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digital imaging Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object. The term is often assumed to imply or include the proces ...
, a pixel, pel, or picture element is a smallest addressable element in a
raster image upright=1, The Smiley, smiley face in the top left corner is a raster image. When enlarged, individual pixels appear as squares. Enlarging in further, they can be analyzed, with their colors constructed by combining the values for red, green and ...
, or the smallest addressable element in an
all points addressable "Bling Bling": Dot matrix-style skywriting. A dot matrix is a 2-dimensional patterned array, used to represent characters, symbols and images. Every type of modern technology uses dot matrices for display of information, including mobile phones, ...
display device s, LED display and VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people). When the input information t ...
; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; more samples typically provide more accurate representations of the original. The intensity of each pixel is variable. In color imaging systems, a color is typically represented by three or four component intensities such as red, green, and blue, or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. In some contexts (such as descriptions of
camera sensor An image sensor or imager is a sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves (as they pass through or reflect off objects) into signals, small bursts of current ...
s), ''pixel'' refers to a single scalar element of a multi-component representation (called a ''photosite'' in the camera sensor context, although '' sensel'' is sometimes used), while in yet other contexts it may refer to the set of component intensities for a spatial position.


Etymology

The word ''pixel'' is a combination of ''pix'' (from "pictures", shortened to "pics") and ''el'' (for "''
element Element may refer to: Science * Chemical element, a pure substance of one type of atom * Heating element, a device that generates heat by electrical resistance * Orbital elements, parameters required to identify a specific orbit of one body aroun ...
''"); similar formations with '''el include the words ''
voxel In 3D computer graphics, a voxel represents a value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space. As with pixels in a 2D bitmap, voxels themselves do not typically have their position (i.e. coordinates) explicitly encoded with their values. Inst ...
'' and ''texel''. The word ''pix'' appeared in ''
Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
'' magazine headlines in 1932, as an abbreviation for the word ''pictures'', in reference to movies. By 1938, "pix" was being used in reference to still pictures by photojournalists. The word "pixel" was first published in 1965 by
Frederic C. Billingsleyframe, Fred Billingsley, circa 1964 Frederic Crockett Billingsley (23 July 1921 – 31 May 2002) was an American engineer, who spent most of his career developing techniques for digital image processing in support of American space probes to the moon, ...
of
JPL The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in the city of La Cañada Flintridge, with a Pasadena mailing address, in California, United States. Founded in the 1930s, JPL is curr ...
, to describe the picture elements of scanned images from
space probe A space probe or a spaceprobe is a robotic spacecraft that doesn't orbit the Earth, but instead explores farther into outer space. A space probe may approach the Moon; travel through interplanetary space; flyby, orbit, or land or fly on other p ...
s to the Moon and Mars. Billingsley had learned the word from Keith E. McFarland, at the Link Division of General Precision in
Palo Alto Palo Alto () is a charter city located in the northwestern corner of Santa Clara County, California, United States, in the San Francisco Bay Area. Palo Alto means ''tall stick'' in Spanish; the city is named after a coastal redwood tree called E ...
, who in turn said he did not know where it originated. McFarland said simply it was "in use at the time" (circa 1963). The concept of a "picture element" dates to the earliest days of television, for example as "''Bildpunkt''" (the German word for ''pixel'', literally 'picture point') in the 1888 German patent of
Paul Nipkow Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow (22 August 1860 – 24 August 1940) was a German technician and inventor. He invented the Nipkow disk, which laid the foundation of television, since his disk was a fundamental component in the first televisions. Hund ...
. According to various etymologies, the earliest publication of the term ''picture element'' itself was in ''
Wireless World ''Electronics World'' (''Wireless World'', founded in 1913, and in September 1984 renamed ''Electronics & Wireless World'') is a technical magazine in electronics and RF engineering aimed at professional design engineers. It is produced monthly in ...
'' magazine in 1927, though it had been used earlier in various U.S. patents filed as early as 1911. Some authors explain ''pixel'' as ''picture cell,'' as early as 1972. In graphics and in image and video processing, ''pel'' is often used instead of ''pixel''. For example, IBM used it in their Technical Reference for the original PC. Pixels, abbreviated as "px", are also a unit of measurement commonly used in graphic and web design, equivalent to roughly . This measurement is used to make sure a given element will display as the same size no matter what screen resolution views it.
Pixilation Pixilation (from ''pixilated'') is a stop motion technique where live actors are used as a frame-by-frame subject in an animated film, by repeatedly posing while one or more frame is taken and changing pose slightly before the next frame or frames. ...
, spelled with a second ''i'', is an unrelated filmmaking technique that dates to the beginnings of cinema, in which live actors are posed frame by frame and photographed to create stop-motion animation. An archaic British word meaning "possession by spirits (
pixie A pixie (also pixy, pixi, pizkie, piskie and pigsie as it is sometimes known in Cornwall) is a mythical creature of British folklore. Pixies are considered to be particularly concentrated in the high moorland areas around Devon and Cornwall, sug ...
s)", the term has been used to describe the animation process since the early 1950s; various animators, including
Norman McLaren Norman McLaren, (11 April 1914 – 27 January 1987) was a Scottish Canadian animator, director and producer known for his work for the National Film Board of Canada (NFB).Rosenthal, Alan. ''The new documentary in action: a casebook in film makin ...
and Grant Munro, are credited with popularizing it.


Technical

thought of as the smallest single component of a
digital image A digital image is an image composed of picture elements, also known as ''pixels'', each with ''finite'', ''discrete quantities'' of numeric representation for its intensity or gray level that is an output from its two-dimensional functions fed as ...
. However, the definition is highly context-sensitive. For example, there can be " printed pixels" in a page, or pixels carried by electronic signals, or represented by digital values, or pixels on a display device, or pixels in a
digital camera A digital camera is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory. Most cameras produced today are digital, largely replacing those that capture images on photographic film. While there are still dedicated digital cameras, many more camer ...
(photosensor elements). This list is not exhaustive and, depending on context, synonyms include pel, sample, byte, bit, dot, and spot. ''Pixels'' can be used as a unit of measure such as: 2400 pixels per inch, 640 pixels per line, or spaced 10 pixels apart. The measures
dots per inch at draft quality. Actual size is approximately 0.25 inch by 0.25 inch (6.35 mm by 6.35 mm). Individual colored droplets of ink are visible; this sample is about 150 DPI. Dots per inch (DPI, or dpiThe acronym appears in sources as either "DPI" or lo ...
(dpi) and
pixels per inch In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, or picture element is a smallest addressable element in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture re ...
(ppi) are sometimes used interchangeably, but have distinct meanings, especially for printer devices, where dpi is a measure of the printer's density of dot (e.g. ink droplet) placement. For example, a high-quality photographic image may be printed with 600 ppi on a 1200 dpi inkjet printer. Even higher dpi numbers, such as the 4800 dpi quoted by printer manufacturers since 2002, do not mean much in terms of achievable
resolution Resolution(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Resolution (debate), the statement which is debated in policy debate * Resolution (law), a written motion adopted by a deliberative body * New Year's resolution, a commitment that an individual makes ...
. The more pixels used to represent an image, the closer the result can resemble the original. The number of pixels in an image is sometimes called the resolution, though resolution has a more specific definition. Pixel counts can be expressed as a single number, as in a "three-megapixel" digital camera, which has a nominal three million pixels, or as a pair of numbers, as in a "640 by 480 display", which has 640 pixels from side to side and 480 from top to bottom (as in a
VGA Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a video display controller and accompanying de facto graphics standard, first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, which became ubiquitous in the PC industry within three years. The term can now r ...
display) and therefore has a total number of 640 × 480 = 307,200 pixels, or 0.3 megapixels. The pixels, or color samples, that form a digitized image (such as a
JPEG JPEG or JPG ( ) is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable trade-off between storage size a ...
file used on a web page) may or may not be in one-to-one with screen pixels, depending on how a computer displays an image. In computing, an image composed of pixels is known as a '' bitmapped image'' or a ''
raster image upright=1, The Smiley, smiley face in the top left corner is a raster image. When enlarged, individual pixels appear as squares. Enlarging in further, they can be analyzed, with their colors constructed by combining the values for red, green and ...
''. The word ''raster'' originates from television scanning patterns, and has been widely used to describe similar
halftone Halftone is the reprographic technique that simulates continuous-tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size or in spacing, thus generating a gradient-like effect.Campbell, Alastair. The Designer's Lexicon. ©2000 Chronicle, San F ...
printing and storage techniques.


Sampling patterns

For convenience, pixels are normally arranged in a . By using this arrangement, many common operations can be implemented by uniformly applying the same operation to each pixel independently. Other arrangements of pixels are possible, with some sampling patterns even changing the shape (or
kernel Kernel may refer to: Computing * Kernel (operating system), the central component of most operating systems * Kernel (image processing), a matrix used for image convolution * Compute kernel, in GPGPU programming * Kernel method, in machine lea ...
) of each pixel across the image. For this reason, care must be taken when acquiring an image on one device and displaying it on another, or when converting image data from one pixel format to another. For example: using subpixels * Liquid crystal display, LCD screens typically use a staggered grid, where the red, green, and blue components are sampled at slightly different locations.
Subpixel rendering Subpixel rendering is a way to increase the apparent resolution of a computer's liquid crystal display (LCD) or organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display by rendering pixels to take into account the screen type's physical properties. It takes adv ...
is a technology which takes advantage of these differences to improve the rendering of text on LCD screens. * The vast majority of color digital cameras use a
Bayer filter A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for arranging RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors. Its particular arrangement of color filters is used in most single-chip digital image sensors used in digital cameras, camcor ...
, resulting in a regular grid of pixels where the ''color'' of each pixel depends on its position on the grid. * A clipmap uses a hierarchical sampling pattern, where the size of the
support Support may refer to: Business and finance * Support (technical analysis) * Child support * Customer support * Income Support Construction * Support (structure), or lateral support, a type of structural support to help prevent sideways movement * ...
of each pixel depends on its location within the hierarchy. * Warped grids are used when the underlying geometry is non-planar, such as images of the earth from space. * The use of non-uniform grids is an active research area, attempting to bypass the traditional
Nyquist limit In signal processing, the Nyquist frequency (or folding frequency), named after Harry Nyquist, is a characteristic of a sampler, which converts a continuous function or signal into a discrete sequence. In units of cycles per second (Hz), its v ...
. * Pixels on computer monitors are normally "square" (that is, have equal horizontal and vertical sampling pitch); pixels in other systems are often "rectangular" (that is, have unequal horizontal and vertical sampling pitch – oblong in shape), as are
digital video Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video) in the form of encoded digital data. This is in contrast to analog video, which represents moving visual images in the form of analog signals. Digital video comprises a ...
formats with diverse
aspect ratios The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions. For example, the aspect ratio of a rectangle is the ratio of its longer side to its shorter sidethe ratio of width to height, when the rectangle is oriented a ...
, such as the
anamorphic widescreen Anamorphic widescreen (also called Full height anamorphic or FHA) is a process by which a comparatively wide widescreen image is horizontally compressed to fit into a storage medium (photographic film or MPEG-2 Standard Definition frame, for examp ...
formats of the Rec. 601 digital video standard.


Resolution of computer monitors

Computers can use pixels to display an image, often an abstract image that represents a
GUI The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and audio indicator such as primary notation, instead o ...
. The resolution of this image is called the display resolution and is determined by the
video card A video card (also called a graphics card, display card, graphics adapter, or display adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display device (such as a computer monitor). Frequently, these are advertised as disc ...
of the computer.
LCD display. A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals combined with polarizers. Liquid crystals do not em ...

LCD
monitors also use pixels to display an image, and have a
native resolution frame, Example of non-native display (video driver setting of 800x600 as displayed through a native 1024x768 LCD) The native resolution of a LCD, LCoS or other flat panel display refers to its single fixed resolution. As an LCD consists of a fixed ...
. Each pixel is made up of triads, with the number of these triads determining the native resolution. On some monitors, the beam sweep rate may be fixed, resulting in a fixed native resolution. Most CRT monitors do not have a fixed beam sweep rate, meaning they do not have a native resolution at all - instead they have a set of resolutions that are equally well supported. To produce the sharpest images possible on an LCD, the user must ensure the display resolution of the computer matches the native resolution of the monitor.


Resolution of telescopes

The pixel scale used in astronomy is the angular distance between two objects on the sky that fall one pixel apart on the detector (CCD or infrared chip). The scale ''s'' measured in
radian The radian, denoted by the symbol \text, is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics. The unit was formerly an SI supplementary unit (before that category was abolished in ...
s is the ratio of the pixel spacing ''p'' and
focal length#REDIRECT Focal length {{R from other capitalisation ...

focal length
''f'' of the preceding optics, ''s''=''p/f''. (The focal length is the product of the
focal ratio In optics, the f-number of an optical system such as a camera lens is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil ("clear aperture").Smith, Warren ''Modern Optical Engineering'', 4th Ed., 2007 McGraw-Hill Profe ...
by the diameter of the associated lens or mirror.) Because ''p'' is usually expressed in units of
arcseconds A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc, denoted by the symbol ', is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree. Since one degree is of a turn (or complete rotation), one minute of arc is of a turn. The nauti ...
per pixel, because 1 radian equals ''180/π*3600≈206,265'' arcseconds, and because diameters are often given in millimeters and pixel sizes in micrometers which yields another factor of 1,000, the formula is often quoted as ''s=206p/f''.


Bits per pixel

The number of distinct colors that can be represented by a pixel depends on the number of bits per pixel (bpp). A 1 bpp image uses 1-bit for each pixel, so each pixel can be either on or off. Each additional bit doubles the number of colors available, so a 2 bpp image can have 4 colors, and a 3 bpp image can have 8 colors: * 1 bpp, 21 = 2 colors (
monochrome during the 1889 Exposition Universelle File:Parrot EGA monochrome palette.png">A photograph of a macaw rendered with a monochrome palette of a limited number of shades A monochromic image is composed of one color (or lightness, values of one ...
) * 2 bpp, 22 = 4 colors * 3 bpp, 23 = 8 colors * 4 bpp, 24 = 16 colors * 8 bpp, 28 = 256 colors * 16 bpp, 216 = 65,536 colors ("
Highcolor High color graphics is a method of storing image information in a computer's memory such that each pixel is represented by two bytes. Usually the color is represented by all 16 bits, but some devices also support 15-bit high color. More recently, ...
" ) * 24 bpp, 224 = 16,777,216 colors (" Truecolor") For color depths of 15 or more bits per pixel, the depth is normally the sum of the bits allocated to each of the red, green, and blue components.
Highcolor High color graphics is a method of storing image information in a computer's memory such that each pixel is represented by two bytes. Usually the color is represented by all 16 bits, but some devices also support 15-bit high color. More recently, ...
, usually meaning 16 bpp, normally has five bits for red and blue each, and six bits for green, as the human eye is more sensitive to errors in green than in the other two primary colors. For applications involving transparency, the 16 bits may be divided into five bits each of red, green, and blue, with one bit left for transparency. A 24-bit depth allows 8 bits per component. On some systems, 32-bit depth is available: this means that each 24-bit pixel has an extra 8 bits to describe its opacity (for purposes of combining with another image).


Subpixels

upright=0.9, Geometry of color elements of various CRT and LCD displays; phosphor dots in the color display of CRTs (top row) bear no relation to pixels or subpixels. Many display and image-acquisition systems are not capable of displaying or sensing the different color channels at the same site. Therefore, the pixel grid is divided into single-color regions that contribute to the displayed or sensed color when viewed at a distance. In some displays, such as LCD, LED, and plasma displays, these single-color regions are separately addressable elements, which have come to be known as subpixels. For example,
LCD display. A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals combined with polarizers. Liquid crystals do not em ...

LCD
s typically divide each pixel vertically into three subpixels. When the square pixel is divided into three subpixels, each subpixel is necessarily rectangular. In display industry terminology, subpixels are often referred to as ''pixels'', as they are the basic addressable elements in a viewpoint of hardware, and hence ''pixel circuits'' rather than ''subpixel circuits'' is used. Most digital camera
image sensor An image sensor or imager is a sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves (as they pass through or reflect off objects) into signals, small bursts of current ...
s use single-color sensor regions, for example using the
Bayer filter A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for arranging RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors. Its particular arrangement of color filters is used in most single-chip digital image sensors used in digital cameras, camcor ...
pattern, and in the camera industry these are known as ''pixels'' just like in the display industry, not ''subpixels''. For systems with subpixels, two different approaches can be taken: * The subpixels can be ignored, with full-color pixels being treated as the smallest addressable imaging element; or * The subpixels can be included in rendering calculations, which requires more analysis and processing time, but can produce apparently superior images in some cases. This latter approach, referred to as
subpixel rendering Subpixel rendering is a way to increase the apparent resolution of a computer's liquid crystal display (LCD) or organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display by rendering pixels to take into account the screen type's physical properties. It takes adv ...
, uses knowledge of pixel geometry to manipulate the three colored subpixels separately, producing an increase in the apparent resolution of color displays. While displays use red-green-blue-masked phosphor areas, dictated by a mesh grid called the shadow mask, it would require a difficult calibration step to be aligned with the displayed pixel raster, and so CRTs do not currently use subpixel rendering. The concept of subpixels is related to
samples Sample or samples may refer to: Base meaning * Sample (statistics), a subset of a population - Complete data set * Sample (signal), a digital discrete sample of a continuous analog signal * Sample (material), a specimen or small quantity of somet ...
.


Megapixel

A megapixel (MP) is a million pixels; the term is used not only for the number of pixels in an image but also to express the number of
image sensor An image sensor or imager is a sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves (as they pass through or reflect off objects) into signals, small bursts of current ...
elements of
digital camera A digital camera is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory. Most cameras produced today are digital, largely replacing those that capture images on photographic film. While there are still dedicated digital cameras, many more camer ...
s or the number of display elements of digital displays. For example, a camera that makes a 2048 × 1536 pixel image (3,145,728 finished image pixels) typically uses a few extra rows and columns of sensor elements and is commonly said to have "3.2 megapixels" or "3.4 megapixels", depending on whether the number reported is the "effective" or the "total" pixel count. Pixel is used to define the resolution of a photo. Photo resolution is calculated by multiplying the width and height of a sensor in pixel. Digital cameras use photosensitive electronics, either
charge-coupled device imaging A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or coupled, capacitors. Under the control of an external circuit, each capacitor can transfer its electric charge to a neighboring capacitor. CCD sensor ...
(CCD) or
complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor#REDIRECT CMOS {{R from other capitalisation ...
(CMOS) image sensors, consisting of a large number of single sensor elements, each of which records a measured intensity level. In most digital cameras, the sensor array is covered with a patterned color filter mosaic having red, green, and blue regions in the
Bayer filter A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for arranging RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors. Its particular arrangement of color filters is used in most single-chip digital image sensors used in digital cameras, camcor ...
arrangement so that each sensor element can record the intensity of a single primary color of light. The camera interpolates the color information of neighboring sensor elements, through a process called
demosaicingA demosaicing (also de-mosaicing, demosaicking or debayering) algorithm is a digital image process used to reconstruct a full color image from the incomplete color samples output from an image sensor overlaid with a color filter array (CFA). It is al ...
, to create the final image. These sensor elements are often called "pixels", even though they only record 1 channel (only red or green or blue) of the final color image. Thus, two of the three color channels for each sensor must be interpolated and a so-called ''N-megapixel'' camera that produces an N-megapixel image provides only one-third of the information that an image of the same size could get from a scanner. Thus, certain color contrasts may look fuzzier than others, depending on the allocation of the primary colors (green has twice as many elements as red or blue in the Bayer arrangement).
DxO Labs DxO is a French company dedicated to photography. Founded in 2006, it is located in Boulogne-Billancourt. It markets DxO PhotoLab, ViewPoint, and FilmPack image processing software and a connected camera, the DxO ONE. History DxO created DxOMark.c ...
invented the Perceptual MegaPixel (P-MPix) to measure the sharpness that a camera produces when paired to a particular lens – as opposed to the MP a manufacturer states for a camera product, which is based only on the camera's sensor. The new P-MPix claims to be a more accurate and relevant value for photographers to consider when weighing up camera sharpness. As of mid-2013, the Sigma 35 mm f/1.4 DG HSM lens mounted on a
Nikon D800 The Nikon D800 is a 36.3-megapixel professional-grade full-frame digital single-lens reflex camera produced by Nikon Corporation. It was given a Gold Award by Digital Photography Review. It was officially announced on February 7, 2012 and went on ...
has the highest measured P-MPix. However, with a value of 23 MP, it still wipes off more than one-third of the D800's 36.3 MP sensor. In August 2019, Xiaomi released Redmi Note 8 Pro as the world's first
smartphone A smartphone is a mobile device that combines cellular and mobile computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wid ...
with 64 MP camera. On December 12, 2019 Samsung released Samsung A71 with also a 64 MP camera. In late 2019, Xiaomi announced the first camera phone with 108MP 1/1.33-inch across sensor. The sensor is larger than most of
bridge camera bridge digital camera bridge camera Image:Konica Minolta alvesgaspar.jpg, The Konica Minolta DIMAGE A200 (2005) Bridge cameras are cameras that fill the niche market, niche between the single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs) and the point-and- ...
with 1/2.3-inch across sensor. One new method to add megapixels has been introduced in a
Micro Four Thirds System Micro may refer to: Measurement * micro- (μ), a prefix in the SI and other systems of units denoting a factor of 10−6 (one millionth) Places * Micro, North Carolina, town in U.S. People * DJ Micro, (born Michael Marsicano) an American trance ...
camera, which only uses a 16 MP sensor but can produce a 64 MP RAW (40 MP JPEG) image by making two exposures, shifting the sensor by a half pixel between them. Using a tripod to take level multi-shots within an instance, the multiple 16 MP images are then generated into a unified 64 MP image.


See also

*
Computer display standard Computer display standards are a combination of aspect ratio, display size, display resolution, color depth, and refresh rate. They are associated with specific expansion cards, video connectors and monitors. History Various computer display sta ...
* Dexel * Gigapixel image *
Image resolution Image resolution is the detail an image holds. The term applies to raster digital images, film images, and other types of images. Higher resolution means more image detail. Image resolution can be measured in various ways. Resolution quantifies ...
*
Intrapixel and Interpixel processing CMOS sensor processing is done in pixel level. This process includes two general categories: intrapixel processing, where the processing is performed on the individual pixel signals, and interpixel processing, where the processing is performed loc ...
* LCD crosstalk *
PenTile matrix familyPenTile matrix is a family of patented subpixel matrix schemes used in electronic device displays. PenTile is a trademark of Samsung. PenTile matrices are used in AMOLED and LCD displays. These subpixel layouts are specifically designed to operate w ...
* Pixel advertising *
Pixel art Pixel art is a form of digital art, created through the use of software, where images are edited on the pixel level. The aesthetic for this kind of graphics comes from 8-bit and 16-bit computers and video game consoles, in addition to other li ...
* Pixel art scaling algorithms *
Pixel aspect ratio Pixel aspect ratio 2:1 Pixel aspect ratio (often abbreviated PAR) is a mathematical ratio that describes how the width of a pixel in a digital image compares to the height of that pixel. Most digital imaging systems display an image as a grid o ...
*
Pixelation In computer graphics, pixelation (or pixellation in British English) is caused by displaying a bitmap or a section of a bitmap at such a large size that individual pixels, small single-colored square display elements that comprise the bitmap, ar ...
*
Pixelization Pixelization (British English, pixelisation) or mosaic is any technique used in editing images or video, whereby an image is blurred by displaying part or all of it at a markedly lower resolution. It is primarily used for censorship. The effect ...
*
Point (typography) In typography, the point is the smallest unit of measure. It is used for measuring font size, leading, and other items on a printed page. The size of the point has varied throughout the history of printing. Since the 18th century, the point's si ...
*
Glossary of video terms This glossary defines terms that are used in the documen"Defining Video Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety" developed by thVideo Quality in Public Safety (VQIPS) Working Group It contains terminology and explanations of concepts releva ...
*
Voxel In 3D computer graphics, a voxel represents a value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space. As with pixels in a 2D bitmap, voxels themselves do not typically have their position (i.e. coordinates) explicitly encoded with their values. Inst ...


References


External links


A Pixel Is Not A Little Square
Microsoft Memo by computer graphics pioneer Alvy Ray Smith.
Video of Lyon's talk on pixel history
at the
Computer History Museum The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US. The museum presents stories and artifacts of the information age and explores the computing revolution and its impact on society. History The muse ...

Computer History Museum

Square and non-Square Pixels
Technical info on pixel aspect ratios of modern video standards (480i, 576i, 1080i, 720p), plus software implications.
120 Megapixel is here now
A lot of information about MegaPixel and Gigapixel.
How a TV Works in Slow Motion - The Slow Mo Guys
YouTube#REDIRECT YouTube {{R from miscapitalization ...
video by
The Slow Mo Guys ''The Slow Mo Guys'' is a science and technology entertainment web series from Thame, England, United Kingdom created by Gavin Free, starring himself and Daniel Gruchy. It has been described as the biggest channel for slow motion videos on YouTube ...
{{Photography
Computer graphics data structuresData structures used in computer graphics. See also :Computer graphics algorithms. Data structures Geometric data structures ...
Digital geometry Digital imaging Digital photography
Display technology {{Commons category Computing output devices Film and video technology Electronic engineering ...
Image processing
Television technology Broadcast engineering Electronics Television Technology Information and communications technology Technology Television categories for deletion scanning {{CatAutoTOC ...