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The Polisario Front, Frente Polisario, FRELISARIO or simply POLISARIO, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro
Río de Oro
("Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra
Saguia el-Hamra
and Río de Oro" Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب‎ Al-Jabhat Al-Sha'abiyah Li-Tahrir Saqiya Al-Hamra'a wa Wadi Al-Dhahab, French: Front populaire de Libération de la Seguia el Hamra et du Rivière d'or), is a Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement aiming to end Moroccan presence in the Western Sahara. It is an observer member of the Socialist International.[1] The United Nations
United Nations
considers the Polisario Front
Polisario Front
to be the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people and maintains that the Sahrawis have a right to self-determination.[2] The Polisario Front
Polisario Front
is outlawed in the parts of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
under Moroccan control, and it is illegal to raise its party flag (often called the Sahrawi flag) there.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Beginnings 1.2 Withdrawal of Spain 1.3 Withdrawal of Mauritania 1.4 Moroccan wall stalemates the war 1.5 Ceasefire and the referendum process

2 Political ideology

2.1 Attitudes to armed struggle

3 Relations with Algeria 4 Structure

4.1 Organizational background 4.2 Present structure

5 Armed forces (SPLA)

5.1 Equipment 5.2 Tactics

6 Defections 7 Foreign relations

7.1 Western Sahara
Western Sahara
in the Cold War 7.2 International recognition of the SADR

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources

10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit]

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR)

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the SADR

Constitution

Nationality law

Legislature

Sahrawi National Council

Speaker: Khatri Addouh

Judiciary

Supreme Court Appeal Courts Judicial system

Politics Parties:

Polisario

Administrative divisions

Free Zones

Municipalities

Sahrawi refugee camps

Elections

Recent elections

Legislative: 2008 2012

Foreign relations

International recognition Political status of Western Sahara

Western Sahara
Western Sahara
conflict

Other countries Atlas

v t e

Beginnings[edit] In 1971 a group of young Moroccan students in the universities of Morocco
Morocco
began organizing what came to be known as The Embryonic Movement for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra
Saguia el-Hamra
and Rio de Oro.[citation needed] After attempting in vain to gain backing from several Arab governments, including both Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco, but only drawing faint notices of support from Libya
Libya
and Mauritania, the movement eventually relocated to Spanish-controlled Spanish Sahara
Spanish Sahara
to start an armed rebellion.[citation needed] The Polisario Front
Polisario Front
was formally constituted on 10 May 1973 at Ain Bentili by several Sahrawi university students, survivors of the 1968 massacres at Zouerate and some Sahrawi men who had served in the Spanish Army.[4] They called themselves the Constituent Congress of the Polisario Front.[4] Its first Secretary General was El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed.[citation needed] On 20 May, the new organization attacked El-Khanga,[4] where there was a Spanish post manned by a team of Tropas Nomadas (Sahrawi-staffed auxiliary forces), which was overrun and rifles seized.[citation needed] Polisario then gradually gained control over large swaths of desert countryside, and its power grew from early 1975 when the Tropas Nomadas began deserting to the Polisario, bringing weapons and training with them. At this point, Polisario's manpower included perhaps 800 men and women, but they were suspected of being backed by a much larger network of supporters.[citation needed] A UN visiting mission, headed by Simeon Aké, that was conducted in June 1975 concluded that Sahrawi support for independence (as opposed to Spanish rule or integration with a neighbouring country) amounted to an "overwhelming consensus" and that the Polisario Front
Polisario Front
was the most powerful political force in the country.[5] With Algeria's help, Polisario set up headquarters in Tindouf.[6] Withdrawal of Spain[edit] Main article: Western Sahara
Western Sahara
War

Part of a series on the

Western Sahara
Western Sahara
conflict

Background

Spanish Sahara Greater Morocco Greater Mauritania Moroccan Army of Liberation

Movement for the Liberation of Saguia el Hamra and Wadi el Dhahab

Polisario Front Sahrawi National Union Party Madrid Accords

Disputed regions

Saguia el-Hamra Río de Oro Southern Provinces Tiris al-Gharbiyya Free Zone

Politics

Political status of Western Sahara Foreign relations of Morocco Politics of the SADR

Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs

Clashes

Ifni War Zemla Intifada Western Sahara
Western Sahara
War Independence Intifada First Intifada Gdeim Izik Arab Spring protests

Issues

Refugees

camps

Green March

Moroccan settlers

Moroccan Wall Human rights

Peace process

UN resolutions UN visiting mission UN referendum mission ICJ Advisory Opinion Settlement Plan Houston Agreement Baker Plan Manhasset negotiations Autonomy Proposal

v t e

After Moroccan pressures through the Green March
Green March
of 6 November and the Royal Moroccan Army's previous invasion of eastern Saguia el-Hamra
Saguia el-Hamra
of 31 October, Spain
Spain
entered negotiations that led to the signing of the Madrid Accords
Madrid Accords
between Spain, Morocco
Morocco
and Mauritania. Upon Spain's withdrawal, and in application of the Madrid Accords
Madrid Accords
in 1976, Morocco took over Saguia El Hamra while Mauritania
Mauritania
took control of Río de Oro. The Polisario Front
Polisario Front
proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) on 27 February 1976, and waged a guerrilla war against both Morocco
Morocco
and Mauritania. The World Court
World Court
at The Hague
The Hague
had issued its verdict on the former Spanish colony just weeks before, which each party interpreted as confirming its rights to the disputed territory.[citation needed] The Polisario kept up the guerrilla war while they simultaneously had to help guard the columns of Sahrawi refugees
Sahrawi refugees
fleeing, but after the air bombings by the Royal Moroccan Air Force
Royal Moroccan Air Force
on improvised Sahrawi refugee camps in Umm Dreiga, Tifariti, Guelta Zemmur
Guelta Zemmur
and Amgala, the Front had to relocate the refugees to Tindouf
Tindouf
(western region of Algeria).[citation needed] For the next two years the movement grew tremendously as Sahrawi refugees
Sahrawi refugees
continued flocking to the camps and Algeria
Algeria
and Libya
Libya
supplied arms and funding. Within months, its army had expanded to several thousand armed fighters, camels were replaced by modern jeeps (most of them were Spanish Land Rover Santana
Land Rover Santana
jeeps, captured from Moroccan soldiers), and 19th-century muskets were replaced by assault rifles.[citation needed] The reorganized army was able to inflict severe damage through guerrilla-style hit-and-run attacks against opposing forces in Western Sahara
Western Sahara
and in Morocco
Morocco
and Mauritania
Mauritania
proper.[citation needed] Withdrawal of Mauritania[edit] A comprehensive peace treaty was signed on 5 August 1979, in which the new government recognized Sahrawi rights to Western Sahara
Western Sahara
and relinquished its own claims. Mauritania
Mauritania
withdrew all its forces and would later proceed to formally recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, causing a massive rupture in relations with Morocco. King Hassan II of Morocco
Morocco
immediately claimed the area of Western Sahara evacuated by Mauritania
Mauritania
(Tiris al-Gharbiya, roughly corresponding to the southern half of Río de Oro), which was unilaterally annexed by Morocco
Morocco
in August 1979.[7] Moroccan wall stalemates the war[edit] From the mid-1980s Morocco
Morocco
largely managed to keep Polisario troops off by building a huge berm or sand wall (the Moroccan Wall), staffed by an army, enclosing within it the economically useful parts of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
(Bou Craa, El-Aaiun, Smara, etc.)[citation needed] This stalemated the war, with no side able to achieve decisive gains, but artillery strikes and sniping attacks by the Polisario continued, and Morocco
Morocco
was economically and politically strained by the war. Today Polisario controls the part of the Western Sahara
Western Sahara
on the east of the Moroccan Wall, comprising about a third of the territory, but this area is economically useless, heavily mined, and almost uninhabited.[citation needed] Ceasefire and the referendum process[edit] Main article: Settlement Plan A ceasefire between the Polisario Front
Polisario Front
and Morocco, monitored by MINURSO
MINURSO
(UN), has been in effect since 6 September 1991, on the promise of a referendum on independence the following year.[citation needed] However, the referendum stalled over disagreements on voter rights. Numerous attempts to restart the process (most significantly the launching of the 2003 Baker Plan) seem to have failed. The Polisario has repeatedly threatened to resume hostilities if a referendum cannot be held, and claims that the current situation of "neither peace, nor war" is unsustainable.[citation needed] Pressures on the leadership from the refugee population to resume fighting are apparent, but to date the cease fire (unlike the referendum promise) has been respected.[citation needed] In April 2007, the government of Morocco
Morocco
suggested that a self-governing entity, through the Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS), should govern the territory with some degree of autonomy for Western Sahara. The project was presented to the United Nations Security Council in mid-April 2007, and quickly gained French and US support. Polisario had handed in its own proposal the day before, which insisted on the previously agreed referendum, but allowed for negotiating the status of Moroccans
Moroccans
now living in the territory should the outcome of a referendum be in favor of independence. This led to the negotiations process known as the Manhasset negotiations. Four rounds were held in 2007 and 2008; no progress was made, however, as both parties refused to compromise about what they considered core sovereignty issues. Polisario agreed to add autonomy as per the Moroccan proposal to a referendum ballot, but refused to relinquish the concept of an independence referendum itself, as agreed in 1991 and 1997. Morocco, in its turn, insisted on only negotiating the terms of autonomy offered, but refused to consider an option of independence on the ballot.[citation needed] Political ideology[edit]

Gathering of Polisario troops, near Tifariti
Tifariti
(Western Sahara), celebrating the 32nd anniversary of the Polisario Front.

The Polisario is first and foremost a nationalist organization, whose main goal is the independence of Western Sahara. It has stated that ideological disputes should be left for a future democratic Western Sahara
Sahara
to deal with. It views itself as a "front" encompassing all political trends in Sahrawi society, and not as a political party. As a consequence, there is no party program. However, the Sahrawi republic's constitution gives a hint of the movement's ideological context: in the early 1970s, Polisario adopted a vaguely socialist rhetoric, in line with most national liberation movements of the time, but this was eventually abandoned in favor of a non-politicized Sahrawi nationalism. By the late 1970s, references to socialism in the republic's constitution were removed, and by 1991, the Polisario was explicitly pro-free-market. The Polisario has stated that it will, when Sahrawi self-determination has been achieved, either function as a party within the context of a multi-party system, or be completely disbanded. This is to be decided by a Polisario Front
Polisario Front
congress upon the achievement of Western Sahara's independence. Attitudes to armed struggle[edit] The Polisario Front
Polisario Front
has denounced terrorism and attacks against civilians,[8] and sent condolences to Morocco
Morocco
after the 2003 Casablanca bombings. It describes its struggle as a "clean war of national liberation". Since 1989, when the ceasefire was first concluded, the movement has stated it will pursue its goal of Western Sahara's independence by peaceful means as long as Morocco
Morocco
complies with the ceasefire conditions, which include arranging a referendum on independence, while reserving the right to resume armed struggle if terms are objectively breached, for example, if the referendum is not conducted. Mohamed Abdelaziz has repeatedly stated that the Moroccan withdrawal from the 1991 Settlement Plan
Settlement Plan
and refusal to sign the 2003 Baker Plan
Baker Plan
would logically lead to war from its perspective if the international community does not step in.[9] In contrast, Polisario-Mauritanian relations following a peace treaty in 1979 and the recognition of the SADR by Mauritania
Mauritania
in 1984, with the latter's retreat from Western Sahara, have been quiet and generally neutral without reports of armed clashes from either side. The series of protests and riots in 2005 by Sahrawis in "the occupied territories" received strong vocal support from Polisario as a new pressure point on Morocco. Abdelaziz characterized them as a substitute path for the armed struggle, and indicated that if peaceful protest was squashed, in its view, without a referendum forthcoming, its armed forces would intervene.[citation needed] Relations with Algeria[edit] Algeria
Algeria
has shown an unconditional support for the Polisario Front since 1975, delivering arms, training, financial aid, and food, without interruption for more than 30 years. In 1976, Algeria
Algeria
called the Moroccan takeover of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
a "'slow murderous' invasion against spirited fighting by Sahara
Sahara
guerrillas.[10] At the level of international relations, Algeria
Algeria
appears as a main actor and negotiator in opposition to Morocco
Morocco
since the beginning of the Western Sahara
Sahara
conflict.[citation needed] Structure[edit] Organizational background[edit]

A pro-Polisario demonstration in Barcelona
Barcelona
(2006)

Mohamed Abdelaziz, the Polisario Front
Polisario Front
secretary-general (in white).

Until 1991, the Polisario Front's structure was much different from the present one. It was, despite a few changes, inherited from the before 1975, when the Polisario Front
Polisario Front
functioned as a small, tightly-knit guerrilla movement, with a few hundred members. Consequently, it made few attempts at a division of powers, instead concentrating most of the decision-making power in the top echelons of Polisario for maximum battlefield efficiency. This meant that most power rested in the hands of the Secretary General and a nine-man executive committee, elected at congresses and with different military and political responsibilities. A 21-man Politburo
Politburo
would further check decisions and connect the movement with its affiliated "mass organizations", UGTSARIO, UJSARIO
UJSARIO
and UNMS
UNMS
(see below). But after the movement took on the role as a state-in-waiting in 1975, based in the refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria, this structure proved incapable of dealing with its vastly expanded responsibilities. As a consequence, the old military structure was wedded to the new grass-roots refugee camp administration which had asserted itself in Tindouf, with its system of committees and elected camp assemblies. In 1976, the situation was further complicated by the Sahrawi Republic assuming functions of government in the camps and Polisario-held territories of Western Sahara. The SADR and Polisario institutions often overlapped, and their division of power was often hard to ascertain. A more comprehensive merger of these different organizational patterns (military organization/refugee camps/SADR) was not achieved until the 1991 congress, when both the Polisario and SADR organizations were overhauled, integrated into the camp structure and further separated from each other. This followed protests calling for expanding the internal democracy of the movement, and also led to important shifts of personnel in the top tiers of both Polisario and SADR. Present structure[edit] The organizational order described below applies today, and was roughly finalized in the 1991 internal reforms of the movement, although minor changes have been made since then. The Polisario Front
Polisario Front
is led by a Secretary General. The first Secretary General was Brahim Gali,[11] replaced in 1974 by El-Ouali at the II Congress of the Polisario Front, followed by Mahfoud Ali Beiba
Mahfoud Ali Beiba
as Interim Secretary General upon his death. In 1976, Mohamed Abdelaziz was elected at the III Congress of the Polisario, and has held the post ever since. The Secretary General is elected by the General Popular Congress (GPC), regularly convened every four years. The GPC is composed of delegates from the Popular Congresses of the refugee camps in Tindouf, which are held biannually in each camp, and of delegates from the women's organization (UNMS), youth organization (UJSARIO), workers' organization (UGTSARIO) and military delegates from the SPLA (see below). All residents of the camps have a vote in the Popular Congresses, and participate in the administrative work in the camp through base-level 11-person cells, which form the smallest unit of the refugee camp political structure. These typically care for distribution of food, water and schooling in their area, joining in higher-level organs (encompassing several camp quarters) to cooperate and establish distribution chains. There is no formal membership of Polisario; instead, anyone who participates in its work or lives in the refugee camps is considered a member. Between congresses, the supreme decision-making body is the National Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General. The NS is elected by the GPC. It is subdivided into committees handling defense, diplomatic affairs, etc. The 2003 NS, elected at the 11th GPC in Tifariti, Western Sahara, has 41 members. Twelve of these are secret delegates from the Moroccan-controlled areas of Western Sahara. This is a shift in policy, as the Polisario traditionally confined political appointments to diaspora Sahrawis, for fear of infiltration and difficulties in communicating with Sahrawis in the Moroccan-controlled territories. It is probably intended to strengthen the movement's underground network in Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara, and link up with the rapidly growing Sahrawi civil rights activism. In 2004, an anti-ceasefire and anti-Abdelaziz opposition fraction, the Front Polisario Khat al-Shahid
Front Polisario Khat al-Shahid
announced its existence, in the first break with the principle of "national unity" (i.e., working in one single organization to prevent internal conflict). It calls for reforms in the movement, as well as resumption of hostilities with Morocco. But it remains of little importance to the conflict, as the group had split in two factions, and Polisario has refused dialogs with it, stating that political decisions must be taken within the established political system. Armed forces (SPLA)[edit] The Polisario Front
Polisario Front
has no navy or air force. The Sahrawi People's Liberation Army, (SPLA, often abbreviated in Spanish as ELPS – Ejército de Liberación Popular Saharaui), is the Polisario's army.[12] Its commander-in-chief is the Secretary General, but it is also integrated into the SADR system through the institution of a SADR Minister of Defence. The SPLA's armed units are considered to have a manpower of possibly 6–7,000 active soldiers today, but during the war years its strength appears to have been significantly higher: up to 20,000 men. It has a potential manpower of many times that number, since both male and female refugees in the Tindouf
Tindouf
camps undergo military training at age 18.[citation needed] Women formed auxiliary units protecting the camps during war years. Equipment[edit]

A Polisario tank division 2012

Captured Moroccan Eland armoured cars in the Polisario Museum.

When it originally began the anti-Spanish rebellion, Polisario was forced to capture its weapons individually, and transport them only by foot or camel. But the insurgents multiplied their arsenal and military sophistication after striking an alliance with Algeria
Algeria
in 1975. The modern SPLA is equipped mainly with outdated Soviet-manufactured weaponry, donated by Algeria. But its arsenals display a bewildering variety of material, much of it captured from Spanish, Mauritanian (Panhard AMLs) or Moroccan forces (Eland Mk7s, Ratel IFVs, AMX-13s, SK-105 Kürassiers) and made in France, the United States, South Africa, Austria
Austria
or Britain. The SPLA has several armored units, composed of old tanks (T-55s, T-62s), somewhat more modern armored cars (EE-9 Cascavels, BRDM-2s), infantry fighting vehicles (BMP-1s, BTR-60s), rocket launchers (BM-21s) and halftracks. Surface-to-air missiles (anti-aircraft missiles, as SA-6s, SA-7s, SA-8s and SA-9s) have downed several Moroccan F-5 fighter jets, and helped compensate for the complete Moroccan control of the skies.[13] One of the most innovative tactics of the SPLA was its early and extensive use of Land Rovers and other re-modeled civilian vehicles, mounting anti-aircraft machine guns (as ZPU-2
ZPU-2
or ZU-23) or anti-tank missiles, (as the AT-3 Sagger) and using them in great numbers, to overwhelm unprepared garrisoned outposts in rapid surprise strikes. This may reflect the movement's difficulties in obtaining original military equipment, but nonetheless proved a powerful tactic.[14] On 3 November 2005, the Polisario Front
Polisario Front
signed the Geneva Call, committing itself to a total ban on landmines, and later began to destroy its landmine stockpiles under international supervision. Morocco
Morocco
is one of 40 governments that have not signed the 1997 mine ban treaty. Both parties have used mines extensively in the conflict, but some mine-clearing operations have been carried out under MINURSO supervision since the ceasefire agreement.[15][16] Tactics[edit] The SPLA traditionally employed ghazzi tactics, i.e., motorized surprise raids over great distances, which were inspired by the traditional camel-back war parties of the Sahrawi tribes. However, after the construction of the Moroccan Wall
Moroccan Wall
this changed into tactics more resembling conventional warfare, with a focus on artillery, snipers and other long-range attacks. In both phases of the war, SPLA units relied on superior knowledge of the terrain, speed and surprise, and on the ability to retain experienced fighters. Defections[edit] Main article: Former members of the Polisario Front Since the end of the 1980s, several members of the Polisario have decided to discontinue their military or political activities for the Polisario Front. Most of them returned from the Sahrawi refugee camps in Algeria
Algeria
to Morocco, among them a few founder members and senior officials. Some of them are now actively promoting Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara, which Morocco
Morocco
considers its Southern Provinces. Foreign relations[edit]

Mohammed Abdelaziz with Raul Castro June 4th 2014

Main article: Foreign relations of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Today 45 countries around the world recognize the legitimacy of the Polisario over Western Sahara. Support for the Polisario Front
Polisario Front
came mostly from newly independent African states, such as Angola
Angola
and Namibia. Most of the Arab world
Arab world
had supported Morocco; only Algeria and Libya
Libya
have, at different times, given any significant support to Polisario. Iran
Iran
recognized the SADR in 1980, Mauritania
Mauritania
had recognized the SADR in 1984, and Syria
Syria
and South Yemen
South Yemen
had supported the Polisario position on the conflict when they were all members of the Front of Refusal. Additionally, many third world non-aligned countries have supported the Polisario Front. Ties with Fretilin
Fretilin
of East Timor (occupied by Indonesia
Indonesia
in 1975) were exceptionally strong and remain so after that country's independence; both Polisario and Fretilin
Fretilin
have argued that there are numerous historical parallels between the two conflicts.[17][18][19] The movement's main political and military backers were originally Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, with Cuba
Cuba
coming a very distant third. Mauritania also attempts to avoid involvement and to balance between Morocco
Morocco
and Polisario's backers in Algeria, although it formally recognizes the SADR as Western Sahara's government since 1984 and has a substantial Sahrawi refugee population (around 30,000) on its territory. Support from Algeria
Algeria
remains strong, despite the country's preoccupation with its own civil war. The Polisario is practically dependent on its bases and refugee camps, located on Algerian soil. While Algeria
Algeria
recognizes the Sahrawis' right to wage an armed struggle against Morocco, and has helped to equip the SPLA, the government also seems to have barred Polisario from returning to armed struggle after 1991, attempting to curry favor from the US and France
France
and to avoid inflaming its already poor relations with Morocco.[20] Apart from the Algerian military, material and humanitarian aid, food and emergency resources are provided by international organizations such as the WHO
WHO
and UNHCR. Valuable contributions also come from the strong Spanish solidarity organizations. Western Sahara
Western Sahara
in the Cold War[edit] The most intense open warfare in the conflict in Western Sahara occurred during the Cold War. However, the conflict was never fully dragged into the United-States–Soviet dynamics like many other conflicts. This was mainly because both sides tried to avoid overt involvement, which would necessitate a crash in relations with either Morocco
Morocco
or Algeria
Algeria
– the major North African players – and because neither viewed it as an important front. Morocco
Morocco
was firmly entrenched in the US camp, whereas Algeria
Algeria
aligned generally with the Soviet Union during the 1970s, and took a more independent "third-worldist" position after that. The United States
United States
claimed political neutrality on the issue, but militarily backed Morocco
Morocco
against Polisario during the Cold War, especially during the Reagan administration. Despite this, Polisario never received counter-support from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(or the People's Republic of China, the third and junior player in the Cold War). Instead, the entire Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
decided in favor of ties and trade with Morocco
Morocco
and refused to recognize the SADR. This made the Polisario almost wholly dependent mainly on Algeria
Algeria
and Libya
Libya
and some African and Latin American third world countries for political support, plus some NGOs from European countries (Sweden, Norway, Spain, etc.) which generally only approached the issue from a humanitarian angle. The ceasefire coincided with the end of the Cold War. World interest in the conflict seemed to expire in the 1990s as the Sahara
Sahara
question gradually sank from public consciousness due to decreasing media attention. International recognition of the SADR[edit] Main article: Political status of Western Sahara A key diplomatic dispute between Morocco
Morocco
and Polisario is over the international diplomatic recognition of the SADR as a sovereign state and Western Sahara's legitimate government. In 2004, South Africa announced formal recognition of the SADR, delayed for ten years despite unequivocal promises by Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
as apartheid fell. This came since the announced referendum for Western Sahara
Western Sahara
was never held. Kenya
Kenya
and Uruguay
Uruguay
followed in 2005, and relations were upgraded in some other countries, while recognition of the SADR was cancelled by others (Albania,[citation needed] Chad,[citation needed] Serbia); in 2006, Kenya
Kenya
suspended its decision to recognize the SADR to act as a mediating party. See also[edit]

Western Sahara
Western Sahara
portal

History of Western Sahara Independence Intifada (Western Sahara) Morocco's foreign relations Politics of Western Sahara Zemla Intifada

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Member parties of the Socialist International
Socialist International
– Observer parties. Socialistinternational.org. ^ http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/34/a34res37.pdf ^ Pro-Sahrawi demo held in Spain
Spain
PressTV, 14 November 2010. ^ a b c Lippert 1992, p. 638. ^ Shelley, Toby (2004). Endgame in the Western Sahara: What Future for Africa's Last Colony?. London: Zed Books. pp. 171–172. ISBN 1-84277-340-2.  ^ Arieff, Alexis (8 October 2014). "Western Sahara" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 24 October 2016.  ^ BBC Country Profile. BBC News (24 June 2014). ^ "'11 Sept has not influenced Western Sahara's situation'". Afrol.net. ^ BBC Afrol.com ^ " Algeria
Algeria
Claims Spanish Sahara
Spanish Sahara
Is Being Invaded". The Monroe News-Star. 1 January 1976. Retrieved 19 October 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ Tomás Bárbulo, La historia prohibida del Sáhara Español, Destino, 2002, Pages 105–106 ^ "Editor Chris Brazier’s Journey Into Polosario Territory, Including His Trip Through A Cleared Minefield, A Visit To An Underground Hospital, And To A Guerrilla Army Base". New Internationalist. ^ "Moroccan Air Force at 50". Air Scene UK. ^ Michael Bhatia, " Western Sahara
Western Sahara
under Polisario Control: Summary Report of Field Mission to the Sahrawi Refugee Camps (near Tindouf, Algeria)". ARSO.org. ^ genevacall.org Archived 1 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ genevacall.org Archived 4 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ramos-Horta, Jose (31 October 2005). "The dignity of the ballot". The Guardian. ^ "Timor achieves UN dream". East Timor
East Timor
Action Network.[unreliable source?] ^ "LATEST DEVELOPMENTS ON WESTERN SAHARA". ARSO.org (26 March 2004). ^ MERIP.org. Middle East Research and Information Project. Archived 10 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine.

Sources[edit]

Lippert, Anne (1992). "Sahrawi Women in the Liberation Struggle of the Sahrawi People". Signs. The University of Chicago Press. 17 (3): 636–651. doi:10.1086/494752. JSTOR 3174626. (Subscription required (help)). 

Further reading[edit]

Jarat Chopra, United Nations
United Nations
Determination of the Western Saharan Self (Norwegian Institute of Foreign Affairs 1994) Tony Hodges, Western Sahara. The Roots of a Desert War (Lawrence & Hill 1983) Leo Kamil, Fueling the Fire. U.S. policy & the Western Sahara Conflict (Red Sea Press 1987) Anthony G. Pazzanita & Tony Hodges, Historical dictionary of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
(2nd ed. Scarecrow Press 1994) Toby Shelley, Endgame in the Western Sahara
Western Sahara
(Zed Books 2004) Forced Migration Organization: FMO Research Guide Bibliography

External links[edit]

The Association for a Free & Fair Referendum
Referendum
in Western Sahara R.A.S.D. Foreign minister critical response to the supposed independent ESISC's report Michael Palin's visit to Smara
Smara
Refugee Camp The self determination process of the former Spanish Sahara

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Polisario Front.

v t e

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic articles

History

before 1975  (timeline)

Colonial wars in Morocco Spanish Sahara
Spanish Sahara
(1884–1975) Spanish Morocco
Morocco
(1913–1956) Moroccan Army of Liberation Ifni War
Ifni War
(1957–1958)

1975

UN visiting mission (May) ICJ Advisory Opinion (October) Green March
Green March
(November) Madrid Accords
Madrid Accords
(November)

Since 1975

Western Sahara
Western Sahara
conflict

Western Sahara
Western Sahara
War (1975–1991)

Berm
Berm
(built 1981–1987) Western Sahara
Western Sahara
peace process

Settlement Plan
Settlement Plan
(1991) UN referendum mission (MINURSO, 1991–present) Houston Agreement (1997) Baker Plan
Baker Plan
(2000/2003) UN Security Council Resolution 1495 (2003) / 1754 (2007) Manhasset negotiations
Manhasset negotiations
(2007–2008)

Geography

Cities Climate Ecoregions Wildlife

Politics

Constitution Political status Parliament Polisario Front

Government

Government President Prime Minister Diplomatic relations

International recognition

Economy

Infrastructure

Economy Sahrawi peseta
Sahrawi peseta
(currency) Telecommunications Transportation

Society

Human rights

LGBT

Demographics Cuisine Music Sahrawi people

Outline Bibliography

Category Portal

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Western Sahara articles

Political status Sahrawi Republic

History  (timeline)

Before 1975

Colonial wars in Morocco Spanish Sahara
Spanish Sahara
(1884–1975)

Colonial governors

Spanish Morocco
Morocco
(1913–1956)

High commissioners

Moroccan Army of Liberation Ifni War
Ifni War
(1957–1958)

1975

UN visiting mission (May) ICJ Advisory Opinion (October) Green March
Green March
(November) Madrid Accords
Madrid Accords
(November)

Since 1975

Western Sahara
Western Sahara
War (1975–1991) Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
(SADR, 1976–present) Berm
Berm
(built 1981–1987) Settlement Plan
Settlement Plan
(1991) UN referendum mission (MINURSO, 1991–present) Houston Agreement (1997) Baker Plan
Baker Plan
(2000/2003) UN Security Council Resolution 1495 (2003) / 1754 (2007) Manhasset negotiations
Manhasset negotiations
(2007–2008)

Geography

Cities Climate Ecoregions Wildlife

Politics

Human rights

LGBT

Legal status Moroccan Initiative Polisario Front

former members

Politics

SADR

Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs
Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs
(CORCAS) International recognition

Economy

Sahrawi peseta
Sahrawi peseta
(currency) Telecommunications Transportation

Culture

Cuisine Demographics Music Sahrawi people

Outline Bibliography

Category Portal

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Militaries of Africa

Sovereign states

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan ( Sudan People's Liberation Army
Sudan People's Liberation Army
· South Sudan Defence Forces) Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

States with limited recognition

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland

Dependencies and other territories

Canary Islands  / Ceuta
Ceuta
 / Melilla
Melilla
 / Alboran Island  / Plazas de soberanía
Plazas de soberanía
(Spain) Madeira (Portugal) Mayotte  / Réunion (France) Saint Helena  / Ascension Island  / Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom)

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Militaries of the Arab world

Sovereign states

Algeria Bahrain Comoros Chad Djibouti Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Somalia Sudan Syria Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen

States with limited recognition

Palestine Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland

italic - country that sometimes recognized as part o

.