Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and
publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or
expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original
Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of
journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions like penalties,
suspension, and even expulsion. Recently, cases of "extreme
plagiarism" have been identified in academia. The modern concept of
plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe in
the 18th century, particularly with the Romantic movement.
Plagiarism is not in itself a crime, but can constitute copyright
infringement. In academia and industry, it is a serious ethical
Plagiarism and copyright infringement overlap to a
considerable extent, but they are not equivalent concepts, and many
types of plagiarism do not constitute copyright infringement, which is
defined by copyright law and may be adjudicated by courts. Plagiarism
is not defined or punished by law, but rather by institutions
(including professional associations, educational institutions, and
commercial entities, such as publishing companies).
2 Legal aspects
3 In academia and journalism
3.1.1 Common forms of student plagiarism
3.1.2 Sanctions for student plagiarism
3.1.3 Criminal and negative behaviour by diploma mills
3.1.5 Factors influencing student´s decision to plagiarize
3.3.1 A contested definition
3.3.2 Codes of ethics
3.3.3 Factors that justify reuse
3.4 Organizational publications
4 In the arts
4.1 The history of the arts
4.2 Praisings of artistic plagiarism
5 In other contexts
5.1 On the Internet
6 See also
8 Works cited
9 Further reading
10 External links
In the 1st century, the use of the
Latin word plagiarius (literally
"kidnapper") to denote stealing someone else's work was pioneered by
the Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had
"kidnapped his verses". Plagiary, a derivative of plagiarus, was
introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist
Ben Jonson during the
Jacobean Era to describe someone guilty of literary theft.
The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around
Latin plagiārius, "kidnapper", and plagium,
"kidnapping", have the root plaga ("snare", "net"), based on the
Indo-European root *-plak, "to weave" (seen for instance in Greek
plekein, Bulgarian "плета" pleta, and
Latin plectere, all meaning
Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing,
the concept does not exist in a legal sense, although the use of
someone else's work in order to gain academic credit may meet some
legal definitions of fraud. "Plagiarism" specifically is not
mentioned in any current statute, either criminal or civil. Some
cases may be treated as unfair competition or a violation of the
doctrine of moral rights. The increased availability of copyrighted
material due to the development of information technology has
furthered the debate as to whether copyright offences are
criminal. In short, people are asked to use the
guideline, "if you did not write it yourself, you must give
Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement. While both terms
may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false
claims of authorship generally constitute plagiarism regardless of
whether the material is protected by copyright. Copyright infringement
is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material
whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent.
Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unearned increment to
the plagiarizing author's reputation, or the obtaining of academic
credit, that is achieved through false claims of authorship. Thus,
plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist's
audience (for example, a reader, listener, or teacher).
Plagiarism is also considered a moral offense against anyone who has
provided the plagiarist with a benefit in exchange for what is
specifically supposed to be original content (for example, the
plagiarist's publisher, employer, or teacher). In such cases, acts of
plagiarism may sometimes also form part of a claim for breach of the
plagiarist's contract, or, if done knowingly, for a civil wrong.
In academia and journalism
Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is
considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are
subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion. Some
institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential
plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. Some universities
address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with
thorough orientations, required writing courses, and clearly
articulated honor codes. Indeed, there is a virtually
uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is
wrong. Nevertheless, each year students are brought
before their institutions’ disciplinary boards on charges that they
have misused sources in their schoolwork." However, the practice
of plagiarizing by use of sufficient word substitutions to elude
detection software, known as rogeting, has rapidly evolved as students
and unethical academics seek to stay ahead of detection software.
An extreme form of plagiarism, known as contract cheating involves
students paying someone else, such as an essay mill, to do their work
In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic
ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary
measures ranging from suspension to termination of employment[citation
needed]. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or
journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by
failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation. While
plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history,
the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic
text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much
Predicated upon an expected level of learning/comprehension having
been achieved, all associated academic accreditation becomes seriously
undermined if plagiarism is allowed to become the norm within academic
For professors and researchers, plagiarism is punished by sanctions
ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of
credibility and perceived integrity. Charges of plagiarism
against students and professors are typically heard by internal
disciplinary committees, by which students and professors have agreed
to be bound.
Plagiarism is a common reason for academic research
papers to be retracted.
One form of academic plagiarism involves appropriating a published
article and modifying it slightly to avoid suspicion.
No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists;
however, this section provides several definitions to exemplify the
most common characteristics of academic plagiarism.
According to Bela Gipp academic plagiarism encompasses:
"The use of ideas, concepts, words, or structures
without appropriately acknowledging the source
to benefit in a setting where originality is expected."
The definition by B. Gipp is an abridged version of Teddi Fishman's
definition of plagiarism, which proposed five elements characteristic
of plagiarism. According to T. Fishman, plagiarism occurs when
Uses words, ideas, or work products
Attributable to another identifiable person or source
Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained
In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original
In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be
Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of
higher learning and universities:
Stanford sees plagiarism as the "use, without giving reasonable and
appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of
another person's original work, whether such work is made up of code,
formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other
Yale views plagiarism as the "... use of another's work, words, or
ideas without attribution," which includes "... using a source's
language without quoting, using information from a source without
attribution, and paraphrasing a source in a form that stays too close
to the original."
Princeton perceives plagiarism as the "deliberate" use of "someone
else's language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge)
material without acknowledging its source."
Oxford College of Emory University
Oxford College of Emory University characterizes plagiarism as the use
of "a writer's ideas or phraseology without giving due credit."
Brown defines plagiarism as "... appropriating another person's ideas
or words (spoken or written) without attributing those word or ideas
to their true source."
The U.S. Naval Academy defines plagiarism as "the use of the words,
information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that
person through proper citation."
Common forms of student plagiarism
According to "The Reality and Solution of College
Plagiarism"[better source needed] created by the Health
Informatics department of the
University of Illinois at Chicago
University of Illinois at Chicago there
are 10 main forms of plagiarism that students commit:
Submitting someone's work as their own.
Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations.
Re-writing someone's work without properly citing sources.
Using quotations, but not citing the source.
Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing.
Citing some, but not all passages that should be cited.
Melding together cited and uncited sections of the piece.
Providing proper citations, but fails to change the structure and
wording of the borrowed ideas enough.
Inaccurately citing the source.
Relying too heavily on other people's work. Fails to bring original
thought into the text.
Sanctions for student plagiarism
In the academic world, plagiarism by students is usually considered a
very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing
grade on the particular assignment, the entire course, or even being
expelled from the institution. Generally, the
punishment increases as a person enters higher institutions of
learning. The seriousness with which academic
institutions address student plagiarism may be tempered by a
recognition that students may not fully understand what plagiarism is.
A 2015 study showed that students who were new to university study did
not have a good understanding of even the basic requirements of how to
attribute sources in written academic work, yet students were very
confident that they understood what referencing and plagiarism
are. The same students also had a lenient view of how plagiarism
should be penalised.
For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student
commits severe plagiarism (e.g., purchasing an assignment), suspension
or expulsion may occur. There has been historic concern about
inconsistencies in penalties administered for university student
plagiarism, and a plagiarism tariff was devised in 2008 for UK higher
education institutions in an attempt to encourage some standardization
However, to impose sanctions, plagiarism needs to be detected.
Strategies faculty members use to detect plagiarism include carefully
reading students work and making note of inconsistencies in student
writing, citation errors and providing plagiarism prevention education
to students. It has been found that a significant share of
(university) teachers do not use detection methods such as using
text-matching software. A few more try to detect plagiarism by
reading term-papers specifically for plagiarism, while the latter
method might be not very effective in detecting plagiarism –
especially when plagiarism from unfamiliar sources needs to be
Criminal and negative behaviour by diploma mills
This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant
discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this
article by introducing citations to additional sources. (May 2017)
There are allegations that some diploma mills[discuss] take students'
money for essays, then produce a low standard essay or close their
websites without providing the purchased essay. Students then have
little time to provide an essay before a deadline. Also diploma mills
have allegedly blackmailed students demanding more money than was
originally agreed and threatening to reveal plagiarism to the
university unless more money is paid. Sorana Vieru of the NUS said,
“We would urge those who are struggling to seek support through
their unions and universities rather than looking to a quick fix, and
be aware that using these websites could cost not only money but
jeopardise their qualifications.”
Given the serious consequences that plagiarism has for students, there
has been a call for a greater emphasis on learning in order to help
students avoid committing plagiarism. This is especially
important when students move to a new institution that may have a
different view of the concept when compared with the view previously
developed by the student. Indeed, given the seriousness of
plagiarism accusations for a student's future, the pedagogy of
plagiarism education may need to be considered ahead of the pedagogy
of the discipline being studied. The need for plagiarism education
extends to academic staff, who may not completely understand what is
expected of their students or the consequences of misconduct.
Factors influencing student´s decision to plagiarize
Several studies investigated factors that influence the decision to
plagiarize. For example, a panel study with students from German
universities found that academic procrastination predicts the
frequency plagiarism conducted within six months followed the
measurement of academic procrastination. It has been argued that
by plagiarizing students cope with the negative consequences that
result from academic procrastination such as poor grades. Another
study found that plagiarism is more frequent if students perceive
plagiarism as beneficial and if they have the opportunity to
plagiarize. When students had expected higher sanctions and when
they had internalized social norms that define plagiarism as very
objectionable, plagiarism was less likely to occur.
Methods of preventing plagiarism
"Planning your paper:
Consult with your instructor
plan your paper
take effective notes
Writing your paper:
when in doubt, cite sources.
make it clear who said what
know how to paraphrase
analyze and evaluate your sources"
Since journalism relies on the public trust, a reporter's failure to
honestly acknowledge their sources undercuts a newspaper or television
news show's integrity and undermines its credibility. Journalists
accused of plagiarism are often suspended from their reporting tasks
while the charges are being investigated by the news organization.
See also: Duplicate publication
The reuse of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of
one's own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or citing
the original work is sometimes described as "self-plagiarism"; the
term "recycling fraud" has also been used to describe this
practice. Articles of this nature are often referred to as
duplicate or multiple publication. In addition there can be a
copyright issue if copyright of the prior work has been transferred to
another entity. Self-plagiarism is considered a serious ethical issue
in settings where someone asserts that a publication consists of new
material, such as in publishing or factual documentation. It does
not apply to public-interest texts, such as social, professional, and
cultural opinions usually published in newspapers and magazines.
In academic fields, self-plagiarism occurs when an author reuses
portions of their own published and copyrighted work in subsequent
publications, but without attributing the previous
publication. Identifying self-plagiarism is often difficult
because limited reuse of material is accepted both legally (as fair
use) and ethically.
A contested definition
Miguel Roig has written at length about the topic of
self-plagiarism and his definition of self-plagiarism
as using previously disseminated work is widely accepted among
scholars of the topic. However, the "self-plagiarism" has been
challenged as being self-contradictory, an oxymoron, and on other
For example, Stephanie J. Bird argues that self-plagiarism is a
misnomer, since by definition plagiarism concerns the use of others'
material. Bird identifies the ethical issues of "self-plagiarism" as
those of "dual or redundant publication." She also notes that in an
educational context, "self-plagiarism" refers to the case of a student
who resubmits "the same essay for credit in two different courses." As
David B. Resnik clarifies, "Self-plagiarism involves dishonesty but
not intellectual theft."
According to Patrick M. Scanlon
"Self-plagiarism" is a term with some specialized currency. Most
prominently, it is used in discussions of research and publishing
integrity in biomedicine, where heavy publish-or-perish demands have
led to a rash of duplicate and "salami-slicing" publication, the
reporting of a single study's results in "least publishable units"
within multiple articles (Blancett, Flanagin, & Young, 1995;
Jefferson, 1998; Kassirer & Angell, 1995; Lowe, 2003; McCarthy,
1993; Schein & Paladugu, 2001; Wheeler, 1989). Roig (2002) offers
a useful classification system including four types of
self-plagiarism: duplicate publication of an article in more than one
journal; partitioning of one study into multiple publications, often
called salami-slicing; text recycling; and copyright infringement.
Codes of ethics
Some academic journals have codes of ethics that specifically refer to
self-plagiarism. For example, the Journal of International Business
Studies. Some professional organizations like the Association for
Computing Machinery (ACM) have created policies that deal specifically
with self-plagiarism. Other organizations do not make specific
reference to self-plagiarism such as the American Political Science
Association (APSA). The organization published a code of ethics that
describes plagiarism as "...deliberate appropriation of the works of
others represented as one's own." It does not make any reference to
self-plagiarism. It does say that when a thesis or dissertation is
published "in whole or in part", the author is "not ordinarily under
an ethical obligation to acknowledge its origins." The American
Society for Public Administration (ASPA) also published a code of
ethics that says its members are committed to: "Ensure that others
receive credit for their work and contributions," but it makes no
reference to self-plagiarism.
Factors that justify reuse
Pamela Samuelson, in 1994, identified several factors she says excuse
reuse of one's previously published work, that make it not
self-plagiarism. She relates each of these factors specifically to
the ethical issue of self-plagiarism, as distinct from the legal issue
of fair use of copyright, which she deals with separately. Among other
factors that may excuse reuse of previously published material
Samuelson lists the following:
The previous work must be restated to lay the groundwork for a new
contribution in the second work.
Portions of the previous work must be repeated to deal with new
evidence or arguments.
The audience for each work is so different that publishing the same
work in different places is necessary to get the message out.
The author thinks they said it so well the first time that it makes no
sense to say it differently a second time.
Samuelson states she has relied on the "different audience" rationale
when attempting to bridge interdisciplinary communities. She refers to
writing for different legal and technical communities, saying: "there
are often paragraphs or sequences of paragraphs that can be bodily
lifted from one article to the other. And, in truth, I lift them." She
refers to her own practice of converting "a technical article into a
law review article with relatively few changes—adding footnotes and
one substantive section" for a different audience.
Samuelson describes misrepresentation as the basis of
self-plagiarism. She also states "Although it seems not to have
been raised in any of the self-plagiarism cases, copyrights law's fair
use defense would likely provide a shield against many potential
publisher claims of copyright infringement against authors who reused
portions of their previous works."
Plagiarism is presumably not an issue when organizations issue
collective unsigned works since they do not assign credit for
originality to particular people. For example, the American Historical
Association's "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct" (2005)
regarding textbooks and reference books states that, since textbooks
and encyclopedias are summaries of other scholars' work, they are not
bound by the same exacting standards of attribution as original
research and may be allowed a greater "extent of dependence" on other
works. However, even such a book does not make use of words,
phrases, or paragraphs from another text or follow too closely the
other text's arrangement and organization, and the authors of such
texts are also expected to "acknowledge the sources of recent or
distinctive findings and interpretations, those not yet a part of the
common understanding of the profession."
In the arts
L.H.O.O.Q. (1919), one of Marcel Duchamp's readymades.
The history of the arts
Through all of the history of literature and of the arts in general,
works of art are for a large part repetitions of the tradition; to the
entire history of artistic creativity belong plagiarism, literary
theft, appropriation, incorporation, retelling, rewriting,
recapitulation, revision, reprise, thematic variation, ironic retake,
parody, imitation, stylistic theft, pastiches, collages, and
deliberate assemblages. There is no rigorous
and precise distinction between practices like imitation, stylistic
plagiarism, copy, replica and forgery. These
appropriation procedures are the main axis of a literate culture, in
which the tradition of the canonic past is being constantly
Ruth Graham quotes T.S. Eliot—"Immature poets imitate; mature poets
steal. Bad poets deface what they take."—she notes that despite the
"taboo" of plagiarism, the ill-will and embarrassment it causes in the
modern context, readers seem to often forgive the past excesses of
historic literary offenders.
Praisings of artistic plagiarism
A passage of Laurence Sterne's 1767
Tristram Shandy condemns
plagiarism by resorting to plagiarism.
Oliver Goldsmith commented:
Sterne's Writings, in which it is clearly shewn, that he, whose manner
and style were so long thought original, was, in fact, the most
unhesitating plagiarist who ever cribbed from his predecessors in
order to garnish his own pages. It must be owned, at the same time,
that Sterne selects the materials of his mosaic work with so much art,
places them so well, and polishes them so highly, that in most cases
we are disposed to pardon the want of originality, in consideration of
the exquisite talent with which the borrowed materials are wrought up
into the new form.
In other contexts
On the Internet
Free online tools are becoming available to help identify
plagiarism, and there are a range of approaches that attempt
to limit online copying, such as disabling right clicking and placing
warning banners regarding copyrights on web pages. Instances of
plagiarism that involve copyright violation may be addressed by the
rightful content owners sending a
DMCA removal notice to the offending
site-owner, or to the
ISP that is hosting the offending site. The term
"content scraping" has arisen to describe the copying and pasting of
information from websites and blogs.
This section may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant
examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text
and removing less pertinent examples. See's guide to writing
better articles for further suggestions. (October 2015)
Credit (creative arts)
Journalism scandals (plagiarism, fabrication, omission)
Peer review § Plagiarism
Scientific plagiarism in India
Scientific plagiarism in the United States
An Uncommon Story, literary memoir by Ivan Goncharov
The Anxiety of Influence, a 1973 book by Harold Bloom
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author should know. Biochemia Medica, 20(3), 295-300. Retrieved from
^ a b c d e Samuelson, Pamela (August 1994). "Self-plagiarism or fair
use?" (PDF). Communications of the ACM. 37 (8): 21–5.
^ Roig, M. (2005). Re-using text from one’s own previously published
papers: An exploratory study of potential self-plagiarism.
Psychological Reports, 2005(97), 43-49. doi:10.2466/pr0.97.1.43-49
^ Roig, M. (2011). Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other
questionable writing practices: A guide to ethical writing. U.S.
Department of Health & Human Services: Office of Research
Integrity Retrieved from
^ Roig, M. (2015). On reusing our previously disseminated work.
American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved from
^ Broome, M (November 2004). "Self-plagiarism: Oxymoron, fair use, or
scientific misconduct?". Nursing Outlook. 52 (6): 273–4.
doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2004.10.001. PMID 15614263.
^ Andreescu, Liviu (November 2012). "Self-
Plagiarism in Academic
Publishing: The Anatomy of a Misnomer". Science and Engineering
^ Bird, SJ (October 2002). "Self-plagiarism and dual and redundant
publications: what is the problem? Commentary on 'Seven ways to
plagiarize: handling real allegations of research misconduct'".
Science and Engineering Ethics. 8 (4): 543–4.
doi:10.1007/s11948-002-0007-4. PMID 12501723.
^ See Resnik, David B. (1998). The
Ethics of Science: an introduction,
London: Routledge. p.177, notes to chapter six, note 3. Online via
^ Scanlon, PM (2007). "Song from myself: an anatomy of
self-plagiarism". Plagiary. 2 (1): 1–11. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
^ Lorraine Eden. "JIBS Code of Ethics". Journal of International
Business Studies. Archived from the original on 2010-07-23. Retrieved
^ "ACM Policy and Procedures on Plagiarism". June 2010.
^ American Political Science Association (2008). "A Guide to
Ethics in Political Science". Second Edition. Section
21.1. ISBN 1-878147-05-6.
^ American Society for Public Administration. "ASPA's Code of Ethics".
^ a b "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct". American
Historical Association. 2005-01-06. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
^ a b Derrida  quotation: (p.40):[full citation needed] "The
boundaries between permissible and impermissible, imitation, stylistic
plagiarism, copy, replica and forgery remain nebulous."
^ Eco (1990) p. 95 quotation:
Each of the types of repetition that we have examined is not limited
to the mass media but belongs by right to the entire history of
artistic creativity; plagiarism, quotation, parody, the ironic retake
are typical of the entire artistic-literary tradition.
Much art has been and is repetitive. The concept of absolute
originality is a contemporary one, born with Romanticism; classical
art was in vast measure serial, and the "modern" avant-garde (at the
beginning of this century) challenged the Romantic idea of "creation
from nothingness," with its techniques of collage, mustachios on the
Mona Lisa, art about art, and so on.
^ Alfrey (2000)
^ Genette  note 3 to ch. 7, p. 433. quotation:
"transposition"... all the other possible terms (rewriting,
rehandling, remake, revision, refection, recasting, etc.)
^ a b Steiner (1998) pp. 437, 459 quotation:
(p. 437) There is between 'translation proper' and 'transmutation' a
vast terrain of 'partial transformation'. The verbal signs in the
original message or statement are modified by one of a multitude of
means or by a combination of means. These include paraphrase, graphic
illustration, pastiche, imitation, thematic variation, parody,
citation in a supporting or undermining context, false attribution
(accidental or deliberate), plagiarism, collage, and many others. This
zone of partial transformation, of derivation, of alternate
restatement determines much of our sensibility and literacy. It is,
quite simply, the matrix of culture.
(p. 459) We could, in some measure, at least, come closer to a
verifiable gradation of the sequence of techniques and aims, which
leads from literal translation through paraphrases, mimesis, and
pastiche to thematic variation. I have suggested that this sequence is
the main axis of a literate culture, that a culture advances,
spiralwise, via translations of its own canonic past.
^ Haywood (1987) p.109, quoting Arnau
^ Eco (1987) p.202, quoting Arnau
^ Arnau  quotation: (p. 40) "The boundaries between permissible
and impermissible, imitation, stylistic plagiarism, copy, replica and
forgery remain nebulous."
^ Graham, Ruth (January 7, 2014). "Word Theft". Poetryfoundation.org.
^ Mark Ford Love and Theft
London Review of Books
London Review of Books Vol. 26 No. 23 · 2
December 2004 pages 34–35 4103 words
Oliver Goldsmith The vicar of Wakefield: a tale, Volume 5 p.xviii
^ "Apple accused of copyright wrongs" CNET
^ "Copyscape Searches For Scraped Content". WebProNews. Archived from
the original on 2007-02-21.
^ Jones, Del (August 1, 2006). "Authorship gets lost on Web". USA
^ Welch, Maura (May 8, 2006). "Online plagiarism strikes blog world".
The Boston Globe.
Alfrey, Penelope (2000). "Petrarch's Apes: Originality,
Copyright Principles within Visual Culture". MIT Communications Forum.
Translation from the German by Brownjohn, J. Maxwell
(1961). The Art of the Faker. Little, Brown and Company.
Derrida, Jacques, Roudinesco, Élisabeth  (2004) De Quoi Demain,
English translation 2004 by Jeff Fort as For what tomorrow—: a
dialogue, ch.4 Unforeseeable Freedom
Blum, Susan D. My Word!:
Plagiarism and College Culture (2010)
Eco, Umberto (1987) Fakes and Forgeries in Versus, Issues 46–48,
republished in 1990 in The limits of interpretation pp. 174–202
Eco, Umberto (1990) Interpreting Serials in The limits of
interpretation, pp. 83–100, excerpt; link unavailable
Gérard Genette (1982) Palimpsests: literature in the second degree
Haywood, Ian (1987) Faking it
Hutcheon, Linda (1985). "3. The Pragmatic Range of Parody". A Theory
of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms. New York:
Methuen. ISBN 0-252-06938-2.
Joachimides, Christos M. and Rosenthal, Norman and Anfam, David and
Adams, Brooks (1993) American art in the 20th century: painting and
Lynch, Jack (2002) The Perfectly Acceptable Practice of Literary
Theft: Plagiarism, Copyright, and the Eighteenth Century, in Colonial
Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation 24,
no. 4 (Winter 2002–3), pp. 51–54. Also available online since
2006 at Writing World.
Paull, Harry Major (1928) Literary ethics: a study in the growth of
the literary conscience Part II, ch.X
Parody and Burlesque
pp. 133–40 (public domain work, author died in 1934)
Royal Shakespeare Company
Royal Shakespeare Company (2007) The RSC Shakespeare – William
Shakespeare Complete Works, Introduction to the Comedy of Errors
Ruthven, K. K. (2001) Faking Literature
Spearing, A. C. (1987) Introduction section to Chaucer's The
Franklin's Prologue and Tale
Spearing, A. C. (1989) Readings in medieval poetry
Steiner, George (1998) After Babel, ch.6 Topologies of culture, 3rd
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Plagiarism
Lipson, Charles (2008). Doing Honest Work in College: How to Prepare
Citations, Avoid Plagiarism, and Achieve Real Academic Success (2nd
ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
ISBN 9780226484778. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
Lipson, A., & Reindl, S. M. (2003).
http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ672640 "The Responsible Plagiarist:
Understanding Students Who Misuse Sources," About Campus, 8(3), 7-14.
Jude Carroll and Carl-Mikael Zetterling (2009). Guiding students away
from plagiarism (in Swedish and English) (1st ed.). Stockholm, Sweden:
KTH Royal Institute of Technology. pp. 86–167.
ISBN 978-91-7415-403-0. Retrieved June 10, 2017. CS1 maint:
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