Phyllosilicates
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Silicate minerals are rock-forming
mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (20 ...

mineral
s made up of
silicate In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they unde ...
groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of
Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust is a thin shell on the outside of Earth, accounting for less than 1% of Earth's volume. It is the top component of the lithosphere, a division of Earth's layers that includes the Crust (geology), ...
. In
mineralogy Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical mineralogy, optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifact (archaeology), artifacts. Specific stu ...

mineralogy
,
silica Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula , most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms. In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand. Silica is one ...

silica
(silicon dioxide) is usually considered a silicate mineral. Silica is found in nature as the mineral
quartz Quartz is a hard, crystalline mineral composed of silica (silicon dioxide). The atoms are linked in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon-oxygen Tetrahedral molecular geometry, tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, ...

quartz
, and its polymorphs. On Earth, a wide variety of silicate minerals occur in an even wider range of combinations as a result of the processes that have been forming and re-working the crust for billions of years. These processes include partial
melting Melting, or Enthalpy of fusion, fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a chemical substance, substance from a solid to a liquid. This occurs when the internal energy of the solid increases, typically by the applic ...

melting
,
crystallization Crystallization or crystallisation is the process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five car ...

crystallization
,
fractionation Fractional distillation apparatus using a
,
metamorphism upright=1.35, Schematic representation of a metamorphic reaction. Abbreviations of minerals: act = actinolite; chl = Chlorite group">chlorite; ep = epidote; gt = garnet; hbl = hornblende; plag = plagioclase. Two minerals represented in the figure ...
,
weathering Weathering is the deterioration of rocks A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in wh ...
, and
diagenesis Diagenesis () is the process that describes physical and chemical changes in sediments first caused by water-rock interactions, microbial activity and compaction after their deposition. The increase of pressure and temperature only starts to pla ...
. Living organisms also contribute to this geologic cycle. For example, a type of
plankton Plankton are the diverse collection of organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by tax ...

plankton
known as
diatom Diatoms (''diá-tom-os'' 'cut in half', from ''diá'', 'through' or 'apart', and the root of ''tém-n-ō'', 'I cut') are a major group of algae, specifically microalgae, found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world. Living diatoms make ...
s construct their
exoskeleton An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, ''éxō'' "outer" and σκελετός, ''skeletós'' "skeleton") is the external skeleton The skeleton refers to the frames of support of animal bodies. There are several different skeletal types: the exos ...

exoskeleton
s ("frustules") from silica extracted from
seawater Seawater, or salt water, is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of E ...

seawater
. The frustules of dead diatoms are a major constituent of
deep ocean The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently sediment transport, transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. F ...

sediment
, and of
diatomaceous earth Diatomaceous earth (), diatomite (), or kieselgur/kieselguhr is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous rock, siliceous sedimentary rock that can be crumbled into a fine shades of white, white to off-white powder. It has a particle size ranging f ...

diatomaceous earth
.


General structure

A silicate mineral is generally an
ionic compound structure of sodium chloride Sodium chloride , commonly known as salt (although sea salt also contains other chemical salt (chemistry), salts), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chlori ...
whose
anion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are u ...
s consist predominantly of
silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a Tetravalence, tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member ...

silicon
and
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen Group (periodic table), group in the periodic table, a highly Chemical reaction, reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing a ...

oxygen
atoms. In most minerals in the Earth's crust, each silicon atom is the center of an ideal tetrahedron, whose corners are four oxygen atoms
covalent A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the Coulomb's law, electrostatic force of attraction bet ...

covalent
ly bound to it. Two adjacent tetrahedra may share a vertex, meaning that the oxygen atom is a bridge connecting the two silicon atoms. An unpaired vertex represents an ionized oxygen atom, covalently bound to a single silicon atom, that contributes one unit of negative charge to the anion. Some silicon centers may be replaced by atoms of other elements, still bound to the four corner oxygen corners. If the substituted atom is not normally tetravalent, it usually contributes extra charge to the anion, which then requires extra
cation An ion () is an atom or molecule with a net electric charge, electrical charge. The charge of an electron is considered negative by convention and this charge is equal and opposite to charge of a proton, which is considered positive by convent ...
s. For example, in the mineral
orthoclase Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar ( endmember formula K AlSi3 O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. The name is from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancien ...

orthoclase
, the anion is a tridimensional network of tetrahedra in which all oxygen corners are shared. If all tetrahedra had silicon centers, the anion would be just neutral silica . Replacement of one in every four silicon atoms by an
aluminum Aluminium (aluminum in American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the Unit ...
atom results in the anion , whose charge is neutralized by the
potassium Potassium is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

potassium
cations .


Main groups

In
mineralogy Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical mineralogy, optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifact (archaeology), artifacts. Specific stu ...

mineralogy
,
silicate minerals Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs na ...
are classified into seven major groups according to the structure of their silicate anion:Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis , , 1985). ''Manual of Mineralogy'', Wiley, (20th edition ed.). Note that tectosilicates can only have additional cations if some of the silicon is replaced by an atom of lower valence such as aluminium. Al for Si substitution is common.


Nesosilicates or orthosilicates

Nesosilicates (from Greek 'island'), or orthosilicates, have the orthosilicate ion, which constitute isolated (insular)
tetrahedra In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of spac ...
that are connected only by interstitial
cation An ion () is an atom or molecule with a net electric charge, electrical charge. The charge of an electron is considered negative by convention and this charge is equal and opposite to charge of a proton, which is considered positive by convent ...
s. The
Nickel–Strunz classification Nickel–Strunz classification is a scheme for categorizing mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Eart ...
is 09.A –examples include: *Phenakite group **
Phenakite Phenakite or phenacite is a fairly rare Silicate minerals, nesosilicate mineral consisting of beryllium Silicate minerals#Nesosilicates or orthosilicates, orthosilicate, beryllium, Be2silicon, Sioxygen, O4. Occasionally used as a gemstone, phenakit ...

Phenakite
– **
Willemite Willemite is a zinc Zinc is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Zinc is a slightly brittle metal at room temperature and has a silvery-greyish appearance when oxidation is removed. It is the first el ...

Willemite
– *
Olivine The mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Ra ...

Olivine
group **
Forsterite Forsterite (Mg2SiO4; commonly abbreviated as Fo; also known as white olivine) is the magnesium-rich end-member of the olivine solid solution series. It is isomorphous with the iron-rich end-member, fayalite. Forsterite crystallizes in the orth ...

Forsterite
– **
Fayalite Fayalite (Fe2SiO4; commonly abbreviated to Fa) is the iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and gro ...

Fayalite
– **
Tephroite Tephroite is the manganese Manganese is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of a ...
– *
Garnet Garnets () are a group of silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science con ...

Garnet
group **
Pyrope The mineral pyrope is a member of the garnet Garnets () are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some ...

Pyrope
– **
Almandine Almandine (), also known as almandite, is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet Garnets () are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was ...
– **
Spessartine Spessartine, sometimes mistakenly referred to as spessartite, is a nesosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "disc ...

Spessartine
– **
Grossular Grossular is a calcium Calcium is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ca and atomic number 20. As an alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical a ...

Grossular
– **
Andradite Andradite is a species of the garnet group. It is a nesosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a ...
– **
Uvarovite Uvarovite is a chromium-bearing garnet group species with the formula: calcium, Ca3chromium, Cr2(silicon, Sioxygen, O4)3. It was discovered in 1832 by Germain Henri Hess who named it after Count Sergei Semenovitch Uvarov (1765–1855), a Russian st ...

Uvarovite
– ** Hydrogrossular – *Zircon group **
Zircon Zircon ( or ) is a mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which ...

Zircon
– **
Thorite Thorite, (Th,U)SiO4, is a rare nesosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concern ...
– **
Hafnon Hafnon is a hafnium nesosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with t ...

Hafnon
– crystals (unknown scale) * group **
Andalusite Andalusite is an aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in American English, American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other ...
– **
Kyanite Kyanite is a typically blue aluminosilicate mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock ( ...

Kyanite
– **
Sillimanite Sillimanite is an aluminosilicate mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), ...

Sillimanite
– **
Dumortierite Dumortierite is a fibrous variably colored aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in American English, American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density ...
– **
Topaz Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in American English, American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower th ...

Topaz
– **
Staurolite Staurolite is a reddish brown to black, mostly opaque, nesosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is ...

Staurolite
– *
Humite Humite is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.Joh ...

Humite
group – ** Norbergite – **
Chondrodite Chondrodite is a Silicate minerals, nesosilicate mineral with formula . Although it is a fairly rare mineral, it is the most frequently encountered member of the Humite (mineral group), humite group of minerals. It is formed in hydrothermal depos ...

Chondrodite
– **
Humite Humite is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.Joh ...

Humite
– **
Clinohumite Clinohumite is an uncommon member of the Humite (mineral group), humite group, a magnesium silicate according to the chemical formula (magnesium, Mg, iron, Fe)9(silicon, Sioxygen, O4)4(fluorine, F,Ohydrogen, H)2. The formula can be thought of as f ...

Clinohumite
– *
Datolite Datolite is a calcium boron hydroxide Silicate minerals, nesosilicate, calcium, Caboron, Bsilicon, Sioxygen, O4(Ohydrogen, H). It was first observed by Jens Esmark in 1806, and named by him from δατεῖσθαι, "to divide," and λίθος, "st ...

Datolite
– *
Titanite Titanite, or sphene (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

Titanite
– * Chloritoid – *
Mullite Mullite or porcelainite is a rare silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science ...
(aka Porcelainite) –


Sorosilicates

Sorosilicates (from Greek 'heap, mound') have isolated pyrosilicate anions , consisting of double tetrahedra with a shared oxygen vertex—a silicon:oxygen ratio of 2:7. The Nickel–Strunz classification is 09.B. Examples include: *
Hemimorphite Hemimorphite is the chemical compound Zinc, Zn4(Pyrosilicate, Si2O7)(Hydroxide, OH)2Water of crystallization, ·H2O, a component of mineral Calamine (mineral), calamine. It is a silicate mineral which, together with smithsonite (ZnCO3), has been h ...

Hemimorphite
(
calamine Calamine, also known as calamine lotion, is a medication used to treat mild itchiness Itch (also known as pruritus or automatic tickle) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex In biology Biology is the natural science that stu ...
) – *
Lawsonite Lawsonite is a hydrous calcium aluminium sorosilicate mineral with formula CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2·H2O. Lawsonite crystallizes in the orthorhombicIn crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. Orthorhombic Lattice (gr ...
– *
Axinite
Axinite
– *
Ilvaite
Ilvaite
– *Epidote group (has both and groups} **Epidote – **Zoisite – ***Tanzanite – **Clinozoisite – **Allanite – **Dollaseite-(Ce) – *Vesuvianite (Vesuvianite, idocrase) –


Cyclosilicates

Cyclosilicates (from Greek 'circle'), or ring silicates, have three or more tetrahedra linked in a ring. The general formula is (Si''x''O3''x'')2''x''−, where one or more silicon atoms can be replaced by other 4-coordinated atom(s). The silicon:oxygen ratio is 1:3. Double rings have the formula (Si2''x''O5''x'')2''x''− or a 2:5 ratio. The Nickel–Strunz classification is 09.C. Possible ring sizes include: File:Beryll.ring.combined.png, 6 units , beryl (red: Si, blue: O) File:Benitoid.2200.png, 3 units , benitoite File:Papagoite.2200.png, 4 units , papagoite File:Eudialyte.2200.png, 9 units , eudialyte File:Milarite.png, 6 units, double ring , milarite Some example minerals are: * 3-member single ring ** Benitoite – * 4-member single ring ** Papagoite – . * 6-member single ring **Beryl – **Bazzite – **Sugilite – **Tourmaline – **Pezzottaite – **Osumilite – **Cordierite – **Sekaninaite – * 9-member single ring ** Eudialyte – * 6-member double ring **Milarite – Note that the ring in axinite contains two B and four Si tetrahedra and is highly distorted compared to the other 6-member ring cyclosilicates.


Inosilicates

Inosilicates (from Greek [genitive: ] 'fibre'), or chain silicates, have interlocking chains of silicon, silicate tetrahedra with either , 1:3 ratio, for single chains or , 4:11 ratio, for double chains. The Nickel–Strunz classification is 09.D – examples include:


Single chain inosilicates

*Pyroxene group **Enstatite – orthoferrosilite series ***Enstatite – ***Ferrosilite – **Pigeonite – **Diopside – hedenbergite series ***Diopside – ***Hedenbergite – ***Augite – **Sodium pyroxene series ***Jadeite – ***Aegirine (or acmite) – **Spodumene – **Pyroxferroite - *Pyroxenoid group **Wollastonite – **Rhodonite – **Pectolite –


Double chain inosilicates

*Amphibole group **Anthophyllite – **Cummingtonite series ***Cummingtonite – ***Grunerite – **Tremolite series ***Tremolite – ***Actinolite – **Hornblende – **Sodium amphibole group ***Glaucophane – ***Riebeckite (asbestos) – ***Arfvedsonite – File:Pyroxen-chain.png, Inosilicate, pyroxene family, with 2-periodic single chain , diopside File:Tremolite-chain.png, Inosilicate, clinoamphibole, with 2-periodic double chains , tremolite File:Wollastonite-chain.png, Inosilicate, unbranched 3-periodic single chain of wollastonite File:Rhodonite-chain.png, Inosilicate with 5-periodic single chain, rhodonite File:Pellyite-chain.png, Inosilicate with cyclic branched 8-periodic chain, pellyite


Phyllosilicates

Phyllosilicates (from Greek 'leaf'), or sheet silicates, form parallel sheets of silicate tetrahedra with or a 2:5 ratio. The Nickel–Strunz classification is 09.E. All phyllosilicate minerals are hydrated, with either water or hydroxyl groups attached. Examples include: *Serpentine subgroup **Antigorite – **Chrysotile – **Lizardite – *Clay minerals group **1:1 clay minerals (TO) ***Halloysite – ***Kaolinite – **2:1 clay minerals (TOT) ***Pyrophyllite – ***Talc – ***Illite – ***Montmorillonite (smectite) – ***Chlorite group, Chlorite – ***Vermiculite – **Other clay minerals ***Sepiolite – ***Palygorskite (or attapulgite) – (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)*4(H2O) *Mica group **Biotite – **Fuchsite – **Muscovite – **Phlogopite – **Lepidolite – **Margarite – **Glauconite – File:Muskovite.sheet.png, Phyllosilicate, mica group, muscovite (red: Si, blue: O) File:Apophyllite.sheet.png, Phyllosilicate, single net of tetrahedra with 4-membered rings, apophyllite-(KF)-apophyllite-(KOH) series File:Pyrosmalite.sheet.png, Phyllosilicate, single tetrahedral nets of 6-membered rings, pyrosmalite-(Fe)-pyrosmalite-(Mn) series File:Zeophyllite.sheet.png, Phyllosilicate, single tetrahedral nets of 6-membered rings, zeophyllite File:Carletonite.sheet.png, Phyllosilicate, double nets with 4- and 6-membered rings, carletonite


Tectosilicates

Image:Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite (60025).jpg, Moon, Lunar ferroan anorthosite (plagioclase feldspar) collected by Apollo 16 astronauts from the Geology of the Moon#Highlands and craters, Lunar Highlands near Descartes (crater), Descartes Crater Tectosilicates, or "framework silicates," have a three-dimensional framework of silicate tetrahedra with in a 1:2 ratio. This group comprises nearly 75% of the crust (geology), crust of the Earth. Tectosilicates, with the exception of the quartz group, are aluminosilicates. The Nickel–Strunz classifications are 09.F and 09.G, 04.DA (Quartz/ silica family). Examples include: *3D-Silicates, quartz family **Quartz – **Tridymite – **Cristobalite – **Coesite – **Stishovite – **Moganite – **Chalcedony – *Tectosilicates, feldspar group **Alkali feldspars (potassium feldspars) ***Microcline – ***Orthoclase – ***Anorthoclase – ***Sanidine – **Plagioclase feldspars ***Albite – ***Oligoclase –      (Na:Ca 4:1) ***Andesine –      (Na:Ca 3:2) ***Labradorite –      (Na:Ca 2:3) ***Bytownite –      (Na:Ca 1:4) ***Anorthite – *Tectosilicates, feldspathoid family **Nosean – **Cancrinite – **Leucite – **Nepheline – **Sodalite – **Hauyne – ***Lazurite – *Tectosilicates, scapolite group **Marialite – **Meionite – *Tectosilicates, zeolite family **Natrolite – **Erionite – **Chabazite – **Heulandite – **Stilbite – **Scolecite – **Mordenite – **Analcime –


See also

* * *


References


External links


Mindat.org, Dana classification

Webmineral : Dana's New Silicate Classification
{{Authority control Silicate minerals, ja:ケイ酸塩鉱物 pl:Krzemiany