partition of the Ottoman Empire Sykes–Picot Agreement Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne French-Armenian Agreement Damascus Protocol Paris Peace Conference Venizelos–Tittoni agreement

Treaties

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty of Lausanne Treaty of London Treaty of Neuilly Treaty of St. Germain Treaty of Sèvres Treaty of Trianon Treaty of Versailles

Consequences

Aftermath "Fourteen Points" League of Nations World War I
World War I
memorials Centenary

outbreak

Category Portal

v t e

Polish wars and conflicts

Piast Poland

Battle of Cedynia German–Polish War (1002–18) Bolesław I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis 1072 war against Bohemia Battle of Głogów 1146 war against Germany 1156 war against Germany First Mongol invasion of Poland
Poland
(1240/41) Second Mongol invasion of Poland
Poland
(1259/60) Third Mongol invasion of Poland
Poland
(1287/88)

Battle of Legnica

Polish–Teutonic War (1326–32)

Battle of Płowce

Galicia–Volhynia Wars

Jagiellon Poland

Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War

Battle of Grunwald

Polish–Teutonic War (1414) Polish–Teutonic War (1422) Polish–Teutonic War (1431–35) Battle of Grotniki 1444 war against the Ottomans

Battle of Varna

Thirteen Years' War War of the Priests Polish–Moldavian War Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1512–22)

Battle of Orsha

Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21) Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1534–37) Ottoman–Tatar Invasion of Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland

Commonwealth

Northern Seven Years' War Danzig rebellion

Battle of Lubieszów

Siege of Danzig (1577) Livonian War

Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory

War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1587–88)

Battle of Byczyna

1589 Tatar Invasion Kosiński Uprising 1593 Tatar Invasion Nalyvaiko Uprising Moldavian Magnate Wars Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21) Polish–Swedish wars War against Sigismund

Battle of Stångebro

Polish–Swedish War (1600–29)

Polish–Swedish War (1600–11)

Battle of Kircholm

Polish–Swedish War (1617–18) Polish–Swedish War (1621–25) Polish–Swedish War (1626–29)

Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)

Battle of Kłuszyn

Zebrzydowski Rebellion Thirty Years' War

Battle of Humenné

Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21)

Battle of Chocim (1621)

1624 Tatar Invasion Zhmaylo Uprising Fedorovych Uprising Smolensk War

Siege of Smolensk (1632–33)

Polish–Ottoman War (1633–34) Pawluk Uprising Ostrzanin Uprising 1644 Tatar Invasion Khmelnytsky Uprising

Battle of Berestechko

Russo-Polish War (1654–67) Second Northern War

The Deluge

Polish–Cossack–Tatar War (1666–71) Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76)

Battle of Chocim (1673)

Polish–Ottoman War (1683–99)

Battle of Vienna

Great Northern War War of the Polish Succession War of the Bar Confederation Polish–Russian War of 1792 Kościuszko Uprising

Poland
Poland
partitioned

Napoleonic Wars Peninsular War War of the Fourth Coalition

Prussian campaign

War of the Fifth Coalition

Polish–Austrian War

War of the Sixth Coalition

French invasion of Russia

Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1848) November Uprising January Uprising World War I

Second Republic

Polish–Ukrainian War Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising Polish–Czechoslovak War First Silesian Uprising Polish–Soviet War

Battle of Warsaw

Second Silesian Uprising Polish–Lithuanian War Third Silesian Uprising

Second World War

World War II German Invasion of Poland Polish contribution to World War II Italian Campaign Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising Białystok Ghetto Uprising Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising

Operation Tempest

Operation Ostra Brama Lwów uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising

People's Republic

Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Third Republic

War in Afghanistan Iraq War

2003 invasion of Iraq Occupation of Iraq

v t e

Lithuania articles

History

Early

Balts Lithuania
Lithuania
proper Grand Duchy

1219–95 Duchy Kingdom Christianization Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Revival and independence

Press ban National Revival

Great Seimas
Seimas
of Vilnius

Act of Independence Wars of Independence

Lithuanian–Soviet War Polish–Lithuanian War

1919 Polish coup d'état attempt First Soviet republic 1926 coup d'état

WWII and occupations

Occupation of the Baltic states

by the Soviet Union (1940) by Nazi Germany by the Soviet Union (1944)

Holocaust Resistance Second Soviet republic Baltic states under Soviet rule (1944–91) Government-in-exile

Restoration

Reform Movement (Sąjūdis) Singing Revolution Baltic Way Act of Re-Establishment January Events August Putsch

Geography

Cities

capital

Climate Extreme points Flora Forests Lakes Regional parks Rivers Towns

Politics

Administrative divisions

counties municipalities elderships

Constitution

Constitutional Court

Elections Foreign relations Government

Prime Minister

Law

Law enforcement

Seimas
Seimas
parliament

Speaker Political parties

President

Military

Land Force Naval Force Air Force Special
Special
Operations Force

Economy

Agriculture Banks

Central bank

Energy Euro Litas (former currency) Telecommunications Transport

airports rail roads seaport

Tourism

Society

Demographics Education

universities

Ethnic minorities Ethnographic regions Language Lithuanians Religion

Culture

Calendar Cinema Cuisine Cultural history Ethnographic Lithuania Literature Music Mythology Name Public holidays Sport Symbols

anthem coat of arms flag

Outline Index

Bo

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