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Pietro Sandro Nenni (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpjɛtro ˈnɛnni]; February 9, 1891 – January 1, 1980) was an Italian socialist politician, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and lifetime Senator since 1970. He was a recipient of the Stalin Peace Prize
Stalin Peace Prize
in 1951. He was a central figure of the Italian left from the 1920s to the 1960s.

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 First World War 3 In exile 4 Postwar politics 5 Opening to centre-left 6 References 7 External links

Early life and career[edit] He was born in Faenza, in Emilia-Romagna. After his peasant parents died, he was placed in an orphanage by an aristocratic family. Every Sunday, he recited his catechism before the countess and if he did well, he received a silver coin. "Generous but humiliating", he recalled.[1] He affiliated with the Italian Republican Party. In 1908, he became editor of a republican paper in Forlì. The socialist paper in the town was edited at the time by Benito Mussolini, later the Fascist dictator of Italy. Nenni was imprisoned in 1911 for his participation in the protest movement against the Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
in Libya
Libya
with Mussolini.[2] First World War[edit] When the First World War
First World War
broke out, he advocated the intervention of Italy
Italy
in the war. In 1915, he volunteered for the Isonzo front. After he was wounded and sent home, he became an editor of the republican paper Mattine d'Italia. He defended Italy's participation in the war but tried not to alienate his socialist friends. In the last years of the war Nenni served at the front again.[2] When the war was over, he founded, together with some disillusioned revolutionary ex-servicemen, a group called "Fascio", which was soon dissolved and replaced by a real Fascist
Fascist
body.[2] While the socialist Mussolini became a fascist, the republican Nenni joined the Socialist Party in 1921 after its split with the wing that would form the Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
(PCI). In 1923 (after the Fascist
Fascist
March on Rome, he became the editor of PSI's official organ, Avanti!, and engaged in antifascist activism. In 1925 he was arrested for publishing a booklet on the fascist murder of Socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti. When the Avanti offices were set aflame and the paper prohibited in 1926, he took refuge in France, where he became secretary of the PSI. In exile[edit] In Paris, where he had worked as correspondent of the Avanti in 1921, he became acquainted with Léon Blum
Léon Blum
(socialist Prime Minister of France
France
from 1936 to 1937), Marcel Cachin, Romain Rolland
Romain Rolland
and Georges Sorel. Nenni went on to fight with the International Brigades
International Brigades
in the Spanish Civil War. He was the cofounder and the political commissar of the Garibaldi Brigade. After the defeat of the Spanish Republic
Spanish Republic
and the victory of General Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
he returned to France. In 1943, he was arrested by the Germans in Vichy France
France
and then imprisoned in Italy
Italy
on the island of Ponza. After being liberated in August 1943, he returned to Rome
Rome
to lead the Italian Socialist Party, which had been reunified as the Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity. After the surrender of Italy with the Allied armed forces on September 8, 1943, he was one of the political officials of the National Liberation Committee, the underground political entity of Italian Partisans during the German occupation. Postwar politics[edit] In 1944, he became the national secretary of the PSI again, favouring close ties between his party and the PCI. After the Liberation, he took up government responsibilities, becoming Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for the Constituent Assembly in the government of Ferruccio Parri and the first government of Alcide De Gasperi. He was Minister for the Constitution, and in October 1946 he became Minister for Foreign Affairs in the second De Gasperi government. The close ties between the PSI and the PCI caused the Giuseppe Saragat-led anticommunist wing of the PSI to leave and form the Italian Socialist Workers' Party
Italian Socialist Workers' Party
in 1947 (later merged into the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, PSDI).

Aldo Moro
Aldo Moro
and Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
at Quirinale in Rome

In 1956, Nenni broke with the PCI after Soviet Union's invasion of Hungary.[3] He returned the Stalin Prize money ($25,000).[1] Subsequently, he slowly led his party into supporting membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO) and closer European integration, and he sought co-operation with the leading party, the Christian Democrats. Opening to centre-left[edit] In the early 1960s he facilitated an "opening to the centre-left" enabling coalition governments between the PSI and the Christian Democrats and leading the socialists back into office for the first time since 1947.[4] He formed a centre-left coalition with Saragat, Aldo Moro
Aldo Moro
and Ugo La Malfa, and favored a reunion with the PSDI. From 1963 to 1968 he was Deputy Prime Minister in the three successive governments led by Moro and in December 1968 he became Minister for Foreign Affairs in the first government of Mariano Rumor, but resigned in July 1969, when the centre-left alliance collapsed. Although the reunification attempts between the socialists and Giuseppe Saragat's breakaway Social Democrats resulted in the formation of a joint list Unified PSI–PSDI, both parties fared poorly in the 1968 Italian general election. In 1969, a disillusioned Nenni virtually retired and Francesco De Martino took his place.[5] He resigned as head of the PSI and was made a senator for life in 1970 and in 1971 he ran unsuccessfully for President of Italy. He died in Rome
Rome
on January 1, 1980. A daughter, Vittoria "Viva" Daubeuf, died in Auschwitz. She is memorialized in the writings of Charlotte Delbo. He was an atheist.[6] References[edit]

^ a b Italy's New Partnership, Time Magazine, December 13, 1963 ^ a b c Crisis of Italian Socialism, Europe Speaks, March 3, 1947 ^ Pietro & Paul, Time Magazine, April 23, 1965 ^ "A Sinistra?", Time Magazine, January 12, 1962 ^ Obituary Francesco De Martino, The Guardian, November 22, 2002 ^ Giuseppe Tamburrano, Pietro Nenni: una vita per la democrazia e per il socialismo, Laicata, 2000, p. 366.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pietro Nenni.

Where the Italian Socialists
Italian Socialists
Stand[permanent dead link], Pietro Nenni, Foreign Affairs, January 1962 Address given by Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
on the military intervention in Czechoslovakia, Rome, August 29, 1968

Political offices

Preceded by Title jointly held Minister without portfolio
Minister without portfolio
as Deputy Prime Minister 1945–1946 Succeeded by Title jointly held

Preceded by Alcide De Gasperi Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs 1946–1947 Succeeded by Carlo Sforza

Preceded by Title jointly held Minister without portfolio
Minister without portfolio
as Deputy Prime Minister 1963–1968 Succeeded by Title jointly held

Preceded by Giuseppe Medici Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs 1968–1969 Succeeded by Aldo Moro

Italian Chamber of Deputies

Preceded by None, Parliament re-established Member of Parliament elected at-large Legislature: CA 1946–1948 Succeeded by Title jointly held

Preceded by Title joinly held Member of Parliament for Rome Legislature: I 1948–1953 Succeeded by Title jointly held

Preceded by Title joinly held Member of Parliament elected at-large Legislature: II 1953–1958 Succeeded by Title jointly held

Preceded by Title joinly held Member of Parliament for Milan Legislature: III, IV, V 1958–1970 Succeeded by Title jointly held

Italian Senate

Preceded by Title jointly held Italian Lifetime Senator Legislatures: V, VI, VII, VIII 1970–1980 Succeeded by Title jointly held

Party political offices

Preceded by Ugo Coccia (caretaker) Secretary of the Italian Socialist Party 1931–1945 Succeeded by Sandro Pertini

Preceded by Alberto Jacometti Secretary of the Italian Socialist Party 1949–1963 Succeeded by Francesco De Martino

v t e

Italian Ministers of Foreign Affairs

Kingdom of Italy

Cavour Ricasoli Rattazzi Pasolini Visconti-Venosta La Marmora Visconti-Venosta Campello Menabrea Visconti-Venosta Melegari Depretis Corti Cairoli Depretis Cairoli Mancini Depretis Robilant Depretis Crispi Starabba di Rudinì Brin Blanc Caetani Capelli Canevaro Visconti-Venosta Prinetti Tittoni Paternò-Castello Guicciardini Tittoni Guicciardini Paternò-Castello Sonnino Tittoni Scialoja Sforza Tommasi della Torretta Schanzer Mussolini Grandi Mussolini Ciano Mussolini Guariglia Badoglio Bonomi De Gasperi

Italian Republic

De Gasperi Nenni Sforza De Gasperi Pella Piccioni Martino Pella Fanfani Pella Segni Fanfani Piccioni Saragat Moro Fanfani Moro Fanfani Medici Nenni Moro Medici Moro Rumor Forlani Malfatti Ruffini Colombo Andreotti De Michelis Scotti Colombo Andreatta Elia Martino Agnelli Dini Ruggiero Berlusconi Frattini Fini D'Alema Frattini Terzi di Sant'Agata Bonino Mogherini Gentiloni Alfano

v t e

Rumor I Cabinet (1968–69)

Taviani Mazza/Russo Lauricella Gatto Nenni Restivo Gava Preti Reale E. Colombo Gui Sullo/Ferrari Aggradi Mancini Valsecchi Mariotti Ferrari Aggradi/Crescenzo Mazza Tanassi Ripamonti V. Colombo Lupis Forlani Brodolini Natali

v t e

Italian Socialist Party

Secretary

Carlo Dell'Avalle (1892-1894) Filippo Turati
Filippo Turati
(1895-1896) Enrico Ferri (1896) Carlo Dell'Avalle (1896-1898) Alfredo Bertesi (1898-1899) Enrico Bertini (1899-1900) Savino Varazzani (1900-1904) Enrico Ferri (1904-1906) Oddino Morgari (1906-1908) Pompeo Ciotti (1908-1912) Costantino Lazzari
Costantino Lazzari
(1912-1918) Egidio Gennari (1918) Costantino Lazzari
Costantino Lazzari
(1918-1919) Arturo Vella (1919) Nicola Bombacci
Nicola Bombacci
(1919-1920) Egidio Gennari (1920-1921) Giovanni Bacci
Giovanni Bacci
(1921) Domenico Fioritto (1921-1923) Tito Oro Nobili (1923-1925) Olindo Vernocchi (1925-1930) Ugo Coccia (1930-1932) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1933-1939) Giuseppe Saragat, Oddino Morgari and Angelo Tasca (1939-1942) Giuseppe Romita (1942–1943) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1943–1945) Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
(1945) Rodolfo Morandi (1945–1946) Ivan Matteo Lombardo (1946–1947) Lelio Basso
Lelio Basso
(1947–1948) Alberto Jacometti (1948–1949) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1949–1963) Francesco De Martino (1963–1968) Mario Tanassi
Mario Tanassi
(1966–1968) Mauro Ferri (1968–1969) Francesco De Martino (1969–1970) Giacomo Mancini (1970–1972) Francesco De Martino (1972–1976) Bettino Craxi
Bettino Craxi
(1976–1993) Giorgio Benvenuto
Giorgio Benvenuto
(1993) Ottaviano Del Turco (1993–1994) Valdo Spini (1994)

Related articles

Italian Labour Party Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party Fasci Siciliani Avanti! Critica Sociale Marxism Revolutionary socialism Maximalists National syndicalism Reformist socialism Democratic socialism Division over World War I National Liberation Committee Italian resistance movement Craxism Sigonella incident Banco Ambrosiano
Banco Ambrosiano
scandal Mani pulite

Derivatives

Italian Reformist Socialist Party Fasci of Revolutionary Action / National Fascist
Fascist
Party / Republican Fascist
Fascist
Party Communist Party of Italy
Italy
/ Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
/ International Communist Party Unitary Socialist Party Maximalist Italian Socialist Party Socialist Unity Italian Democratic Socialist Party Italian Socialists
Italian Socialists
/ Italian Democratic Socialists
Italian Democratic Socialists
/ Socialist League Labour Federation Reformist Socialist Party Socialist Party / New Italian Socialist Party Forza Italia
Forza Italia
(social-democrats faction) Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
(social-democrats faction)

Alliances

Popular Democratic Front (1947-1948) Organic Centre-left (1962-1976) Unified Socialist Party (1966-1971) Pentapartito
Pentapartito
(1981-1993) Alliance of Progressives
Alliance of Progressives
(1994)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pietro Nenni.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 73865321 LCCN: n50002766 ISNI: 0000 0001 1877 9153 GND: 118785893 SUDOC: 02833650X BNF: cb12019285k (data) HDS: 27944 NLA: 35684350 NKC: skuk0001000 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV04338 BNE: XX1174177 SN

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