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Podolia
Podolia
or Podilia (Ukrainian: Подíлля, Podillja, Russian: Подо́лье, Podolʹje, Turkish: Podolya, Polish: Podole, German: Podolien, Lithuanian: Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine
Ukraine
and in northeastern Moldova
Moldova
(i.e. northern Transnistria). The term is derived from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", and dol, "valley" (see dale).

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and Polish Crown 2.2 Russian Empire 2.3 Between Poland and the Soviet Union

3 Culture 4 References 5 External links

Geography[edit]

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The area is part of the vast East European Plain, confined by the Dniester River
Dniester River
and the Carpathian arc in the southwest. It comprises an area of about 40,000 km2 (15,000 sq mi), extending for 320 km (200 mi) from northwest to southeast on the left bank of the Dniester. In the same direction run two ranges of relatively low hills separated by the Southern Bug, ramifications of the Avratynsk heights. The Podolian Upland, an elongated, up to 472 ft (144 m) high plateau stretches from the Western and Southern Bug
Southern Bug
rivers to the Dniester, includes hill countries and mountainous regions with canyon-like fluvial valleys. Podolia
Podolia
lies east of historic Red Ruthenia, i.e. the eastern half of Galicia, beyond the Seret River, a tributary of the Dniester. In the northwest it borders on Volhynia. It is made up of the present-day Ukrainian Vinnytsia Oblast
Vinnytsia Oblast
and southern and central Khmelnytskyi Oblast. The Podolian lands further include parts of adjacent Ternopil Oblast in the west and Kiev Oblast
Kiev Oblast
in the northeast. In the east it consists of the neighbouring parts of Cherkasy, Kirovohrad and Odessa Oblasts, as well as the northern half of Transnistria. Two large rivers, with numerous tributaries, drain the region: the Dniester, which forms its boundary with Moldova
Moldova
and is navigable throughout its length, and the Southern Bug, which flows almost parallel to the former in a higher, sometimes swampy, valley, interrupted in several places by rapids. The Dniester
Dniester
forms an important channel for trade in the areas of Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Zhvanets
Zhvanets
and other Podolian river-ports. In Podolia, "black earth" (chernozem) soil predominates, making it a very fertile agricultural area. Marshes occur only beside the Bug. A moderate climate predominates, with average temperatures at Kamianets-Podilskyi
Kamianets-Podilskyi
of 9 °C (-4 °C in January, 20 °C in July). Russian-ruled Podolia
Podolia
in 1906 had an estimated population of 3,543,700, consisting chiefly of Ukrainians. Significant minorities included Poles
Poles
and Jews, as well as 50,000 Romanians, some Germans, and some Armenians. The chief towns include Kamianets-Podilskyi, the traditional capital, Balta, Bar, Bratslav, Haisyn, Khmelnytskyi, Letychiv, Lityn, Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Nova Ushytsia, Olhopil, Skala-Podilska, Vinnytsia, and Yampil. In Moldova, the major Podolian cities are Camenca
Camenca
and Rîbniţa. Podolia
Podolia
is known for its cherries, mulberries, melons, gourds, and cucumbers. History[edit] The country has had human inhabitants since at least the beginning of the Neolithic
Neolithic
period. Herodotus
Herodotus
mentions it as the seat of the Graeco-Scythian Alazones and possibly Scythian Neuri. Subsequently, the Dacians and the Getae
Getae
arrived. The Romans left traces of their rule in Trajan's Wall, which stretches through the modern districts of Kamianets-Podilskyi, Nova Ushytsia
Nova Ushytsia
and Khmelnytskyi. During the Great Migration Period, many nationalities passed through this territory or settled within it for some time, leaving numerous traces in archaeological remains. Nestor in the Primary Chronicle mentions four apparently Slavic tribes: the Buzhans and Dulebes along the Southern Bug
Southern Bug
River, and the Tivertsi
Tivertsi
and Ulichs
Ulichs
along the Dniester. The Avars invaded in the 7th century. Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and Polish Crown[edit] Prince Oleg of Kiev, extended his rule over this territory known as the Ponizie, or "lowlands." These lowlands later became a part of the Rus' principalities of Volhynia, Kiev, and Galicia. In the 13th century, Bakota served as its political and administrative centre. During that time, the Mongols
Mongols
plundered Ponizie; Algirdas
Algirdas
(Olgierd), prince of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, freed it from their rule following his victory against the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in the Battle of Blue Waters of 1362, annexing it to his own territories under the name of Podolia, which has the same meaning as Ponizie. Polish colonisation began in the 14th century. After the death of the Lithuanian prince Vytautas
Vytautas
(Vitovt) in 1430, Podolia
Podolia
was incorporated into Podolian Voivodeship
Podolian Voivodeship
of the Polish Crown, with the exception of its eastern part, the Province of Bratslav, which remained with Lithuania until its union with Poland in the Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
of 1569. From 1672, Podolia
Podolia
became part of the Ottoman Empire, when and where it was known as Podolia
Podolia
Eyalet. During this time, it was a province, with its center being Kamaniçe, and was divided into sanjaks of Kamaniçe, Bar, Mejibuji and Yazlovets (Yazlofça). It remained with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for a substantial period of time, only returning to the Polish regime in 1699. The Poles retained Podolia
Podolia
until the partitions of their country in 1772 and 1793, when the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
annexed the western and eastern parts respectively. Russian Empire[edit]

Podolians, before 1878

From 1793-1917, part of the region was the Podolia
Podolia
Governorate (Russian: Подольская губерния [Podol’skaja gubernija]; Ukrainian: Подільська губернія [Podil’s’ka hubernija]) in southwestern Russia bordering with Austria across the Zbruch River
Zbruch River
and with Bessarabia
Bessarabia
across the Dniester. Its area was 36,910 km2 (14,251 sq mi). In the 1772 First Partition of Poland, the Austrian Habsburgs had taken control of a small part of Podolia
Podolia
west of the Zbruch River (sometimes also called "Southern Podolia") around Borschiv, in what is today Ternopil
Ternopil
Oblast. At this time, Emperor Joseph II toured the area, was impressed by the fertility of the soil, and was optimistic about its future prospects. Poland disappeared as a state in a third partition in 1795 but the Polish gentry continued to maintain local control in both eastern and western Podolia
Podolia
over a peasant population which was primarily ethnically Ukrainian whose similarity to the other East Slavs already subject to the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
was showcased in a 1772 book by Adam F. Kollár and was used as an argument in favor of annexation by the Habsburgs.[1] The Ternopil
Ternopil
(Tarnopol) region of western Podolia
Podolia
was briefly taken by Russia in 1809 but reverted to Austrian rule in 1815. Within the Austrian Empire, western Podolia
Podolia
was part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
which, in 1867 with the formation of Austria-Hungary, became an ethnic Pole-administered autonomous unit under the Austrian crown. At the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Austrian Podolia
Podolia
witnessed a large scale emigration of its peasant population to western Canada.

Medieval fortress in Letychiv.

Between Poland and the Soviet Union[edit] With the collapse of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
following World War I
World War I
in November 1918, western Podolia
Podolia
was included in the West Ukrainian People's Republic, but came under Polish control in 1919 which was confirmed in the Poland– Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
agreement in April 1920. Podolia
Podolia
was briefly occupied in 1920 by Soviets during the course of the Polish-Soviet War. At same war, Poland briefly occupied eastern Podolia
Podolia
in 1919 and again in 1920. After the Peace of Riga
Peace of Riga
the Polish control of western Podolia
Podolia
was recognized by the USSR. USSR retained eastern one. There were pogroms during this period. In Poland from 1921 to 1939, western Podolia
Podolia
was part of the Tarnopol Voivodeship. Eastern Podolia
Podolia
remained to the Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
and between 1922 and 1940, in the southwestern part, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created. In 1927 there was a massive uprising of peasants and factory workers in Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Tiraspol
Tiraspol
and other cities of southern Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
against Soviet authorities. Troops from Moscow were sent to the region and suppressed the unrest, causing around 4000 deaths, according to US correspondents sent to report about the insurrection, which was at the time completely denied by the Kremlin official press.[2] In 1939 after the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Soviet invasion of Poland on September 17, 1939, the area became part of Soviet Ukraine. Many local inhabitants were deported to concentration camps. Following German invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1941, most of Podolia
Podolia
was occupied by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and incorporated into the Reichskommissariat Ukraine. The area of Podolia
Podolia
between the Southern Bug
Southern Bug
below Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
and the Dniester
Dniester
was occupied by Axis Romania
Romania
as part of Transnistria. Starting in July 1941, the Jewish inhabitants were subjected to mass extermination by shooting in a German campaign carried out by four Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
("operational groups") specially organized for the purpose. Reliable estimates including German, Soviet, and local records indicate that upwards of 1.6 million, perhaps as many as 2 million, Jews were murdered in this fashion. Most were buried in mass graves, but there were also instances of communities being forced en masse into community buildings or synagogues that were then burnt, or herded into local mines that were subsequently dynamited. Podolia
Podolia
had been the center of a thriving Jewish community and culture since the late 17th century. All of that was extinguished within less than three years. The Germans eventually concluded that the method of shooting populations where they resided was too inefficient. At the January 20, 1942, Wannsee Conference, held as a result of the German need for a new method of extermination, they implemented the method of shipping populations to designated extermination/death camps, euphemistically referred to as concentration camps, equipped with poison gas chambers and crematoria. In 1944 the Soviets regained Podolia
Podolia
and in 1945, when Poland’s eastern border was formally realigned along the Curzon line, the whole of Podolia
Podolia
remained in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Most remaining Poles
Poles
and Jews fled or were expelled to the People's Republic of Poland. Culture[edit] The Podillya's folk icon-painting tradition is well known in Ukraine. Its manifestation are long home iconostases painted on canvas in the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th cc. Red, green and yellow colours are prevailing, the faces of the saints are a little bit long, their eyes are almond-like. On these iconostases, the most venerated family saints were painted. The collections of Podillya's folk iconostases are possessed by Vynnytsya Art Museum and The Museum of Ukrainian Home Icons in the Radomysl Castle.[3] References[edit]

^ Joachim Bahlcke, Ungarischer Episkopat und österreichische Monarchie: Von einer Partnerschaft zur Konfrontation (1686-1790). 2005. ^ Disorder in the Ukraine?, TIME Magazine, December 12, 1927 ^ Богомолець. О. "Замок-музей Радомисль на Шляху Королів Via Regia". — Київ, 2013

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

The Road From Letichev, Chapin & Weinstock, Writers' Showcase 2000 External links[edit]

Volodymyr Kubijovyč, Ihor Stebelsky, Mykhailo Zhdan, Podilia in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 4 (1993). It was slightly updated in 2010. Map of Podolia
Podolia
(1882) The Official Site of the Radomysl Castle (in Russian) Petrov N. (1891) Podolia. A Historical Description (Подолия. Историческое описание) at Runivers.ru
Runivers.ru
in DjVu and PDF
PDF
formats

v t e

Historical regions in present-day Ukraine

States and tribes of Classical antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Cimmeria Sarmatia Taurica Scythia Khazaria Onogurs Kazarig Avar Khaganate Old Great Bulgaria

Principalities of Kievan Rus'

Chernigov Halych Novhorod-Seversk Kiev Terebovlia Turov Pereyaslav Volhynia

Post-Mongol era regions

Golden Horde Crimean Khanate Principality of Theodoro Red Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia

Polish–Lithuanian regions

Belz Voivodeship Bracław Voivodeship Chernihiv Voivodeship Kiev
Kiev
Voivodeship Podolian Voivodeship Ruthenian Voivodeship Volhynian Voivodeship

Ottoman provinces

Ottoman Ukraine Danube Vilayet Kefe Eyalet Podolia
Podolia
Eyalet Silistra Eyalet

Cossack regions

Cossack Hetmanate Right-bank Ukraine Left-bank Ukraine Sloboda Ukraine Zaporizhian Sich Little Russia

Imperial Russian regions

Southwestern Krai
Southwestern Krai
/ Kiev
Kiev
Military District

Kyiv Volhynia Podillia

Bessarabia
Bessarabia
Governorate Kharkov Governorate Kiev
Kiev
Governorate (1708–64) Little Russia
Little Russia
Governorate (1764–81) Little Russia
Little Russia
Governorate (1796–1802) Poltava Governorate Chernihiv Governorate Kholm Governorate Kharkov Governorate Taurida Governorate Yekaterinoslav Governorate Kherson Governorate

Austro-Hungarian provinces

Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Duchy of Bukovina

20th-century regions and states

Ukrainian People's Republic

West Ukrainian People's Republic

Ukrainian State Hertza region Hutsul Republic Ukrainian SSR Moldavian ASSR Drohobych Oblast Izmail Oblast Crimean Oblast Lviv Voivodeship Ternopil
Ternopil
Voivodeship Volyn Voivodeship Stanyslaviv Voivodeship Carpatho-Ukraine Governorate of Subcarpathia Reichskommissariat Ukraine Distrikt Galizien

Geographic regions

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Ukraine
/ Dnieper Ukraine

Left-bank Ukraine Right-bank Ukraine Polissia Siveria

Eastern Ukraine

Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Zaporizhia

Southern Ukraine

Bessarabia Budzhak Crimea

South-Eastern Ukraine Western Ukraine

Bukovyna Carpathian Ruthenia Halychyna Podillia Volhynia

Ethno-Ukrainian regions abroad

Kholm Lemkivshchyna Mamorshchyna Priashi

.