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The term pogrom has multiple meanings,[1] ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.[2] The term is usually applied to anti- Jewish
Jewish
violence in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries according to Encyclopædia Britannica[2]. It has been extended to include any attacks against Jews
Jews
and physical destruction of Jewish
Jewish
property, as well as looting of Jewish
Jewish
homes and businesses, throughout history.[1][3][4] The characteristics of a pogrom vary widely depending on the specific incidents, at times leading to, or culminating in massacres. All outbreaks of anti-Semitic violence became retrospectively known as pogroms.[5] The Russian-language term was adopted in the English language
English language
in order to describe mass violence of 1881 and 1882 directed against Jews within the Pale of Settlement
Pale of Settlement
first created by Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
in what would become most of present-day Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus, as well as parts of Lithuania, Moldova
Moldova
and Poland. The term pogrom is used sometimes to describe publicly sanctioned purgative attacks against non- Jewish
Jewish
ethnic or religious groups as well.[2][6][7][8][9]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Historical background

2.1 Pogroms
Pogroms
in the Russian Empire 2.2 Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
period 2.3 Pogroms
Pogroms
outside Russia 2.4 Nazi-occupied Europe 2.5 After World War II

3 Usage 4 Selected list of events named pogroms 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Citations 8 Further reading

Etymology[edit] Main article: Definitions of pogrom First recorded in 1882, the Russian word pogrom (погро́м, pronounced [pɐˈgrom]) is derived from the common prefix po- and the verb gromit' (громи́ть, pronounced [grɐˈmʲitʲ]) meaning "to destroy, to wreak havoc, to demolish violently". Its literal translation is "to harm".[10] The noun "pogrom", which has a relatively short history, is used in English and many other languages as a loanword, possibly borrowed from Yiddish
Yiddish
(where the word takes the form פאָגראָם).[11] Its widespread circulation in today's world began with the anti-Semitic excesses in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in 1881–1883.[12]

The Hep-Hep riots
Hep-Hep riots
in Frankfurt, 1819. On the left, two peasant women are assaulting a Jewish
Jewish
man with pitchfork and broom. On the right, a man wearing spectacles, tails and a six-button waistcoat, "perhaps a pharmacist or a schoolteacher,"[13] holds another Jewish
Jewish
man by the throat and is about to club him with a truncheon. The houses are being looted. A contemporary engraving by Johann Michael Voltz.

Historical background[edit] Anti- Jewish
Jewish
riots had already taken place in Europe
Europe
during the Middle Ages. Jewish
Jewish
communities were targeted in the Black Death Jewish persecutions of 1348–1350, in Toulon
Toulon
in 1348, in Barcelona
Barcelona
as well as in other Catalan cities,[14] during the Erfurt massacre (1349), the Basel massacre, massacres in Aragon, and in Flanders,[15][16] as well as the "Valentine's Day" Strasbourg pogrom
Strasbourg pogrom
of 1349.[17] Some 510 Jewish
Jewish
communities were destroyed during this period,[18] extending further to the Brussels massacre
Brussels massacre
of 1370. On Holy Saturday of 1389, a pogrom began in Prague
Prague
that led to the burning of the Jewish
Jewish
quarter, the killing of many Jews, and the suicide of many Jews
Jews
trapped in the main synagogue; the number of dead was estimated at 400–500 men, women, and children.[19] The first atrocities against Jewish
Jewish
civilians, on a genocidal scale of destruction, were committed during the Khmelnytsky Pogroms
Pogroms
of 1648–1657 in present-day Ukraine. The exact number of deaths is unknown, although it is estimated that about 20 percent of the Jews
Jews
of the entire region were killed.[20] Modern historians give estimates of the scale of the murders by Khmelnytsky's Cossacks ranging between 40,000 and 100,000 men, women and children,[21][22] or perhaps many more.[23] Pogroms
Pogroms
in the Russian Empire[edit] Further information: Anti- Jewish
Jewish
pogroms in the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, which previously had very few Jews, acquired territories with the large Jewish
Jewish
populations during the military Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
in 1772, 1793, and 1795 conducted jointly with the Austrian and Prussian armies, and resulting in Poland's elimination from the geopolitical map of Europe for the next 123 years.[24] In conquered territories, a new political entity called Pale of Settlement
Pale of Settlement
was formed in 1791 by Catherine the Great. Most Jewish
Jewish
people from the former Commonwealth were only allowed to reside within the Pale, including families expelled by royal decree from St. Petersburg, Moscow, and other big Russian cities.[25] The 1821 Odessa pogroms marked the beginning of the 19th century pogroms in Tsarist Russia; there were four more such pogroms in Odessa
Odessa
before the end of the century. Following the assassination of Alexander II in 1881 by Narodnaya Volya – blamed on the Jews
Jews
by the Russian government, anti- Jewish
Jewish
events turned into a wave of over 200 pogroms by their modern definition, which lasted for several years.[26][27] Jewish
Jewish
self-governing Kehillah were abolished by Tsar Nicholas I in 1844.[28] The first, in the 20th century Russia, was the Kishinev pogrom
Kishinev pogrom
of 1903 in which 47 Jews
Jews
were killed, hundreds wounded, 700 homes destroyed and 600 businesses pillaged.[29] In the same year, pogroms took place in Gomel
Gomel
(Belarus), Smela, Feodosiya
Feodosiya
and Melitopol
Melitopol
(Ukraine). Extreme savagery was demonstrated with mutilations of the wounded.[30] They were followed by the Zhitomir
Zhitomir
pogrom (with 29 killed),[31] and the Kiev
Kiev
pogrom of October 1905 resulting in a massacre of approximately 100 Jews.[32] In three years between 1903 and 1906, about 660 pogroms were recorded in Ukraine
Ukraine
and in Bessarabia; half a dozen more in Belorussia, carried out with the Russian government's complicity. There were no anti- Jewish
Jewish
pogroms recorded in Poland.[30] At about that time, the Jewish
Jewish
Labour Bund began organizing armed self-defence units ready to shoot, and the pogroms subsided for a number of years.[32] According to professor Colin Tatz, between 1881 and 1920, there were 1,326 pogroms in Ukraine
Ukraine
(see: Southwestern Krai
Southwestern Krai
parts of the Pale) which took the lives of 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews, leaving half a million homeless.[33][34] Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
period[edit]

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Pogrom
Pogrom
victims in Alexander Hospital, Kiev, 1919. Credit: Elias Tcherikower

Large-scale pogroms, which began in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
several decades earlier, intensified during the period of the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and the Revolution of 1917. Professor Zvi Gitelman
Zvi Gitelman
(A Century of Ambivalence) estimated that only in 1918–1919 over 1,200 pogroms took place in Ukraine, thus amounting to the greatest slaughter of Jews
Jews
in Eastern Europe
Europe
since 1648.[35] Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
in his book Two Hundred Years Together provided additional statistics from research conducted by Nahum Gergel
Nahum Gergel
(1887–1931). Gergel counted 1,236 incidents of anti- Jewish
Jewish
violence and estimated that 887 mass pogroms occurred – the remainder being classified as "excesses" not assuming mass proportions.[36][34] The Kiev
Kiev
pogroms of 1919, according to Gitelman, were the first of a subsequent wave of pogroms in which between 30,000 and 70,000 Jews
Jews
were massacred across Ukraine.[37][38] Of all the pogroms accounted for in Gergel's research, about 40 percent were perpetrated by the Ukrainian People's Republic forces led by Symon Petliura, 25 percent by the Ukrainian Green Army and various Ukrainian nationalist gangs, 17 percent by the White Army, especially the forces of Anton Denikin. A further 8.5 percent of Gergel's total was attributed to pogroms carried out by men of the Red Army
Red Army
– although these pogroms were not sanctioned by the Bolshevik leadership; the high command disarmed the regiments which had perpetrated pogroms.[36][39] The Ukrainian People's Republic of Symon Petliura
Symon Petliura
did also issue orders condemning pogroms,[40] but it lacked authority to intervene.[40] After May 1919 the Directory lost its role as a credible governing body; almost 75 percent of pogroms occurred between May and September of that year.[41] Thousands of Jews
Jews
were killed only for being members of the Jewish
Jewish
faith, without any political affiliations.[34]

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The instructions issued from above had only a limited impact on soldiers' attitudes toward violence against Jews, as related by author and future Nobel laureate Ivan Bunin. On May 15, 1919, Bunin wrote in his diary about yet another massacre:

Members of the Red Army
Red Army
in Odessa
Odessa
led a pogrom against the Jewish population in the town of Big Fountain. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky and the writer Kipen happened to be there and told me the details. Fourteen comissars and thirty Jews
Jews
from among the common people were killed. Many stores were destroyed. The soldiers tore through the night, dragged the victims from their beds, and killed whomever they met. People ran into the steppe or rushed into the sea. They were chased after and fired upon – a genuine hunt, as it were. Kipen saved himself by accident – fortunately he had spent the night not in his home, but at the White Flower sanitorium. At dawn, a detachment of Red Army soldiers appeared 'Are there any Jews
Jews
here?' they asked the watchman. 'No, no Jews
Jews
here.' 'Swear what you're saying is true!' The watchman swore, and they went on farther. Moisei Gutman, a cabby, was killed. He was a dear man who moved us from our dacha last fall.[42]

Gergel's overall figures, which are generally considered conservative, are based on the testimony of witnesses and newspaper reports collected by the Mizrakh-yidish historiche arkhiv, which was first based in Kiev, then Berlin and later New York. The English version of Gergel's article was published in 1951 in the YIVO
YIVO
Annual of Jewish Social Science titled "The Pogroms
Pogroms
in the Ukraine
Ukraine
in 1918–1921."[43] In June 1919, during the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
of liberation,[44][45] the Jewish
Jewish
First Guard Battalion from Minsk
Minsk
– at the insistence of its own members – was deployed by the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
against the Polish Army which included the First and the Second Lithuanian–Belarusian Divisions.[46] The Jews
Jews
had won the first skirmish, forcing them to retreat several kilometers.[44] On 8 August 1919, Polish troops took over the city in Operation Minsk,[47][48] killed thirty-one Jews suspected of supporting the Bolshevist movement, beat and attacked many more, looted 377 Jewish-owned shops (aided by the local civilians), and ransacked many private homes.[48][49] The aftermath of the pogrom in Minsk
Minsk
was described on an emotional level by Rabbi Yechezkel Abramsky in July 1920.[50] The "Morgenthau's report of October 1919 stated that there is no question that some of the Jewish leaders exaggerated these evils."[51][45] According to Elissa Bemporad, the "violence endured by the Jewish
Jewish
population under the Poles
Poles
encouraged popular support for the Red Army, as Jewish
Jewish
public opinion welcomed the establishment of the Belorussian SSR." Irrespective of war-zone violence, the Jewish
Jewish
political groups, communal institutions, and cultural organizations of all stripes were active in the Second Polish Republic.[45][50] Pogroms
Pogroms
outside Russia[edit] In the early 20th century the pogroms broke out elsewhere in the world as well. In 1904 in Ireland, the Limerick boycott caused several Jewish
Jewish
families to leave the town. During the 1911 Tredegar riot in Wales, Jewish
Jewish
homes and businesses were looted and burned over the period of a week, before the British Army
British Army
was called in by then-Home Secretary Winston Churchill, who described the riot as a "pogrom".[52] In 1919, there was a pogrom in Argentina, during the Tragic Week.[53] After the First World War, during the localized armed conflicts of independence, 72 Jews
Jews
were killed and 443 injured in the 1918 Lwów pogrom.[54][55][56][57][58] The following year, pogroms were reported by the New-York Tribune
New-York Tribune
in several cities in the newly reborn Poland,[59] however, the reports were not only exaggerated, but also manufactured by the German legation in Warsaw, quietly opposed to the rebirth of Poland
Poland
after a century of imperial partitions. The German reports were delivered to Zionist headquarters and the foreign press elsewhere by the official services of the Wihelmstrasse.[60] Meanwhile, in the Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
under British administration, the Jews
Jews
have been targeted in the 1929 Hebron massacre
1929 Hebron massacre
and the 1929 Safed pogrom. The first pogrom in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
was the Kristallnacht, often called Pogromnacht, in which at least 91 Jews
Jews
were killed, a further 30,000 arrested and incarcerated in Nazi
Nazi
concentration camps,[61] over 1,000 synagogues burned, and over 7,000 Jewish
Jewish
businesses destroyed or damaged.[62][63] Nazi-occupied Europe[edit] Main article: The Holocaust

Iași pogrom
Iași pogrom
in Romania, June 1941

During World War II, Nazi
Nazi
German death squads encouraged local populations in German-occupied Europe
German-occupied Europe
to commit pogroms against Jews. Brand new battalions of Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz
Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz
(trained by SD agents) were mobilized from among the German minorities, in order to make the local populations share responsibility for the killings.[64][65] During Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
which lasted from June 22 to December 5, 1941, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
established the Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
collaborationist auxiliary battalions and tasked them with carrying out pogroms behind the front lines.[66] A large number of pogroms occurred during the Holocaust at the hands of non-Germans.[67] Perhaps the deadliest of these Holocaust-era pogroms was the Iași pogrom
Iași pogrom
in Romania, in which as many as 13,266 Jews
Jews
were killed by Romanian citizens, police, and military officials.[68] On 1–2 June 1941, the two-day Farhud
Farhud
pogrom in Iraq, in which "rioters murdered between 150 and 180 Jews, injured 600 others, and raped an undetermined number of women. They also looted some 1,500 stores and homes".[69][70]

Jewish
Jewish
woman chased by men and youth armed with clubs during the Lviv pogroms, July 1941

In June–July, 1941, encouraged by the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
in the city of Lviv – location of the Lwów Ghetto
Lwów Ghetto
– the Ukrainian People's Militia soon reorganized as the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
perpetrated two citywide pogroms, in which around 6,000 Polish Jews
Jews
were murdered,[71] in retribution for alleged collaboration with the Soviet NKVD; the controversy surrounding the Lviv pogroms
Lviv pogroms
of 1941 is still debated today. On 12 October 1941 in Stanisławów, some 10,000–12,000 Jewish
Jewish
men, women, and children were shot at the Jewish
Jewish
cemetery by the Germans and the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police during the so-called "Bloody Sunday" (de).[72] The shooters began firing at 12 noon and continued without stopping by taking turns.[73] It was the single largest massacre of Jews
Jews
in General Government
General Government
prior to mass gassings of Aktion Reinhard.[74] In Lithuania, some Lithuanian police led by Algirdas Klimaitis and the Lithuanian partisans – consisting of LAF units reinforced by 3,600 deserters from 29th Lithuanian Territorial Corps of the Red Army[75] engaged in anti- Jewish
Jewish
pogroms in Kaunas along with occupying Nazis. On 25–26 June 1941 about 3,800 Jews
Jews
were killed and synagogues and Jewish
Jewish
settlements burned.[76] During the Jedwabne pogrom
Jedwabne pogrom
of July 1941, some non- Jewish
Jewish
Poles
Poles
burned at least 340 Jews
Jews
in a barn-house (Institute of National Remembrance) in the presence of Nazi
Nazi
German Ordnungspolizei. The role of the German Einsatzgruppe B
Einsatzgruppe B
remains the subject of debate.[77][78][79][80][81][82] After World War II[edit] After the end of World War II, a series of violent anti-Semitic incidents occurred against returning Jews
Jews
throughout Europe, particularly in the Soviet-occupied East where Nazi
Nazi
propagandists had extensively promoted the notion of a Jewish-Communist conspiracy (see Anti- Jewish
Jewish
violence in Poland, 1944–1946 and Anti- Jewish
Jewish
violence in Eastern Europe, 1944–1946). Anti- Jewish
Jewish
riots also took place in Britain in 1947. In the Arab
Arab
world, anti- Jewish
Jewish
rioters killed over 140 Jews
Jews
in the 1945 Anti- Jewish
Jewish
Riots in Tripolitania. Following the start of the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, a number of anti-Jewish events occurred throughout the Arab
Arab
world, some of which have been described as pogroms. In 1947, half of Aleppo's 10,000 Jews
Jews
left the city in the wake of the Aleppo riots, while other anti- Jewish
Jewish
riots took place in British Aden and the French Moroccan cities of Oujda and Jerada.[83] Usage[edit]

An early reference to a "pogrom" in The Times, December 1903. Together with the New York Times
New York Times
and the Hearst press, they took the lead in highlighting the pogrom in Kishinev (now Chişinău, Moldova) and other cities in Russia.[84] In May of the same year, The Times' Russian Correspondent Dudley Disraeli Braham had been expelled from Russia.[85]

See also: Definitions of pogrom According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "the term is usually applied to attacks on Jews
Jews
in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, [and] the first extensive pogroms followed the assassination of Tsar Alexander II
Tsar Alexander II
in 1881",[2] and the Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789 states that pogroms "were antisemitic disturbances that periodically occurred within the tsarist empire."[6] However, the term is widely used to refer to many events which occurred prior to the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire. Historian of Russian Jewry John Klier writes in Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms
Pogroms
of 1881–1882 that "By the twentieth century, the word 'pogrom' had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews."[7] Abramson wrote that "in mainstream usage the word has come to imply an act of antisemitism", since whilst " Jews
Jews
have not been the only group to suffer under this phenomenon ... historically Jews have been frequent victims of such violence".[10]

The 1921 Tulsa race riot, which destroyed the wealthiest black community in the United States, has been described as a pogrom.[86]

The term is also used in reference to attacks on non- Jewish
Jewish
ethnic minorities, and accordingly some scholars do not include antisemitism as the defining characteristic of pogroms. Reviewing its uses in scholarly literature, historian Werner Bergmann proposes that pogroms should be "defined as a unilateral, nongovernmental form of collective violence initiated by the majority population against a largely defenseless ethnic group, and he states that pogroms occur when the majority expects the state to provide them with no assistance in overcoming a (perceived) threat from the minority,"[8] but he adds that in western usage, the word's "anti-Semitic overtones" have been retained.[12] Historian David Engel supports this, writing that "there can be no logically or empirically compelling grounds for declaring that some particular episode does or does not merit the label [pogrom]," but he states that the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms took place in societies significantly divided by ethnicity and/or religion where the violence was committed by the higher-ranking group against a stereotyped lower-ranking group against whom they expressed some complaint, and with the belief that the law of the land would not be used to stop them.[9] There is no universally accepted set of characteristics which define the term pogrom.[9][87] Klier writes that "when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that 'pogroms' were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features."[7] Use of the term pogrom to refer to events in 1918–19 in Polish cities including Kielce, Pinsk
Pinsk
and Lwów was specifically avoided in the 1919 Morgenthau Report and the word "excesses" was used instead, because the report's authors argued that the use of the term pogrom required a situation to be antisemitic rather than political in nature, which meant that it was inapplicable to the conditions existing in a war zone,[9][88][89] and media use of the term pogrom to refer to the 1991 Crown Heights riot
Crown Heights riot
caused public controversy.[90][91][92] In 2008, two separate attacks in the West Bank by Israeli Jewish
Jewish
settlers on Palestinian Arabs
Arabs
were characterized as pogroms by then Prime Minister of Israel, Ehud Olmert.[93][94] Werner Bergmann suggests a particularly unifying characteristic of all such incidents: "[b]y the collective attribution of a threat, the pogrom differs from other forms of violence, such as lynchings, which are directed at individual members of a minority group, while the imbalance of power in favor of the rioters distinguishes pogroms from other forms of riot (food riots, race riots, or 'communal riots' between evenly matched groups), and again, the low level of organization separates them from vigilantism, terrorism, massacre and genocide".[95] Selected list of events named pogroms[edit] This is a partial list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "pogrom".

Date Pogrom
Pogrom
name Alternative name(s) Deaths Description

38 CE Alexandrian pogrom (name disputed)[a] Alexandrian riots

Aulus Avilius Flaccus, the Egyptian prefect of Alexandria appointed by Tiberius
Tiberius
in 32 CE, may have encouraged the outbreak of violence; Philo wrote that Flaccus was later arrested and eventually executed for his part in this event. Scholarly research around the subject has been divided on certain points, including whether the Alexandrian Jews fought to keep their citizenship or to acquire it, whether they evaded the payment of the poll-tax or prevented any attempts to impose it on them, and whether they were safeguarding their identity against the Greeks or against the Egyptians.

1066 Granada
Granada
pogrom 1066 Granada
Granada
massacre 4,000 Jews A mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, which was at that time in Muslim-ruled al-Andalus, assassinated the Jewish
Jewish
vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred much of the Jewish
Jewish
population of the city.

1096 1096 pogroms Rhineland massacres 2,000 Jews Peasant
Peasant
crusaders from France
France
and Germany
Germany
during the People's Crusade, led by Peter the Hermit
Peter the Hermit
(and not sanctioned by the hierarchy of the Catholic Church), attacked Jewish
Jewish
communities in the three towns of Speyer, Worms and Mainz. They were the first Christian pogroms to be officially recorded.

1113 Kiev
Kiev
pogrom (name disputed)[b] Kiev
Kiev
revolt

Rebellion sparked by the death of the Grand Prince of Kiev, in which Jews
Jews
connected to the prince's economic affairs were among the victims

1349 Strasbourg pogrom Strasbourg massacre

1506 Lisbon pogrom Lisbon massacre 500 New Christians After an episode of famine and bad harvests, a pogrom happened in Lisbon, Portugal,[100] in which more than 500 "New Christian" (forcibly converted Jews) people were slaughtered and/or burnt by an angry Christian mob, in the first night of what became known as the "Lisbon Massacre". The killing occurred from 19 to 21 April, almost eliminating the entire Jewish
Jewish
or Jewish-descendant community residing in that city. Even the Portuguese military and the king himself had difficulty stopping it. The event is today remembered with a monument in S. Domingos' church.

1563 Polotsk
Polotsk
pogrom (name disputed)[c] Polotsk
Polotsk
drownings

Following the fall of Polotsk
Polotsk
to the army of Ivan IV, all those who refused to convert to Orthodox Christianity were ordered drowned in the Western Dvina
Western Dvina
river

1821–1871 First Odessa
Odessa
pogroms

The Greeks of Odessa
Odessa
attacked the local Jewish
Jewish
community, in what began as economic disputes

1881–1884 First Russian Tsarist pogroms

2 Jews A large-scale wave of anti- Jewish
Jewish
riots swept through south-western Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
(present-day Ukraine
Ukraine
and Poland) from 1881 to 1884 (in that period over 200 anti- Jewish
Jewish
events occurred in the Russian Empire, notably the Kiev, Warsaw and Odessa
Odessa
pogroms)

1881 Warsaw pogrom

2 Jews
Jews
(Included above) Three days of rioting against Jews, Jewish
Jewish
stores, businesses, and residences in the streets adjoining the Holy Cross Church.

1902 Częstochowa pogrom (name disputed)

14 Jews A mob attacked the Jewish
Jewish
shops, killing fourteen Jews
Jews
and one gendarme. The Russian military brought to restore order were stoned by mob.

1903–1906 Second Russian Tsarist pogroms

2,000+ Jews A much bloodier wave of pogroms broke out from 1903 to 1906, leaving an estimated 2,000 Jews
Jews
dead and many more wounded, as many Jewish residents took arms to defend their families and property from the attackers. The 1905 pogrom against the Jewish
Jewish
population in Odessa
Odessa
was the most serious pogrom of the period, with reports of up to 2,500 Jewish
Jewish
people killed.

1903 First Kishinev pogrom

47 Jews
Jews
(Included above) Three days of anti- Jewish
Jewish
rioting sparked by anti-semitic articles in local newspapers

1904 Limerick pogrom (name disputed)[d] Limerick boycott None An economic boycott waged against the small Jewish
Jewish
community in Limerick, Ireland, for over two years

1905 Second Kishinev pogrom

19 Jews
Jews
(Included above) Two days of anti- Jewish
Jewish
rioting beginning as political protests against the Tsar

1905 Kiev
Kiev
Pogrom
Pogrom
(1905)

100 Jews
Jews
(Included above) Following a city hall meeting, a mob was drawn into the streets, proclaiming that "all Russia's troubles stemmed from the machinations of the Jews
Jews
and socialists."

1906 Siedlce pogrom

26 Jews
Jews
(Included above) An attack organized by the Russian secret police (Okhrana). Anti-semitic pamphlets had been distributed for over a week and before any unrest begun, a curfew was declared.

1909 Adana
Adana
pogrom Adana
Adana
massacre 30,000 Armenians A massacre of Armenians in the city of Adana
Adana
amidst the Countercoup (1909) resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district.

1911 Tredegar pogrom (name disputed) South Wales[e] Tredegar riots None Jewish
Jewish
shops were ransacked and the army had to be brought in

1914 Anti-Serb pogrom in Sarajevo Sarajevo frenzy of hate 2 Serbs Occurred shortly after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.[104]

1918 Lwów pogrom (name disputed)[f] Lemberg massacre 52–150 Jews, 270 Ukrainians During the Polish-Ukrainian War
Polish-Ukrainian War
over three days of unrest in the city, an estimated 52–150 Jewish
Jewish
residents were killed and hundreds more were injured, with widespread looting carried out by Polish soldiers, as well as by lawless civilians, and local criminals. Two hundred and seventy Ukrainians were also killed during this incident. The Poles did not stop the pogrom until two days after it began. The independent investigations by the British and American missions in Poland
Poland
stated that there were no clear conclusions and that foreign press reports were exaggerated.

1918-1919 Guba City Pogrom

3,000-10,000 Massacre
Massacre
of Mountain Jews
Jews
in Azerbaijan[106]

1919 Kiev
Kiev
Pogroms
Pogroms
(1919)

60+ A series of Jewish
Jewish
pogroms in various places around Kiev
Kiev
carried out by White Volunteer Army
Volunteer Army
troops

1919 Pinsk
Pinsk
pogrom (name disputed)[g] Pinsk
Pinsk
massacre 36 Jews Mass execution of thirty-five Jewish
Jewish
residents of Pinsk
Pinsk
in April 1919 by the Polish Army, during the opening stages of the Polish-Soviet War

1919–20 Vilna pogrom (name disputed)[h] Vilna offensive 65+ Jews
Jews
and non-Jews As Polish troops entered the city, dozens of people connected with the Lit-Bel
Lit-Bel
were arrested, and some were executed

1921 Tulsa pogrom Tulsa race riot, Little Africa on Fire Up to 300 Blacks Destruction of the Greenwood community of Tulsa, the wealthiest black community in the United States, by a white mob with the support of authorities, following an unfounded accusation of sexual assault by a black man against a white woman.

1929 Hebron
Hebron
pogrom Hebron
Hebron
massacre 67 Jews During the 1929 Palestine riots, sixty-seven Jews
Jews
were killed as the violence spread to Hebron, then part of Mandatory Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by rumors that Jews
Jews
were massacring Arabs
Arabs
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and seizing control of Muslim
Muslim
holy places.

1936 Przytyk pogrom
Przytyk pogrom
(name disputed)[i] Przytyk riot 2 Jews
Jews
and 1 Polish Some of the Jewish
Jewish
residents gathered in the town square in anticipation of the attack by the peasants, but nothing happened on that day. Two days later, however, on a market day, as Jewish historians Martin Gilbert
Martin Gilbert
and David Vital claim, peasants attacked their Jewish
Jewish
neighbors.

1938 November pogrom Kristallnacht 91 Jews Coordinated attacks against Jews
Jews
throughout Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and parts of Austria, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians. Accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world.

1940 Dorohoi pogrom

53 Jews Romanian military units carried out a pogrom against the local Jews, during which, according to an official Romanian report, 53 Jews
Jews
were murdered, and dozens injured

1941 Iași pogrom

13,266 Jews One of the most violent pogroms in Jewish
Jewish
history, launched by governmental forces in the Romanian city of Iaşi
Iaşi
(Jassy) against its Jewish
Jewish
population. In July 2017, approximately 1000 Jewish
Jewish
survivors of the pogrom became eligible to receive German compensation of $384/month under an agreement between Germany
Germany
and NY-based Conference on Jewish
Jewish
Material Claims against Germany.[citation needed]

1941 Antwerp
Antwerp
Pogrom

0 One of the few pogroms of Belgian history. Flemish collaborators attacked and burned synagogues and attacked a rabbi in the city of Antwerp

1941 Bucharest pogrom Legionnaires' rebellion 125 Jews
Jews
and 30 soldiers As the privileges of the paramilitary organisation Iron Guard
Iron Guard
were being cut off by Conducător Ion Antonescu, members of the Iron Guard, also known as the Legionnaires, revolted. During the rebellion and pogrom, the Iron Guard
Iron Guard
killed 125 Jews
Jews
and 30 soldiers died in the confrontation with the rebels.

1941 Tykocin
Tykocin
pogrom

1,400–1,700 Jews Mass murder of Jewish
Jewish
residents of Tykocin
Tykocin
in occupied Poland
Poland
during World War II, soon after Nazi
Nazi
German attack on the Soviet Union.

1941 Jedwabne
Jedwabne
pogrom

340 Jews The local rabbi was forced to lead a procession of about 40 people to a pre-emptied barn, killed and buried along with fragments of a destroyed monument of Lenin. A further 250-300 Jews
Jews
were led to the same barn later that day, locked inside and burned alive using kerosene

1941 Pogrom
Pogrom
in Krnjeuša

240 Croats An organized attack in the territory of the Catholic parish of Krnjeuša
Krnjeuša
in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, carried out by Serb Chetniks
Chetniks
against the local Catholic Croat population

1941 Farhud

180 Jewish
Jewish
Iraqis

1941 Lviv pogroms

4,000–8,000 civilian prisoners and 5,000 Jews Massacres of civilian prisoners by Soviet forces prior to evacuation, followed by massacre of Jews
Jews
by German and other forces. Subject of a protracted controversy

1946 Kunmadaras pogrom

4 Jews A frenzy instigated by the crowd's libelous belief that some Jewish people had made sausage out of Christian children

1946 Miskolc pogrom

2 Jews Riots started as demonstrations against economic hardships and later became anti-Semitic

1946 Kielce pogrom

38–42 Jews Violence against the Jewish
Jewish
community centre, initiated by Polish Communist armed forces (LWP, KBW, GZI WP) and continued by a mob of local townsfolk.

1955 Istanbul
Istanbul
pogrom Istanbul
Istanbul
riots 13–30 Greeks Organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority. Accelerated the emigration of ethnic Greeks from Turkey ( Jews
Jews
were also targeted in this event).[108][109]

1956 1956 Ceylonese riots 1956 anti-Tamil pogrom 150 Primarily Tamils 1956 anti-Tamil pogrom or Gal Oya massacre/riots were the first ethnic riots that targeted the minority Tamils in independent Sri Lanka.

1958 1958 anti-Tamil pogrom 1958 anti-Tamil pogrom 300 Primarily Tamils 1958 anti-Tamil pogrom
1958 anti-Tamil pogrom
also known as 58 riots, refer to the first island wide ethnic riots and pogrom in Sri Lanka.

1964 Zanzibar Revolution 1964 anti- Arab
Arab
pogrom At least 80 killed and 200 injured during revolution (the majority were Arabs), up to 20,000 civilians killed in the aftermath. The Zanzibar Revolution
Zanzibar Revolution
occurred in 1964 and led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab
Arab
government by local African revolutionaries. The revolution ended 200 years of Arab
Arab
dominance in Zanzibar, and resulted in the merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form the new nation of Tanzania, an act judged by contemporary media that also helped to prevent communist subversion of Zanzibar. And is commemorated on the island each year as independence day with anniversary celebrations and a public holiday.

1966 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom

A series of massacres directed at Igbo and other southern Nigerian residents throughout Nigeria before and after the overthrow (and assassination) of the Aguiyi-Ironsi junta by Murtala Mohammed.

1977 1977 anti-Tamil pogrom

300-1500 Primarily Tamils The 1977 anti-Tamil pogrom
1977 anti-Tamil pogrom
followed the 1977 general elections in Sri Lanka where the Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
nationalistic Tamil United Liberation Front won a plurality of minority Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
votes in which it stood for secession.

1983 Black July 1983 anti-Tamil pogrom 400–3,000 Tamils Over seven days mobs of mainly Sinhalese attacked Tamil targets, burning, looting and killing

1984 1984 anti-Sikh riots 1984 anti-Sikh pogrom 8,000 Sikhs In October 1984 anti-Sikh pogrom
1984 anti-Sikh pogrom
in Delhi, and other parts of India, Sikhs
Sikhs
in India
India
were targeted

1988 Sumgait pogrom

26+ (or about 100-300) Armenians and 6+ Azeris (possibly rioters) Mobs made up largely of ethnic Azeris formed into groups that went on to attack and kill Armenians both on the streets and in their apartments; widespread looting and a general lack of concern from police officers allowed the situation to worsen

1988 Kirovabad pogrom

3+ Soviet soldiers, 3+ Azeris and 1+ Armenian Ethnic Azeris attacked Armenians throughout the city

1989 1989 Bangladesh pogroms

Attacks against Bengali Hindus, apparently as a reaction to the laying of the foundation of Ram temple adjacent to the disputed structure in Ayodhya

1990 Baku pogrom

90 Armenians, 20 Russian soldiers Seven-day attack during which Armenians were beaten, tortured, murdered and expelled from the city. There were also many raids on apartments, robberies and arsons

1991 Crown Heights pogrom (disputed)[j] Crown Heights riot 1 Jew
Jew
and 1 non-Jew A three-day riot that occurred in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York. The riots incited by the death of the seven-year-old Gavin Cato, unleashed simmering tensions within Crown Heights' black community against the Orthodox Jewish
Jewish
community. In its wake, several Jews
Jews
were seriously injured; one Orthodox Jewish
Jewish
man, Yankel Rosenbaum, was killed; and a non- Jewish
Jewish
man, allegedly mistaken by rioters for a Jew, was killed by a group of African-American men.[112][113]

1991 Mława
Mława
pogrom

Five days of rioting in which a mob attacked Roma residents of the Polish town of Mława
Mława
causing hundreds to flee in terror

2002 Gujarat pogrom 2002 Gujarat violence 790–2,000 Muslims and 254 Hindus Inter-communal violence in the Indian state of Gujarat which lasted for approximately three days with the state government being accused of supporting or even instigating the riots

2004 March pogrom 2004 unrest in Kosovo 16 ethnic Serbs Over 4,000 Serbs were forced to leave their homes, 935 Serb houses, 10 public facilities and 35 Serbian Orthodox church-buildings were desecrated, damaged or destroyed, and six towns and nine villages were ethnically cleansed according to Serbian media

2013 2013 Burma anti- Muslim
Muslim
riots anti-Rohingya pogrom Rohingya Muslims Muslims called the Rohingyas were targeted in the Buddhist-majority Myanmar.[114]

See also[edit]

Ethnic cleansing Genocidal massacre Kristallnacht

Notes[edit]

^ Prof. Sandra Gambetti: "A final note on the use of terminology related to anti-Semitism. Scholars have frequently labeled the Alexandrian events of 38 C.E. as the first pogrom in history and have often explained them in terms of an ante litteram explosion of anti-Semitism. This work [The Alexandrian Riots] deliberately avoids any words or expressions that in any way connect, explicitly or implicitly, the Alexandrian events of 38 C.E. to later events in modern or contemporary Jewish
Jewish
experience, for which that terminology was created. ... To decide whether a word like pogrom, for example, is an appropriate term to describe the events that are studied here, requires a comparative re-discussion of two historical frames—the Alexandria of 38 C.E. and the Russia of the end of the nineteenth century."[96] ^ John Klier: "upon the death of the Grand Prince of Kiev
Kiev
Sviatopolk, rioting broke out in Kiev
Kiev
against his agents and the town administration. The disorders were not specifically directed against Jews
Jews
and are best characterised as a social revolution. This has not prevented historians of medieval Russia from describing them as a pogrom."[97][98] George Vernadsky: "Incidentally, one should not suppose that the movement was anti-Semitic. There was no general Jewish
Jewish
pogrom. Wealthy Jewish
Jewish
merchants suffered because of their association with Sviatopolk's speculations, especially his hated monopoly on salt."[99] ^ John Klier: "Russian armies led by Tsar Ivan IV captured the Polish city of Polotsk. The Tsar ordered drowned in the river Dvina all Jews who refused to covert to Orthodox Christianity. This episode certainly demonstrates the overt religious hostility towards the Jews
Jews
which was very much a part of Muscovite culture, but its conversionary aspects were entirely absent from modern pogroms. Nor were the Jews
Jews
the only heterodox religious group singled out for the tender mercies of Muscovite religious fanaticism."[97] ^ Israeli ambassador to Ireland, Boaz Moda'i: "I think it is a bit over-portrayed, meaning that, usually if you look up the word pogrom it is used in relation to slaughter and being killed. This is what happened in many other places in Europe, but that is not what happened here. There was a kind of boycott against Jewish
Jewish
merchandise for a while but that’s not a pogrom."[101] ^ William Rubinstein: "London-based sources, especially the press, Jewish
Jewish
and non-Jewish, consistently exaggerated the resemblance of the Welsh riots to Russian 'pogroms'. ... The Western Mail's 'London Letter' pointed this out on 28 August 1911, when it stated that 'both the Government and the Jewish
Jewish
leaders think that the Jewish
Jewish
press is betraying an unnecssary amount of alarm, and that it would have been better advised to have treated the attacks upon Jews
Jews
and their property in Wales
Wales
as part of a general attack upon persons and property'. Perhaps the most cogent letter on this subject came from Bertam Jacobs, a Welsh-born London barrister who wrote to the South Wales
Wales
Argus. ... Jacobs pointed out the absurdity of likening the South Wales
Wales
riots to the Russian pogroms, noting the crucial differences between the two, especially the fact that no Jew
Jew
was physically assautled, no private house belonging to a Jew
Jew
was set up, no anti-Semitic cries or slogans were heard, and, especially, no synagogue was attacked."[102][103] ^ David Engel: "the repeated protests of some scholars that what happened in Lwów in November 1918 was not, strictly speaking, a "pogrom""[105] Norman Davies: "The so-called pogrom in Lwów, in November 1918, turned out to be a military massacre where three times more Christians died than Jews."[47] Morgenthau report: The report's authors argued that the term pogrom was inapplicable to the conditions existing in a war zone and required the situation to be antisemitic in nature rather than political.[88] ^ Carole Fink: "What happen in Pinsk
Pinsk
on April 5, 1919 was not literally a "pogrom" – an organized, officially tolerated or inspired massacre of a minority such as has occurred in Lemberg – but rather a military execution of a small, suspect group of civilians. ... The misnamed " Pinsk
Pinsk
pogrom", a plain, powerful, alliterative phrase, entered history in April 1919. Its importance lay not only in its timing, during the tensest moments of the Paris Peace Conference and the most crucial deliberations over Poland's political future: The reports of Pinsk
Pinsk
once more demonstrated the swift transmission of local violence to world notice and the disfiguring process of rumor and prejudice on every level."[107] Norman Davies: "The so-called pogrom in Pinsk
Pinsk
in March 1919 turned out to be work of a panicky lieutenant, whose order to executre thirty-five suspected Bolshevik infiltrators was described by a US investigator as 'fully justified by the circumstances'"[47] ^ Norman Davies: "Press reports in the West of ' Pogroms
Pogroms
in Poland', though accepted by Jewish
Jewish
commentators, were repeatedly discredited by the investigations of independent British and American observers....the pogroms in Wilno in April 1919 and again in October 1920 were occasioned by the Red Army's hasty retreats, and by military reprisals against suspected collaborators."[47] ^ David Engel: "similar claims [that] the killing of two Jews
Jews
and one Pole in the townlet of Przytyk in March 1936 [was not, strictly speaking, a "pogrom"], which became the subject of a similar bit of semantic legerdemain and ongoing argument in Poland
Poland
and beyond in 2001"[105] ^ Media use of the term pogrom to refer to the 1991 Crown Heights riot caused public controversy.[92][110] For example, Joyce Purnick of The New York Times
New York Times
wrote in 1993 that the use of the word pogrom was "inflammatory"; she accused politicians of "trying to enlarge and twist the word" in order to "pander to Jewish
Jewish
voters".[111]

Citations[edit]

^ a b Klier, John (2010). "Pogroms". The YIVO
YIVO
Encyclopedia of Jews
Jews
in Eastern Europe. YIVO
YIVO
Institute for Jewish
Jewish
Research. The common usage of the term pogrom to describe any attack against Jews
Jews
throughout history disguises the great variation in the scale, nature, motivation, and intent of such violence at different times.  ^ a b c d Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica; et al. (2017). "Pogrom". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. (Russian: "devastation" or "riot"), a mob attack, either approved or condoned by authorities, against the persons and property of a religious, racial, or national minority. The term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Weinberg, Sonja (2010). Pogroms
Pogroms
and Riots: German Press Responses to Anti- Jewish
Jewish
Violence in Germany
Germany
and Russia (1881-1882). Peter Lang. p. 193. ISBN 3631602146. Most contemporaries claimed that the pogroms were directed against Jewish
Jewish
property, not against Jews, a claim so far not contradicted by research.  ^ Klier, John D.; Abulafia, Anna Sapir (2001). Religious Violence Between Christians and Jews: Medieval Roots, Modern Perspectives. Springer. p. 165. ISBN 140391382X. The pogroms themselves seem to have largely followed a set of unwritten rules. They were directed against Jewish
Jewish
property only.  ^ Brass, Paul R. (1996). Riots and Pogroms. NYU Press. p. 3. Introduction. ISBN 0814712827.  ^ a b "The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ a b c Klier, John (2011). Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms
Pogroms
of 1881–1882. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. By the twentieth century, the word "pogrom" had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews. The term was especially associated with Eastern Europe
Europe
and the Russian Empire, the scene of the most serious outbreaks of anti- Jewish
Jewish
violence before the Holocaust. Yet when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that "pogroms" were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features. In fact, outbreaks of mass violence against Jews
Jews
were extraordinary events, not a regular feature of East European life.  ^ a b For this definition and a review of scholarly definitions see Wilhelm Heitmeyer
Wilhelm Heitmeyer
and John Hagan, International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 (Springer, 2005) pp 352–55 online ^ a b c d Jonathan Dekel-Chen; David Gaunt; Natan M. Meir; Israel Bartal (eds.). Anti- Jewish
Jewish
Violence. Rethinking the Pogrom
Pogrom
in East European History. Engel states that although there are no "essential defining characteristics of a pogrom", the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms "took place in divided societies in which ethnicity or religion (or both) served as significant definers of both social boundaries and social rank.  ^ a b Abramson, Henry (1999). A prayer for the government: Ukrainians and Jews
Jews
in revolutionary times, 1917–1920. The etymological roots of the term pogrom are unclear, although it seems to be derived from the Slavic word for "thunder(bolt)" (Russian: grom, Ukrainian: hrim). The first syllable, po-, is a prefix indicating "means" or "target". The word therefore seems to imply a sudden burst of energy (thunderbolt) directed at a specific target. A pogrom is generally thought of as a cross between a popular riot and a military atrocity, where an unarmed civilian, often urban, population is attacked by either an army unit or peasants from surrounding villages, or a combination of the two.  ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Dec. 2007 revision. See also: Pogrom
Pogrom
at Online Etymology Dictionary. ^ a b International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 (Springer, 2005) "The word "pogrom" (from the Russian, meaning storm or devastation) has a relatively short history. Its international currency dates back to the anti-Semitic excesses in Tsarist Russia during the years 1881–1883, but the phenomenon existed in the same form at a much earlier date and was by no means confined to Russia. As John D. Klier points out in his seminal article "The pogrom paradigm in Russian history", the anti-Semitic pogroms in Russia were described by contemporaries as demonstrations, persecution, or struggle, and the government made use of the term besporiadok (unrest, riot) to emphasize the breach of public order. Then, during the twentieth century, the term began to develop along two separate lines. In the Soviet Union, the word lost its anti-Semitic connotation and came to be used for reactionary forms of political unrest and, from 1989, for outbreaks of interethnic violence; while in the West, the anti-Semitic overtones were retained and government orchestration or acquiescence was emphasized." ^ Amos Elon (2002), The Pity of It All: A History of the Jews
Jews
in Germany, 1743–1933. Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-5964-4. p. 103. ^ Anna Foa The Jews
Jews
of Europe
Europe
after the black death 2000 p. 13 "The first massacres took place in April 1348 in Toulon, where the Jewish quarter was raided and forty Jews
Jews
were murdered in their homes. Shortly afterwards, violence broke out in Barcelona." ^ Codex Judaica: chronological index of Jewish
Jewish
history; p. 203 Máttis Kantor - 2005 "The Jews
Jews
were savagely attacked and massacred, by sometimes hysterical mobs." ^ John Marshall John Locke, Toleration
Toleration
and Early Enlightenment Culture; p. 376 2006 "The period of the Black Death saw the massacre of Jews
Jews
across Germany, and in Aragon, and Flanders," ^ Stéphane Barry and Norbert Gualde, «La plus grande épidémie de l'histoire» ("The greatest epidemic in history"), in L'Histoire magazine, n° 310, June 2006, p. 47 (in French) ^ Durant, Will. The Renaissance, Simon and Schuster (1953), page 730–731, ISBN 0-671-61600-5 ^ Barbara Newman The Passion of the Jews
Jews
of Prague: The Pogrom
Pogrom
of 1389 and the Lessons of a Medieval Parody Church History 81:1 (March 2012), 1-26 ^ Herman Rosenthal (1901). "Chmielnicki, Bogdan Zinovi". Jewish Encyclopedia.  Also in: Anna Reid (2000). Borderland: A Journey Through the History of Ukraine. Westview Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8133-3792-5.  ^ Historians, who put the number of killed Jewish
Jewish
civilians at between 40,000 and 100,000 during the Khmelnytsky Pogroms
Pogroms
in 1648–1657, include:

  Naomi E. Pasachoff, Robert J. Littman (2005). A Concise History Of The Jewish
Jewish
People, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-4366-8, p. 182.   David Theo Goldberg, John Solomos (2002). A Companion to Racial and Ethnic Studies, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-20616-7, p. 68.   Michael Clodfelter (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–1999, McFarland & Co Inc, p. 56: estimated at 56,000 dead.

^ Historians estimating that around 100,000 Jews
Jews
were killed include:

  Cara Camcastle. The More Moderate Side of Joseph De Maistre: Views on Political Liberty And Political Economy, McGill-Queen's Press, 2005, ISBN 0-7735-2976-4, p. 26.   Martin Gilbert
Martin Gilbert
(1999). Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-10965-2, p. 219.   Manus I. Midlarsky. The Killing Trap: genocide in the twentieth century, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-81545-2, p. 352.   Oscar Reiss (2004). The Jews
Jews
in Colonial America, McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-7864-1730-7, pp. 98–99.   Colin Martin Tatz (2003). With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide, Verso, ISBN 1-85984-550-9, p. 146.   Samuel Totten (2004). Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources, Information Age Publishing, ISBN 1-59311-074-X, p. 25.   Mosheh Weiss (2004). A Brief History of the Jewish
Jewish
People, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-4402-8, p. 193.

^ Historians who estimate that more than 100,000 Jews
Jews
were killed in Ukraine
Ukraine
in 1648–1657 include:

  Meyer Waxman (2003). History of Jewish
Jewish
Literature Part 3, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 0-7661-4370-8, p. 20: estimated at about two hundred thousand Jews
Jews
killed.   Michael Clodfelter (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–1999, McFarland & Co Inc, p. 56: estimated at between 150,000 and 200,000 Jewish
Jewish
victims.   Zev Garber, Bruce Zuckerman (2004). Double Takes: Thinking and Rethinking Issues of Modern Judaism in Ancient Contexts, University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-2894-X, p. 77, footnote 17: estimated at about 100,000–500,000 Jews   The Columbia Encyclopedia (2001–2005), "Chmielnicki Bohdan", Sixth Edition: estimated at over 100,000 Jews.   Robert Melvin Spector (2005). World Without Civilization: Mass Murder
Murder
and the Holocaust, History, and Analysis, University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-2963-6, p. 77: estimated at more than 100,000.   Sol Scharfstein (2004). Jewish
Jewish
History and You, KTAV Publishing House, ISBN 0-88125-806-7, p. 42: estimated at more than 100,000 Jews
Jews
killed.

^ Davies, Norman (2005). "Rossiya: The Russian Partition (1772–1918)". God's Playground: a history of Poland. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 0199253404. Volume II: Revised Edition.  ^ "Shtetl". Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library, The Gale Group.  Also in: Rabbi
Rabbi
Ken Spiro. "Pale of Settlement". History Crash Course #56. Aish.com.  ^ John Doyle Klier, Shlomo Lambroza (2004). Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History. Cambridge University Press. p. 376. ISBN 0521528518. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Also in: Omer Bartov (2013). Shatterzone of Empires. p. 97. Note 45. It should be remembered that for all the violence and property damage caused by the 1881 pogroms, the number of deaths could be counted on one hand.  Further information: Oleg Budnitskii (2012). Russian Jews
Jews
Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 17–20. ISBN 0812208145.  ^ Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Pogroms
Pogroms
in Russia: Explanations, Comparisons, Suggestions, Jewish
Jewish
Social Studies, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 1 (Autumn 2004), pp. 17–. Excerpt. [not in citation given] ^ Henry Abramson
Henry Abramson
(10–13 July 2002). "The end of intimate insularity: new narratives of Jewish history
Jewish history
in the post-Soviet era" (PDF). Acts. Sapporo, Japan: Symposium "Construction and Deconstruction of National Histories in Slavic Eurasia".  ^  Rosenthal, Herman; Rosenthal, Max (1901–1906). "Kishinef (Kishinev)". In Singer, Isidore; et al. Jewish
Jewish
Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.  ^ a b Paul Joseph (2016). The SAGE Encyclopedia of War. SAGE Publications. p. 1353. ISBN 1483359883.  ^ Sergei Kan (2009). Lev Shternberg. U of Nebraska Press. p. 156. ISBN 0803224702.  ^ a b Shlomo Lambroza (1993). Herbert A. Strauss, ed. Jewish self-defence. Current Research on Anti-Semitism: Hostages of Modernization. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1256, 1244–45. ISBN 3110137151.  ^ Colin Tatz (2016). The Magnitude of Genocide. Winton Higgins. ABC-CLIO. p. 26. ISBN 1440831610.  ^ a b c Kleg, Milton (1993). Hate Prejudice and Racism. SUNY Press. p. 4. ISBN 0791415368.  ^ Gitelman, Zvi Y. (2001). Revolution and the Ambiguities. p. 25. ISBN 0253338115. Chapter 2.  ^ a b Levin, Nora (1991). The Jews
Jews
in the Soviet Union Since 1917: Paradox of Survival. NYU Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8147-5051-3.  ^ Gitelman, Zvi Y. (2001). A Century of Ambivalence: The Jews
Jews
of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present. Indiana University Press. pp. 65–70. ISBN 0253338115.  ^ Kadish, Sharman. Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and British Jews: The Anglo-Jewish Community, Britain, and the Russian Revolution. Routledge. p. 87.  ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica (2008). "Pogroms". The Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library.  ^ a b Yekelchyk, Serhy (2007). Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation. Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-19-530546-3.  ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (2010). History of Ukraine
Ukraine
- The Land and Its Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 537. ISBN 1-4426-4085-5.  ^ Ivan Bunin
Ivan Bunin
(1998), Cursed Days: A Diary of Revolution. May 2/15, 1919. Ivan R. Dee, ISBN 1461730309. Page 141. ^ Abramson, Henry (September 1991). " Jewish
Jewish
Representation in the Independent Ukrainian Governments of 1917–1920". Slavic review. Vol. 50, No. 3 (Fall, 1991): 542–550.  ^ a b Budnitskii, Oleg (2012). Russian Jews
Jews
Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 373, 364. ISBN 0812208145. The battalion 'forced the Poles
Poles
to retreat several versts' [one verst is roughly equal to 1 kilometer].  ^ a b c Stachura, Peter D. (2004). Poland, 1918-1945: An Interpretive and Documentary History of the Second Republic. Psychology Press. p. 85. ISBN 0415343585.  ^ Gdański, Jarosław (2017). "Cossacks, Russians, and Ukrainians on the Polish side in the War of the 1920" [Kozacy, Rosjanie i Ukraińcy po stronie polskiej w wojnie 1920 r.]. Magazyn IOH (bimonthly). Toruń: Inne Oblicza Historii. ISSN 1734-9060.  Also in: Tarczyński, Marek (1998). "1 dywizja Litewsko-Białoruska (1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division)". Battle of the Niemen; August 29 - October 18, 1920 [Bitwa niemeńska 29 VIII - 18 X 1920]. Collection of documents. Warsaw: Rytm. pp. 265, 345, 390, 647. ISBN 83-87893-55-2.  ^ a b c d Davies, Norman (2011). White Eagle, Red Star. Random House. pp. 59, 70. ISBN 1446466868.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Davies" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Davies" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ a b Morgenthau, Henry (1922). All in a Life-time. Doubleday & Page. p. 414. OCLC 25930642.  ^ Sloin, Andrew (2017). The Jewish
Jewish
Revolution in Belorussia: Economy, Race, and Bolshevik Power. Indiana University Press. . ^ a b Bemporad, Elissa (2013). Becoming Soviet Jews: The Bolshevik Experiment in Minsk. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253008271.  ^ Wandycz, Piotr Stefan (1980). The United States and Poland. Harvard University Press. p. 166. ISBN 0674926854. American foreign policy library.  ^ Neil Prior. "History debate over anti-Semitism in 1911 Tredegar riot". BBC News, 19 August 2011. ^ "Tragic Week Summary". BookRags.com. 2010-11-02. Retrieved 2011-10-24.  ^ Joanna B. Michlic (2006). Poland's Threatening Other: The Image of the Jew
Jew
from 1880 to the Present. University of Nebraska Press. p. 111. "In three days 72 Jews
Jews
were murdered and 443 others injured. The chief perpetrators of these murders were soldiers and officers of the so-called Blue Army, set up in France
France
in 1917 by General Jozef Haller (1893–1960) and lawless civilians". ^ Herbert Arthur Strauss (1993). Hostages of Modernization: Studies on Modern Antisemitism, 1870–1933/39. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1048. ^ Gilman, Sander L.; Milton Shain (1999). Jewries at the Frontier: Accommodation, Identity, Conflict. University of Illinois Press. p. 39. ISBN 9780252067921. After the end of the fighting and as a result of the Polish victory, some of the Polish soldiers and the civilian population started a pogrom against the Jewish
Jewish
inhabitants. Polish soldiers maintained that the Jews
Jews
had sympathized with the Ukrainian position during the conflicts  ^ Marsha L. Rozenblit (2001). Reconstructing a National Identity: The Jews
Jews
of Habsburg Austria
Austria
During World War I. Oxford University Press. p. 137. "The largest pogrom occurred in Lemberg [= Lwow]. Polish soldiers led an attack on the Jewish
Jewish
quarter of the city on November 21–23, 1918 that claimed 73 Jewish
Jewish
lives". ^ Zvi Y. Gitelman (2003). The Emergence of Modern Jewish
Jewish
Politics: Bundism and Zionism
Zionism
in Eastern Europe. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 58. "In November 1918, Polish soldiers who had taken Lwow (Lviv) from the Ukrainians killed more than seventy Jews
Jews
in a pogrom there, burning synagogues, destroying Jewish
Jewish
property, and leaving hundreds of Jewish
Jewish
families homeless." ^ Tobenkin, Elias (1919-06-01). " Jewish
Jewish
Poland
Poland
and its Red Reign of Terror". New York Tribune. Retrieved 2010-08-29.  ^ Neal Pease (2003). M.B.B. Biskupski, ed. This Troublesome Question: The United States and the "Polish Pogroms" of 1918–1919. Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe. University of Rochester Press.  Also in: Carole Fink (2006). Defending the Rights of Others: The Great Powers, the Jews, and International Minority Protection, 1878-1938. Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0521029945. See: Wihelmstrasse.  As well as: Peter D. Stachura (1998). Poland
Poland
between the Wars, 1918–1939. Springer. p. 36. ISBN 1349269425.  ^ "World War II: Before the War", The Atlantic, June 19, 2011. "Windows of shops owned by Jews
Jews
which were broken during a coordinated anti- Jewish
Jewish
demonstration in Berlin, known as Kristallnacht, on Nov. 10, 1938. Nazi
Nazi
authorities turned a blind eye as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed storefronts with hammers, leaving the streets covered in pieces of smashed windows. Ninety-one Jews
Jews
were killed, and 30,000 Jewish
Jewish
men were taken to concentration camps. ^ Michael Berenbaum, Arnold Kramer (2005). The World Must Know. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. p. 49. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1986). The Holocaust: the Jewish
Jewish
tragedy. Collins. pp. 30–33. ISBN 0-00-216305-5.  ^ Browning, Christopher R. (1998) [1992]. "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 51, 98, 109, 124. Retrieved May 1, 2013. Also: PDF cache archived by WebCite.  ^ Meier, Anna "Die Intelligenzaktion: Die Vernichtung Der Polnischen Oberschicht Im Gau Danzig-Westpreusen" VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, ISBN 3-639-04721-4 ISBN 978-3639047219 ^ Dean, Martin (2003). Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941-44. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 66–72. ISBN 9781403963710.  ^ Fischel, Jack (1998). The Holocaust, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 41. ISBN 978-0-313-29879-0 ^ Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania (RICHR) submitted to President Ion Iliescu
Ion Iliescu
in Bucharest on 11 November 2004. ^ "The Farhud", Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. ^ Julia Magnet. "The terror behind Iraq's Jewish
Jewish
exodus", The Daily Telegraph, April 16, 2003. ^ Holocaust Resources, History of Lviv. ^ Löw, Andrea (10 June 2013). "Stanislawów (now Ivano-Frankivsk)". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2016. From The USHMM Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945.  ^ Pohl, Dieter. Hans Krueger
Hans Krueger
and the Murder
Murder
of the Jews
Jews
in the Stanislawow Region (Galicia) (PDF). pp. 12–13, 17–18, 21 – via Yad Vashem.org. It is impossible to determine what Krueger's exact responsibility was in connection with 'Bloody Sunday' [massacre of 12 October 1941]. It is clear that a massacre of such proportions under German civil administration was virtually unprecedented.  ^ "Operation Reinhard (Einsatz Reinhard)". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, McFarland & Company, 1997, ISBN 0-7864-0371-3, Google Print, p.164. ^ "Holocaust Revealed". www.holocaustrevealed.org. Archived from the original on 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2008-09-02.  ^ "Instytut PamiÄci Narodowej". Retrieved 15 February 2015. [permanent dead link] ^ A communiqué regarding the decision to end the investigation of the murder of Polish citizens of Jewish
Jewish
nationality in Jedwabne
Jedwabne
on 10 July 1941 Archived 20 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (Komunikat dot. postanowienia o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie zabójstwa obywateli polskich narodowości żydowskiej w Jedwabnem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r.) from 30 June 2003. ^ Contested memories By Joshua D. Zimmerman, Rutgers University Press – Publisher; pp. 67–68. ^ Antisemitism
Antisemitism
By Richard S. Levy, ABC-CLIO – Publisher; p. 366. ^ Alexander B. Rossino, Polish "Neighbors" and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti- Jewish
Jewish
Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa, Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 (2003). ^ Jan Tomasz Gross, "Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland", Penguin Books, Princeton University Press, 2002. ^ Bostom, Andrew G. (Ed.) 2007. The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History. ^ "Sunshine, Blossoms and Blood". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ "Easter in Kishinev". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ "Reading Ferguson: books on race, police, protest and U.S. history". Retrieved 30 July 2016.  ^ Bergmann writes that "the concept of "ethnic violence" covers a range of heterogeneous phenomena, and in many cases there are still no established theoretical and conceptual distinctions in the field (Waldmann, 1995:343)" Bergmann then goes on to set out a variety of conflicting scholarly views on the definition and usage of the term pogrom. ^ a b "Poland's Holocaust". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Neal Pease. "'This Troublesome Question': The United States and the 'Polish Pogroms' of 1918–1919." In: Mieczysław B. Biskupski, Piotr Stefan Wandycz, page 60. Ideology, Politics, and Diplomacy in East Central Europe. Boydell & Brewer, 2003, p.72 ^ Mark, Jonathan (August 9, 2011). "What The 'Pogrom' Wrought". The Jewish
Jewish
Week. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ "New York Magazine". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ a b Crown Heights: Politics and Press Coverage of the Race War That Wasn't, Carol B. Conaway, Polity, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Autumn, 1999), pp. 93-118 ^ "As a Jew, I was ashamed at the scenes of Jews
Jews
opening fire at innocent Arabs
Arabs
in Hebron. There is no other definition than the term 'pogrom' to describe what I have seen."Settlers attack Palestinian village ^ "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Olmert condemns settler 'pogrom'". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Heitmeyer and Hagan, International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 pp 352–55 ^ Prof. Sandra Gambetti (2009). The Alexandrian Riots of 38 C.E. and the Persecution
Persecution
of the Jews: A Historical Reconstruction. University of California, Berkeley: BRILL. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9004138463.  ^ a b Pogroms: Anti- Jewish
Jewish
Violence in Modern Russian History, edited by John Doyle Klier, Shlomo Lambroza, pages 13 and 35 (footnotes) ^ Klier also writes that Alexander Pereswetoff-Morath has advanced a strong argument against considering the Kiev
Kiev
riots of 1113 an anti- Jewish
Jewish
pogrom. Pereswetoff-Morath writes in "A Grin without a Cat" (2002) that "I feel that Birnbaum's use of the term "anti-Semitism" as well as, for example, his use of "pogrom" in references to medieval Rus are not warranted by the evidence he presents. He is, of course, aware that it may be controversial." ^ George Vernadsky, Kievan Russia, Yale University Press, 1 Apr 1973, p94 ^ "Portugal". Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. ^ Limerick Leader, Saturday 6 November 2010, Jewish
Jewish
envoy says Limerick pogrom is 'over-portrayed' ^ "Welsh Journals Online -". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ "Controversy and Crisis". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Daniela Gioseffi (1993). On Prejudice: A Global Perspective. Anchor Books. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-385-46938-8. Retrieved 2 September 2013. ...Andric describes the "Sarajevo frenzy of hate" that erupted among Muslims, Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers following the assassination on June 28, 1914, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo...  ^ a b Anti- Jewish
Jewish
Violence. Rethinking the Pogrom
Pogrom
in East European History. Edited by Jonathan Dekel-Chen, David Gaunt, Natan M. Meir, and Israel Bartal "the repeated protests of some scholars that what happened in Lwów in November 1918 was not, strictly speaking, a "pogrom"— or similar claims about the killing of two Jews
Jews
and one Pole in the townlet of Przytyk in March 1936, which became the subject of a similar bit of semantic legerdemain and ongoing argument in Poland
Poland
and beyond in 2001" ^ Mideast Dispatch Archive ^ Defending the Rights of Others:The Great Powers, the Jews, and International Minority Protection, 1878-1938, Carole Fink, 2006, p185 ^ Steven K. Baum, Shimon Samuels. Antisemitism
Antisemitism
Explained. University Press of America. 2011. p. 174. ^ " Istanbul
Istanbul
love story". The Post and Courier. April 10, 2011. ^ The Jewish
Jewish
Week, August 9, 2011 "A divisive debate over the meaning of pogrom, lasting for more than two years, could have easily been ended if the mayor simply said to the victims of Crown Heights, yes, I understand why you experienced it as a pogrom." ^ Purnick, Joyce (June 3, 1993). "Editorial Notebook: Crown Heights Was Not Iasi". The New York Times.  ^ "TIMELINE: How the 1991 Crown Heights riots unfolded". New York Daily News. Retrieved 25 October 2014.  ^ Okeowo, Alexis (August 19, 2011). "Crown Heights, Twenty Years After the Riots". The New Yorker. Giuliani called the riots a pogrom.  ^ "Buddhists from Bangladesh resettle in Myanmar, Rohingya Muslims cry foul". Csmonitor.com. May 24, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Bergmann, Werner (2003), "Pogroms", in Heitmeyer, Wilhelm; Hagan, John, International Handbook of Violence Research, 1, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 1-4020-1466-X  Brass, Paul R. (December 6, 2002). On the Study of Riots, Pogroms, and Genocide. Sawyer Seminar session on "Processes of Mass Killing". Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University.  Cohn, Norman (1966). Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World-Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. New York: Harper & Row. OCLC 220903085.  Engel, David (2010), "What's in a Pogrom? European Jews
Jews
in the Age of Violence", in Dekel-Chen, Jonathan, Anti- Jewish
Jewish
Violence: Rethinking the Pogrom
Pogrom
in East European History, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-35520-6  Horvitz, Leslie A.; Catherwood, Christopher, eds. (2006). Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide. New York, NY: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-6001-0.  Klier, John D., ed. (2011), "What was a Pogrom?", Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms
Pogroms
of 1881-1882, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-89548-0  Shelton, Dinah, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Genocide
Genocide
and Crimes against Humanity. Detroit: Macmillan Reference. ISBN 0-02-865847-7.  Thackrah, John R., ed. (1987). Encyclopedia of Terrorism
Terrorism
and Political Violence. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0659-3. 

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