Pleistocene ( /ˈplaɪstəˌsiːn, -toʊ-/, often colloquially
referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from
about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent
period of repeated glaciations. The end of the
with the end of the last glacial period and also with the end of the
Paleolithic age used in archaeology.
Pleistocene is the first epoch of the
Quaternary Period or sixth
epoch of the
Cenozoic Era. In the ICS timescale, the
divided into four stages or ages, the Gelasian, Calabrian, Middle
Pleistocene (unofficially the 'Chibanian') and Upper Pleistocene
(unofficially the 'Tarantian').[note 1] In addition to this
international subdivision, various regional subdivisions are often
Before a change finally confirmed in 2009 by the International Union
of Geological Sciences, the time boundary between the
Pliocene was regarded as being at 1.806 million years
Before Present (BP), as opposed to the currently accepted 2.588
million years BP: publications from the preceding years may use either
definition of the period.
3 Paleogeography and climate
3.2 Major events
3.3.1 Milankovitch cycles
Oxygen isotope ratio cycles
6 See also
9 External links
Charles Lyell introduced the term "pleistocene" in 1839 to describe
Sicily that had at least 70% of their molluscan fauna still
living today. This distinguished it from the older
which Lyell had originally thought to be the youngest fossil rock
layer. He constructed the name "Pleistocene" ("Most New" or "Newest")
from the Greek πλεῖστος, pleīstos, "most", and καινός,
kainós (latinized as cænus), "new"; this contrasting with the
Pliocene ("More New" or "Newer", from
πλείων, pleíōn, "more", and kainós; usual spelling:
Pliocene), and the immediately subsequent
Holocene ("wholly new" or
"entirely new", from ὅλος, hólos, "whole", and kainós) epoch,
which extends to the present time.
view • discuss • edit
Earliest stone tools
Earliest exit from Africa
Earliest fire use
Earliest in Europe
Axis scale: million years
Also see: Life timeline and Nature timeline
Pleistocene has been dated from 2.588 million (±.005) to 11,700
years BP with the end date expressed in radiocarbon years as 10,000
carbon-14 years BP. It covers most of the latest period of repeated
glaciation, up to and including the
Younger Dryas cold spell. The end
Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9640 BC (11,654 calendar
years BP). It was not until after the development of radiocarbon
dating, however, that
Pleistocene archaeological excavations shifted
to stratified caves and rock-shelters as opposed to open-air
In 2009 the
International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS)
confirmed a change in time period for the Pleistocene, changing the
start date from 1.806 to 2.588 million years BP, and accepted the base
Gelasian as the base of the Pleistocene, namely the base of the
Monte San Nicola GSSP. The
IUGS has yet to approve a type section,
Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), for the upper
Holocene boundary (i.e. the upper boundary). The proposed
section is the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core 75° 06' N
42° 18' W. The lower boundary of the
Pleistocene Series is
formally defined magnetostratigraphically as the base of the Matuyama
(C2r) chronozone, isotopic stage 103. Above this point there are
notable extinctions of the calcareous nanofossils: Discoaster
Pleistocene covers the recent period of repeated glaciations. The
Plio-Pleistocene has, in the past, been used to mean the last ice
age. The revised definition of the Quaternary, by pushing back the
start date of the
Pleistocene to 2.58 Ma, results in the inclusion of
all the recent repeated glaciations within the Pleistocene.
Paleogeography and climate
The maximum extent of glacial ice in the north polar area during the
The modern continents were essentially at their present positions
during the Pleistocene, the plates upon which they sit probably having
moved no more than 100 km relative to each other since the
beginning of the period.
Mark Lynas (through collected data), the Pleistocene's
overall climate could be characterized as a continuous
El Niño with
trade winds in the south Pacific weakening or heading east, warm air
rising near Peru, warm water spreading from the west Pacific and the
Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, and other
El Niño markers.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
Pleistocene climate was marked by repeated glacial cycles in which
continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places. It is
estimated that, at maximum glacial extent, 30% of the Earth's surface
was covered by ice. In addition, a zone of permafrost stretched
southward from the edge of the glacial sheet, a few hundred kilometres
in North America, and several hundred in Eurasia. The mean annual
temperature at the edge of the ice was −6 °C (21 °F); at
the edge of the permafrost, 0 °C (32 °F).
Each glacial advance tied up huge volumes of water in continental ice
sheets 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,900–9,800 ft) thick,
resulting in temporary sea-level drops of 100 metres (300 ft) or
more over the entire surface of the Earth. During interglacial times,
such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by
isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions.
The effects of glaciation were global.
Antarctica was ice-bound
Pleistocene as well as the preceding Pliocene. The
Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap. There were
New Zealand and Tasmania. The current decaying glaciers of
Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, and the
Ruwenzori Range in east and
central Africa were larger. Glaciers existed in the mountains of
Ethiopia and to the west in the Atlas mountains.
In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one. The
Cordilleran ice sheet
Cordilleran ice sheet covered the North American northwest; the east
was covered by the Laurentide. The Fenno-Scandian ice sheet rested on
northern Europe, including Great Britain; the Alpine ice sheet on the
Alps. Scattered domes stretched across
Siberia and the Arctic shelf.
The northern seas were ice-covered.
South of the ice sheets large lakes accumulated because outlets were
blocked and the cooler air slowed evaporation. When the
sheet retreated, north central
North America was totally covered by
Lake Agassiz. Over a hundred basins, now dry or nearly so, were
overflowing in the North American west. Lake Bonneville, for example,
Great Salt Lake
Great Salt Lake now does. In Eurasia, large lakes
developed as a result of the runoff from the glaciers. Rivers were
larger, had a more copious flow, and were braided. African lakes were
fuller, apparently from decreased evaporation. Deserts on the other
hand were drier and more extensive. Rainfall was lower because of the
decreases in oceanic and other evaporation.
It has been estimated that during the Pleistocene, the East Antarctic
Ice Sheet thinned by at least 500 meters, and that thinning since the
Glacial Maximum is less than 50 meters and probably started after
ca 14 ka.
Further information: Timeline of glaciation
Ice ages as reflected in atmospheric CO2, stored in bubbles from
glacial ice of Antarctica.
Over 11 major glacial events have been identified, as well as many
minor glacial events. A major glacial event is a general glacial
excursion, termed a "glacial." Glacials are separated by
"interglacials". During a glacial, the glacier experiences minor
advances and retreats. The minor excursion is a "stadial"; times
between stadials are "interstadials".
These events are defined differently in different regions of the
glacial range, which have their own glacial history depending on
latitude, terrain and climate. There is a general correspondence
between glacials in different regions. Investigators often interchange
the names if the glacial geology of a region is in the process of
being defined. However, it is generally incorrect to apply the name of
a glacial in one region to another.
For most of the 20th century only a few regions had been studied and
the names were relatively few. Today the geologists of different
nations are taking more of an interest in
Pleistocene glaciology. As a
consequence, the number of names is expanding rapidly and will
continue to expand. Many of the advances and stadials remain unnamed.
Also, the terrestrial evidence for some of them has been erased or
obscured by larger ones, but evidence remains from the study of
cyclical climate changes.
The glacials in the following tables show historical usages, are a
simplification of a much more complex cycle of variation in climate
and terrain, and are generally no longer used. These names have been
abandoned in favor of numeric data because many of the correlations
were found to be either inexact or incorrect and more than four major
glacials have been recognized since the historical terminology was
Historical names of the "four major" glacials in four regions.
Historical names of interglacials.
Corresponding to the terms glacial and interglacial, the terms pluvial
and interpluvial are in use (Latin: pluvia, rain). A pluvial is a
warmer period of increased rainfall; an interpluvial, of decreased
rainfall. Formerly a pluvial was thought to correspond to a glacial in
regions not iced, and in some cases it does. Rainfall is cyclical
also. Pluvials and interpluvials are widespread.
There is no systematic correspondence of pluvials to glacials,
however. Moreover, regional pluvials do not correspond to each other
globally. For example, some have used the term "Riss pluvial" in
Egyptian contexts. Any coincidence is an accident of regional factors.
Only a few of the names for pluvials in restricted regions have been
The sum of transient factors acting at the Earth's surface is
cyclical: climate, ocean currents and other movements, wind currents,
temperature, etc. The waveform response comes from the underlying
cyclical motions of the planet, which eventually drag all the
transients into harmony with them. The repeated glaciations of the
Pleistocene were caused by the same factors.
Main article: Milankovitch cycles
Glaciation in the
Pleistocene was a series of glacials and
interglacials, stadials and interstadials, mirroring periodic changes
in climate. The main factor at work in climate cycling is now believed
to be Milankovitch cycles. These are periodic variations in regional
and planetary solar radiation reaching the Earth caused by several
repeating changes in the Earth's motion.
Milankovitch cycles cannot be the sole factor responsible for the
variations in climate since they explain neither the long term cooling
trend over the Plio-Pleistocene, nor the millennial variations in the
Greenland Ice Cores. Milankovitch pacing seems to best explain
glaciation events with periodicity of 100,000, 40,000, and 20,000
years. Such a pattern seems to fit the information on climate change
found in oxygen isotope cores. The timing of our present interglacial
interval (known as the Holocene, Postglacial, or the Present
Interglacial) to that of the previous interglacial, beginning about
130,000 years ago (The Eemian Interglacial), suggests that the next
glacial might begin in about 3,000 years.
Oxygen isotope ratio cycles
Oxygen isotope ratio cycle
In oxygen isotope ratio analysis, variations in the ratio of 18O to
16O (two isotopes of oxygen) by mass (measured by a mass spectrometer)
present in the calcite of oceanic core samples is used as a diagnostic
of ancient ocean temperature change and therefore of climate change.
Cold oceans are richer in 18O, which is included in the tests of the
microorganisms (foraminifera) contributing the calcite.
A more recent version of the sampling process makes use of modern
glacial ice cores. Although less rich in 18O than sea water, the snow
that fell on the glacier year by year nevertheless contained 18O and
16O in a ratio that depended on the mean annual temperature.
Temperature and climate change are cyclical when plotted on a graph of
temperature versus time. Temperature coordinates are given in the form
of a deviation from today's annual mean temperature, taken as zero.
This sort of graph is based on another of isotope ratio versus time.
Ratios are converted to a percentage difference from the ratio found
in standard mean ocean water (SMOW).
The graph in either form appears as a waveform with overtones. One
half of a period is a
Marine isotopic stage
Marine isotopic stage (MIS). It indicates a
glacial (below zero) or an interglacial (above zero).
stadials or interstadials.
According to this evidence, Earth experienced 102 MIS stages beginning
at about 2.588 Ma BP in the Early
Pleistocene Gelasian. Early
Pleistocene stages were shallow and frequent. The latest were the most
intense and most widely spaced.
By convention, stages are numbered from the Holocene, which is MIS1.
Glacials receive an even number; interglacials, odd. The first major
glacial was MIS2-4 at about 85–11 ka BP. The largest glacials were
2, 6, 12, and 16; the warmest interglacials, 1, 5, 9 and 11. For
matching of MIS numbers to named stages, see under the articles for
Quaternary extinction event
Both marine and continental faunas were essentially modern but with
many more large land mammals such as Mammoths, Mastodons, Diprotodon,
Smilodon, Aurochs, Short-faced bear, giant sloths,
others. Isolated places such as Australia, Madagascar,
New Zealand and
islands in the Pacific saw the evolution of large birds and even
reptiles such as the Elephant bird, moa, Haast's eagle, Quinkana,
Megalania and Meiolania.
Northern Spain showing woolly mammoth, cave lions
eating a reindeer, tarpans, and woolly rhinoceros.
South America showing
Megatherium and two Glyptodon.
The severe climatic changes during the ice age had major impacts on
the fauna and flora. With each advance of the ice, large areas of the
continents became totally depopulated, and plants and animals
retreating southwards in front of the advancing glacier faced
tremendous stress. The most severe stress resulted from drastic
climatic changes, reduced living space, and curtailed food supply. A
major extinction event of large mammals (megafauna), which included
mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed cats, glyptodons, the woolly
rhinoceros, various giraffids, such as the Sivatherium; ground sloths,
Irish elk, cave bears, Gomphothere, dire wolves, and short-faced
bears, began late in the
Pleistocene and continued into the Holocene.
Neanderthals also became extinct during this period. At the end of the
last ice age, cold-blooded animals, smaller mammals like wood mice,
migratory birds, and swifter animals like whitetail deer had replaced
the megafauna and migrated north.
The extinctions hardly affected Africa but were especially severe in
North America where native horses and camels were wiped out.
Asian land mammal ages (ALMA) include Zhoukoudianian, Nihewanian, and
European land mammal ages (ELMA) include
Gelasian (2.5—1.8 Ma).
North American land mammal ages (NALMA) include
Irvingtonian (1.8–0.24) and
Rancholabrean (0.24–0.01) in millions
of years. The
Blancan extends significantly back into the Pliocene.
South American land mammal ages (SALMA) include
Ensenadan (1.5–0.3) and
Lujanian (0.3–0.01) in millions of years.
Uquian previously extended significantly back into the Pliocene,
although the new definition places it entirely within the Pleistocene.
Main articles: Human evolution, Paleolithic, and Models of migration
to the New World
The evolution of anatomically modern humans took place during the
Pleistocene. In the beginning of the
species are still present, as well as early human ancestors, but
during the lower Palaeolithic they disappeared, and the only hominin
species found in fossilic records is
Homo erectus for much of the
Acheulean lithics appear along with Homo erectus, some
1.8 million years ago, replacing the more primitive
used by A. garhi and by the earliest species of Homo. The Middle
Paleolithic saw more varied speciation within Homo, including the
Homo sapiens about 200,000 years ago.
According to mitochondrial timing techniques, modern humans migrated
from Africa after the
Riss glaciation in the Middle Palaeolithic
during the Eemian Stage, spreading all over the ice-free world during
the late Pleistocene. A 2005 study posits that humans in
this migration interbred with archaic human forms already outside of
Africa by the late Pleistocene, incorporating archaic human genetic
material into the modern human gene pool.
Hominin species during Pleistocene
Pleistocene non-marine sediments are found primarily in fluvial
deposits, lakebeds, slope and loess deposits as well as in the large
amounts of material moved about by glaciers. Less common are cave
deposits, travertines and volcanic deposits (lavas, ashes).
Pleistocene marine deposits are found primarily in shallow marine
basins mostly (but with important exceptions) in areas within a few
tens of kilometers of the modern shoreline. In a few geologically
active areas such as the
Southern California coast,
deposits may be found at elevations of several hundred meters.
Geologic time scale
Timeline of glaciation
Middle Pleistocene and Upper
Pleistocene are actually
subseries/subepochs rather than stages/ages but, in 2009, the IUGS
decided to replace each of them with a stage/age.
^ Fan, Junxuan; Hou, Xudong. "International Chronostratigraphic
Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved February
^ Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane
Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 CS1 maint: Uses editors
^ "Gibbard, P. and van Kolfschoten, T. (2004) "The
Holocene Epochs" Chapter 22" (PDF). (3.1 MB) In
Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, James G., and Smith, A. Gilbert (eds.), A
Geologic Time Scale 2004 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
^ "International Chronostratigraphic Chart v2017/02". International
Commission on Stratigraphy. 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
^ "Japan-based name 'Chibanian' set to represent geologic age of last
magnetic shift". The Japan Times. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 17 March
^ "Formal subdivision of the
Pleistocene Series/Epoch". Subcommission
Quaternary Stratigraphy (International Commission on Stratigraphy).
4 January 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
^ "Pleistocene". Online Etymology Dictionary.
^ "Major Divisions". Subcommission on
International Commission on Stratigraphy. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 25
^ For the top of the series, see: Lourens, L., Hilgen, F., Shackleton,
N.J., Laskar, J., Wilson, D., (2004) "The
Neogene Period". In:
Gradstein, F., Ogg, J., Smith, A.G. (Eds.), A Geologic Time Scale
2004. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
^ Moore, Mark; Brumm (2007). "Stone artifacts and hominins in island
Southeast Asia: New insights from Flores, eastern Indonesia". Journal
of Human Evolution. 52: 88. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.08.002.
PMID 17069874. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
^ Riccardi, Alberto C. (30 June 2009) "
IUGS ratified ICS
Recommendation on redefinition of
Pleistocene and formal definition of
base of Quaternary" International Union of Geological Sciences
^ Svensson, A.; Nielsen, S. W.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Johnsen, S. J.;
Steffensen, J. P.; Bigler, M.; Ruth, U.; Röthlisberger, R. (2005).
"Visual stratigraphy of the North Greenland Ice Core Project
(NorthGRIP) ice core during the last glacial period". Journal of
Geophysical Research. 110: D02108. Bibcode:2005JGRD..110.2108S.
^ Gradstein, Felix M.; Ogg, James G. and Smith, A. Gilbert (eds.)
(2005) A Geologic Time Scale 2004 Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK, p. 28, ISBN 0-521-78142-6
^ Rio, D.; Sprovieri, R.; Castradori, D.; Di Stefano, E. (1998). "The
Gelasian Stage (Upper Pliocene): a new unit of the global standard
chronostratigraphic scale". Episodes. 21: 82–87.
^ National Geographic Channel, Six Degrees Could Change The World,
Mark Lynas interview. Retrieved February 14, 2008.
^ Yusuke Suganuma, Hideki Miura, Albert Zondervan, Jun'ichi Okuno
(August 2014). "East Antarctic deglaciation and the link to global
cooling during the Quaternary: evidence from glacial geomorphology and
10Be surface exposure dating of the Sør Rondane Mountains, Dronning
Quaternary Science Reviews. 97: 102–120.
doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.05.007. CS1 maint: Uses authors
^ a b Richmond, G.M.; Fullerton, D.S. (1986). "Summation of Quaternary
glaciations in the United States of America".
Reviews. 5: 183–196. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90184-8.
^ Roy, M., P.U. Clark, R.W. Barendregt, J.R., Glasmann, and R.J.
Glacial stratigraphy and paleomagnetism of late Cenozoic
deposits of the north-central United States, PDF version, 1.2 MB.
Geological Society of America Bulletin.116(1-2): pp. 30-41;
^ Aber, J.S. (1991) "Glaciations of Kansas" Boreas 20(4): pp. 297-314
- (contains a summary of how and why the Nebraskan, Aftonian, Kansan,
and Yarmouthian stages were abandoned by modern stratigraphers).
^ Rogers, A.R.; Jorde, L.B. (1995). "Genetic evidence on modern human
origins". Human Biology. 67: 1–36.
^ Wall, J.D.; Przeworski, M. (2000). "When did the human population
start increasing?". Genetics. 155: 1865–1874.
^ Cann, R.L.; Stoneking, M.; Wilson, A.C. (1987). "Mitochondrial DNA
and human evolution". Nature. 325: 31–36. doi:10.1038/325031a0.
^ Stringer, C.B. (1992) "Evolution of early modern humans" In: Jones,
Steve; Martin, R. and Pilbeam, David R. (eds.) (1992) The Cambridge
encyclopedia of human evolution Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
ISBN 0-521-32370-3, pp. 241–251.
^ Templeton, A. R. (2002). "Out of Africa again and again" (PDF).
Nature. 416 (6876): 45–51. doi:10.1038/416045a.
^ Eswarana, Vinayak; Harpendingb, Henry; Rogers, Alan R (2005).
"Genomics refutes an exclusively African origin of humans". Journal of
Human Evolution. 49 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.02.006.
Ogg, Jim; June, 2004, Overview of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections
and Points (GSSP's, Stratigraphy.org, Accessed April 30, 2006.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pleistocene.
Wikisource has original works on the topic: Cenozoic#Quaternary
Late Pleistocene environments of the southern high plains, 1975,
edited by Wendorf and Hester.
Pleistocene Microfossils: 50+ images of Foraminifera
Stepanchuk V.N., Sapozhnykov I.V. Nature and man in the pleistocene of
Human Timeline (Interactive) – Smithsonian, National Museum of
Natural History (August 2016).
Geologic history of Earth
Quaternary (present–2.588 Mya)
Holocene (present–11.784 kya)
Pleistocene (11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)
Neogene (2.588–23.03 Mya)
Pliocene (2.588–5.333 Mya)
Miocene (5.333–23.03 Mya)
Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)
Oligocene (23.03–33.9 Mya)
Eocene (33.9–56.0 Mya)
Paleocene (56.0–66.0 Mya)
Cretaceous (66.0–145.0 Mya)
Late (66.0–100.5 Mya)
Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)
Jurassic (145.0–201.3 Mya)
Late (145.0–163.5 Mya)
Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya)
Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)
Triassic (201.3–251.902 Mya)
Late (201.3–237 Mya)
Middle (237–247.2 Mya)
Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)
Permian (251.902–298.9 Mya)
Lopingian (251.902–259.8 Mya)
Guadalupian (259.8–272.3 Mya)
Cisuralian (272.3–298.9 Mya)
Carboniferous (298.9–358.9 Mya)
Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya)
Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)
Devonian (358.9–419.2 Mya)
Late (358.9–382.7 Mya)
Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya)
Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)
Silurian (419.2–443.8 Mya)
Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya)
Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya)
Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya)
Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)
Ordovician (443.8–485.4 Mya)
Late (443.8–458.4 Mya)
Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya)
Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)
Cambrian (485.4–541.0 Mya)
Furongian (485.4–497 Mya)
Series 3 (497–509 Mya)
Series 2 (509–521 Mya)
Terreneuvian (521–541.0 Mya)
(541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)
Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)
Ediacaran (541.0-~635 Mya)
Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya)
Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)
Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)
Stenian (1-1.2 Gya)
Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya)
Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)
Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)
Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya)
Orosirian (1.8-2.05 Gya)
Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya)
Siderian (2.3-2.5 Gya)
Archean eon² (2.5–4 Gya)
Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya)
Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya)
Paleoarchean (3.2–3.6 Gya)
Eoarchean (3.6–4 Gya)
Hadean eon² (4–4.6 Gya)
kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago.
Gya = billions
years ago.¹ =
Phanerozoic eon. ² =
Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved
13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic
and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrieved 10 March 2013.
Glacial history of Minnesota
Laurentide Ice Sheet
List of prehistoric lakes
Timeline of glaciation
Giant current ripples
Arrowhead Provincial Park, Ontario
Big Rock (glacial erratic), Alberta
Cypress Hills (Canada), Saskatchewan
Eramosa River, Ontario
Eskers Provincial Park, British Columbia
Foothills Erratics Train, Alberta
Lion's Head Provincial Park, Ontario
Origin of the Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario
Ovayok Territorial Park, Nunavut
Moraine State Recreation Area, Wisconsin
Coteau des Prairies, South Dakota
Devil's Lake State Park, Wisconsin
Glacial Lake Wisconsin, Wisconsin
Glacial Lakes State Park, Minnesota
Horicon Marsh State Wildlife Area, Wisconsin
Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail, Idaho, Oregon & Washington
Ice Age National Scientific Reserve, Wisconsin
Ice Age Trail, Wisconsin
Interstate State Park, Minnesota & Wisconsin
Kelleys Island, Ohio
Moraine State Forest, Wisconsin
Lake Bonneville, Utah
Lake Lahontan, Nevada
Lake Missoula, Montana
Mill Bluff State Park, Wisconsin
Oneida Lake, New York
Two Creeks Buried Forest State Natural Area, Wisconsin
Moraine and Jameson Lake
Drumlin Field, Washington
Yosemite National Park, California
Ross Ice Shelf
Last glacial period
Little Ice Age
New Stone Age
New World crops
Ard / plough
Mortar and pestle
Bow and arrow
Game drive system
Langdale axe industry
British megalith architecture
Nordic megalith architecture
Neolithic long house
Abri de la Madeleine
Alp pile dwellings
Wattle and daub
Megalithic architectural elements
Arts and culture
Art of the Upper Paleolithic
Art of the Middle Paleolithic
Stone Age art
Bradshaw rock paintings
Carved Stone Balls
Cup and ring mark
British Isles and Brittany
Mound Builders culture
Stone box grave
Unchambered long cairn
Origin of language
Divje Babe flute
Origin of religion
Spiritual drug use
Earth sciences portal
Evolutionary biology portal