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The Piacenzian is in the international geologic time scale the upper stage or latest age of the Pliocene. It spans the time between 3.6 ± 0.005 Ma and 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago). The Piacenzian is after the Zanclean and is followed by the Gelasian (part of the Pleistocene). The Piacenzian is roughly coeval with the European land mammal age MN 16, overlaps the late Chapadmalalan and early Uquian South American land mammal age and falls inside the more extensive Blancan North American land mammal age. It also correlates with the Astian, Redonian, Reuverian and Romanian regional stages of Europe. Some authorities describe the British Red Crag Formation and Waltonian stage as late Piacenzian,[2][3] while others regard them as early Pleistocene.[4][5]

Contents

1 Definition 2 Climate 3 Origin of the genus Homo 4 References

4.1 Notes 4.2 Literature

5 External links

Definition[edit] The Piacenzian was introduced in scientific literature by Swiss stratigrapher Karl Mayer-Eymar in 1858. It is named after the Italian city of Piacenza. The base of the Piacenzian is at the base of magnetic chronozone C2An (the base of the Gauss chronozone and at the extinction of the planktonic forams Globorotalia margaritae and Pulleniatina primalis. The GSSP
GSSP
for the Piacenzian stage is at Punta Piccola on Sicily, Italy.[6] The top of the Piacenzian (the base of the Quaternary
Quaternary
system and the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
series) is defined magnetostratigraphically as the base of the Matuyama (C2r) chronozone (at the Gauss-Matuyama reversal), and isotopic stage 103. Above this point there are notable extinctions of the calcareous nanofossils: Discoaster
Discoaster
pentaradiatus and Discoaster surculus.[7] Climate[edit] Climate of the Piacenzian would have started as a somewhat wet and warm period in North America occurring just after a brief cooling period of the Zanclean. Deposition of sediments and mollusks of the Piacenzian correspond with the rise in sea level creating the Tamiami Subsea and Jackson Subsea of Florida, Duplin Subsea generally of South Carolina, and Yorktown Subsea of the Outer Banks
Outer Banks
and inland North Carolina. Dates have been established on the basis of the genera and species of mollusks found.[8] Origin of the genus Homo[edit] The late Piacenzian may be when the genus Homo
Homo
developed out of the ancestral genus Australopithecus.[9] While the oldest known fossils unambiguously identified as Homo
Homo
habilis date to just after the end of the Piacenzian (2.58 Ma), a fossilized jawbone that exhibits traits that are transitional between Australopithecus
Australopithecus
and Homo
Homo
habilis was discovered in the Afar Triangle
Afar Triangle
in 2015. The find was made by Ethiopian student Chalachew Seyoum at a site called Ledi-Geraru between the Mille and Awash rivers, in Afar Regional State (near 11°22′N 40°52′E / 11.36°N 40.86°E / 11.36; 40.86).[10][11] Based on geological evidence from the Afar region, the individual would have lived just after a major climate shift, during which forests and waterways were rapidly replaced by arid savanna. Regarding the Afar region, and as stated in the journal Science: "Vertebrate fossils record a faunal turnover indicative of more open and probable arid habitats than those reconstructed earlier in this region, in broad agreement with hypotheses addressing the role of environmental forcing in hominin evolution at this time." This interpretation is consistent with hypotheses that emphasize the savanna as the ancestral environment that shaped the evolution of early Homo
Homo
and other hominins.[12] References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "Tinescale Chart". www.stratigraphy.org.  ^ "Red Crag Formation". British Geological Survey. Retrieved 5 August 2016.  ^ "Global Chronostratigraphical Correlation Table for the Last 2.7 Million Years. v.2011". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 5 August 2016.  ^ "The Naze citation" (PDF). Sites of Special
Special
Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 5 August 2016.  ^ Allaby, Michael (2013). Oxford Dictionary of Geology & Earth Sciences (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 626. ISBN 978-0-19-96530 6-5.  ^ Castradori et al. (1998) ^ Gadstein et al. (2005), p. 28; Rio et al. (1998) ^ Petuch, Edward J., Ph.D. Florida Atlantic University, Department of Geodsciences. Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Seas: The View From Eastern North America. CRC Press, Dec. 29, 2003. ISBN 0-8493-1632-4. ^ Pallab Ghosh (4 March 2015). "'First human' discovered in Ethiopia". BBC. Retrieved 22 March 2015.  ^ "Oldest known member of human family found in Ethiopia". New Scientist. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2015.  ^ Ghosh, Pallab (4 March 2015). "'First human' discovered in Ethiopia". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 7 March 2015.  ^ Erin N. DiMaggio EN; Campisano CJ; Rowan J; Dupont-Nivet G; Deino AL; et al. (2015). "Late Pliocene
Pliocene
fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo
Homo
from Afar, Ethiopia". Science. 347: 1355–9. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1415. PMID 25739409. 

Literature[edit]

Wikisource has original works on the topic: Cenozoic#Neogene

Castradori, D.; Rio, D.; Hilgen, F.J. & Lourens, L.J.; (1998) "The Global Standard Stratotype section and Point (GSSP) of the Piacenzian Stage (Middle Pliocene)" Episodes 21(2): pp 88–93.[dead link] Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G. (eds.) (2005) A Geologic Time Scale 2004 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, ISBN 0-521-78142-6. Rio, D., R. Sprovieri, D. Castradori, and E. Di Stefano (1998) "The Gelasian Stage (Upper Pliocene): A new unit of the global standard chronostratigraphic scale" Episodes 21(2): 82-87.[dead link] Thompson, R. S. and Fleming, R. F. (1996) "Middle Pliocene
Pliocene
vegetation: reconstructions, paleoclimatic inferences, and boundary conditions for climate modeling" Marine Micropaleontology 27(1): pp. 27–49

External links[edit]

Piacenzian at the GeoWhen database Neogene
Neogene
timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Neogene
Neogene
timescale at the website of the Norwegian network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy Piacenzian Microfossils: images of Piacenzian Foraminifera

v t e

Neogene
Neogene
Period

Miocene
Miocene
Epoch Pliocene
Pliocene
Epoch

Aquitanian Burdigalian Langhian Serravallian Tortonian Messinian

Zanclean Piacenzian

v t e

Geologic history of Earth

Cenozoic
Cenozoic
era¹ (present–66.0 Mya)

Quaternary
Quaternary
(present–2.588 Mya)

Holocene
Holocene
(present–11.784 kya) Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)

Neogene
Neogene
(2.588–23.03 Mya)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.588–5.333 Mya) Miocene
Miocene
(5.333–23.03 Mya)

Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)

Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03–33.9 Mya) Eocene
Eocene
(33.9–56.0 Mya) Paleocene
Paleocene
(56.0–66.0 Mya)

Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era¹ (66.0–251.902 Mya)

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(66.0–145.0 Mya)

Late (66.0–100.5 Mya) Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)

Jurassic
Jurassic
(145.0–201.3 Mya)

Late (145.0–163.5 Mya) Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya) Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)

Triassic
Triassic
(201.3–251.902 Mya)

Late (201.3–237 Mya) Middle (237–247.2 Mya) Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)

Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era¹ (251.902–541.0 Mya)

Permian
Permian
(251.902–298.9 Mya)

Lopingian
Lopingian
(251.902–259.8 Mya) Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(259.8–272.3 Mya) Cisuralian
Cisuralian
(272.3–298.9 Mya)

Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(298.9–358.9 Mya)

Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya) Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)

Devonian
Devonian
(358.9–419.2 Mya)

Late (358.9–382.7 Mya) Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya) Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)

Silurian
Silurian
(419.2–443.8 Mya)

Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya) Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya) Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya) Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)

Ordovician
Ordovician
(443.8–485.4 Mya)

Late (443.8–458.4 Mya) Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya) Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)

Cambrian
Cambrian
(485.4–541.0 Mya)

Furongian (485.4–497 Mya) Series 3 (497–509 Mya) Series 2 (509–521 Mya) Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
(521–541.0 Mya)

Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon² (541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)

Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)

Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(541.0-~635 Mya) Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya) Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)

Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)

Stenian (1-1.2 Gya) Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya) Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)

Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)

Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya) Orosirian
Orosirian
(1.8-2.05 Gya) Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya) Siderian
Siderian
(2.3-2.5 Gya)

Archean
Archean
eon² (2.5–4 Gya)

Eras

Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya) Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya) Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
(3.2–3.6 Gya) Eoarchean
Eoarchean
(3.6–4 Gya)

Hadean
Hadean
eon² (4–4.6 Gya)

 

 

kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.¹ = Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon. ² = Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon. Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrie

.