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Philip I[1] (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506)[2] called the Handsome or the Fair, was the first member of the house of Habsburg
Habsburg
to be King of Castile. The son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I
Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I
by his first wife Mary, Philip was less than four years old when his mother died, and upon her death, he inherited the greater part of the Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
and the Burgundian Netherlands
Burgundian Netherlands
as Philip IV. In 1496, his father arranged for him to marry Joanna of Castile, second daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, rulers of Aragon
Aragon
and Castile respectively. Around the same time, Philip's sister Margaret was given in marriage to Joanna's brother John, as part of an agreement between their fathers. Within four years after the wedding, Joanna became heir presumptive to Aragon and Castile, following the deaths of her brother, elder sister and infant nephew during that period. In 1504, aged 27, Philip became king of Castile jure uxoris when his mother-in-law died and Joanna succeeded her. He died only two years later, leaving his wife distraught with grief. Philip was the first Habsburg
Habsburg
monarch in Spain, and is the progenitor of every later monarch of Spain, even up to today. He died before his father, and therefore never inherited his father's territories or became Holy Roman Emperor. However, his son Emperor Charles V eventually united the Habsburg, Burgundian, Castilian, and Aragonese inheritances. Philip holds a special place in Habsburg
Habsburg
history because he was the pivot around which the dynasty acquired a large portion of its extensive lands. By inheriting Burgandy from his mother (which included present-day Netherlands, Belgium
Belgium
and parts of France) and by acquiring much of Spain
Spain
and its possessions in the New World by marriage to Joanna, Philip was instrumental in vastly enhancing the territories of the Habsburgs, and his progeny would dominate European history for the next two centuries. Philip's wife Joanna was an elder sister to Catherine of Aragon, who married successively the brothers Arthur, Prince of Wales
Arthur, Prince of Wales
and King Henry VIII of England. However, Philip died before Catherine and Henry were married. He did once visit England, and the young Prince Henry was much impressed with him. Indeed, Henry is said to have regarded Philip as providing a model of leadership towards which he aspired.[3]

Holland, gold florin 'Philippus Goudgulden', struck in Dordrecht under the reign of Philip the Fair

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 The Burgundian inheritance and the Spanish alliance 1.3 The Castilian inheritance 1.4 Struggle for power in Spain

2 Family 3 Ancestry 4 Titles 5 Notes 6 Sources

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Philip was born in Bruges, the son of the future Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife Mary, Duchess of Burgundy. He was born in the County of Flanders
County of Flanders
(today in Belgium) during the reign of his grandfather Frederick III, and was named in honour of his great-grandfather, Philip the Good, grandfather of his mother Mary.

Philip by the Master of the Legend of the Magdalen

Philip was only four years old when his mother died in 1482. he succeeded to her Burgundian possessions under the guardianship of his father. A period of turmoil ensued which witnessed sporadic hostilities between, principally, the large towns of Flanders (especially Ghent
Ghent
and Bruges) and the supporters of Maximilian. During this interregnum, Philip became caught up in events and was even briefly sequestered in Bruges
Bruges
as part of the larger Flemish campaign to support their claims of greater autonomy, which they had wrested from Mary of Burgundy
Mary of Burgundy
in an agreement known as the Great Privilege
Great Privilege
of 1477. By the early 1490s, the turmoil of the interregnum gave way to an uneasy stand-off, with neither French support for the cities of the Franc (Flanders), nor Imperial support from Philip's grandfather, Emperor Frederick III proving decisive. Both sides came to terms in the Treaty of Senlis
Treaty of Senlis
in 1493, when Emperor Frederick died and Philip's father Maximilian became the new emperor. This smoothed over the internal power struggle as the two sides agreed to make the 15-year-old Philip prince in the following year.

Engraving of Philip I of Castile

The Burgundian inheritance and the Spanish alliance[edit] In 1494, Maximilian relinquished his regency under the terms of the Treaty of Senlis
Treaty of Senlis
and Philip, aged 16, took over the rule of the Burgundian lands himself, although in practice authority was derived from a council of Burgundian notables. On 20 October 1496, he married Joanna, daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Aragon
and Queen Isabella I of Castile, in Lier, Belgium.[4] The marriage was one of a set of family alliances between the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
and the Trastámara, designed to strengthen against growing French power, which had increased significantly thanks to the policies of Louis XI and the successful assertion of regal power after war with the League of the Public Weal. The matter became more urgent after Charles VIII's invasion of Italy (known as the First Peninsular War). Philip's sister Margaret married John, Prince of Asturias, only son of Ferdinand and Isabella
Ferdinand and Isabella
and heir apparent to the unified crowns of Castile and Aragon.[5] The double alliance was never intended to let the Spanish kingdoms fall under Habsburg
Habsburg
control. At the time of her marriage to Philip, Joanna was third in line to the throne, with John and their sister Isabella married and hopeful of progeny. The Castilian inheritance[edit]

Joanna of Castile

In 1500, shortly after the birth of Joanna and Philip's second child (the future Emperor Charles V), in Flanders, the succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns was thrown into turmoil. The heir apparent, John, had died in 1497 very shortly after his marriage to Margaret of Austria. The crown thereby seemed destined to devolve upon his and Joanna's elder sister Isabella, wife of Manuel I of Portugal. She died in 1498, while giving birth to a son named Miguel da Paz, to whom succession to the united crowns of Castile, Aragon
Aragon
and Portugal now fell; however, the infant was sickly and died during the summer of 1500. The succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns now fell to Joanna. Because Ferdinand could produce another heir, the Cortes of Aragon
Aragon
refused to recognize Joanna as heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Aragon. In the Kingdom of Castile, however, the succession was clear. Moreover, there was no Salic tradition which the Castilian Cortes could use to thwart the succession passing to Joanna. At this point, the issue of Joanna's supposed mental incompetence moved from courtly annoyance to the center of the political stage, since it was clear that Philip and his Burgundian entourage would be the real power-holders in Castile. In 1502, Philip, Joanna and a large part of the Burgundian court travelled to Spain
Spain
to receive fealty from the Cortes of Castile as heirs, a journey chronicled in intense detail by Antoon I van Lalaing (French: Antoine de Lalaing), the future Stadtholder
Stadtholder
of Holland and Zeeland. Philip and the majority of the court returned to the Low Countries in the following year, leaving a pregnant Joanna behind in Madrid, where she gave birth to Ferdinand, later Holy Roman Emperor. Although Joanna was deeply in love with Philip, their married life was rendered extremely unhappy by his infidelity and political insecurity, during which time he constantly attempted to usurp her legal birthrights of power. This led in great part to the rumors of her insanity due to reports of depressive or neurotic acts committed while she was being imprisoned or coerced by her husband, rumors that benefited Philip politically. Most historians now agree she was merely clinically depressed at the time, not insane as commonly believed. Before her mother's death, in 1504, husband and wife were already living apart. Struggle for power in Spain[edit] In 1504, Philip's mother-in-law, Queen Isabella of Castile, died, leaving the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
to Joanna. Isabella I's widower and former co-monarch, King Ferdinand II, endeavored to lay hands on the regency of Castile, but the nobles, who disliked and feared him, forced him to withdraw. Philip was summoned to Spain, where he was recognized as king. However, en route to Spain
Spain
in January 1506, Philip and Joanna were caught in a tempest and shipwrecked off the Dorset
Dorset
coast, forcing them on shore near Melcombe Regis. The couple stayed as guests of Henry VII of England but were in fact hostages for the duration of their stay. To get released Philip was forced to sign a treaty with Henry VII–the so-called Malus Intercursus–which included a mutual defense pact, the extradition of rebels, including the Earl of Suffolk, Edmund de la Pole, who as an exile was a guest of Philip in the Low Countries, and a trade agreement which allowed English merchants to import cloth duty-free into the Low Countries. After handing over Edmund, Philip and Joanna were allowed to leave England after a stay of six weeks.[6] Philip and Joanna landed at Corunna on 28 April 1506, accompanied by a body of German mercenaries. Father- and son-in-law mediated under Cardinal Cisneros
Cardinal Cisneros
at Remesal, near Puebla de Sanabria, and at Renedo, the only result of which was an indecent family quarrel, in which Ferdinand professed to defend the interests of his daughter, who he said was imprisoned by her husband. On 27 June 1506, the Treaty of Villafáfila was signed between Ferdinand and Philip, with Philip being proclaimed King of Castile
King of Castile
by the Cortes of Valladolid. However, Philip died suddenly at Burgos, apparently of typhoid fever,[citation needed] on 25 September 1506, although a poisoning (assassination) was widely spoken of at the time, and is what his wife believed to be the cause of Philip's death. His wife supposedly refused to allow his body to be buried or part from it for a while. Philip I is entombed at the Royal Chapel of Granada
Royal Chapel of Granada
(Capilla Real de Granada), alongside his wife, and her parents Isabella I and Ferdinand II. Family[edit]

Children of Philip and Joanna

Philip and Joanna of Castile
Joanna of Castile
had six children:

Eleanor (1498–1558), queen consort of Portugal
Portugal
and France Charles V (1500–1558), king of Spain, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Isabella (1501–1526), queen consort of Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden Ferdinand I (1503–1564), king of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Mary (1505–1558), queen consort of Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia, governor of the Spanish Netherlands Catherine (1507–1578), queen consort of Portugal

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Philip I of Castile

16. Leopold III, Duke of Austria

8. Ernest, Duke of Austria

17. Viridis Visconti

4. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor

18. Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia

9. Cymburgis of Masovia

19. Alexandra of Lithuania

2. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

20. John I of Portugal

10. Edward I of Portugal

21. Philippa of Lancaster

5. Eleanor of Portugal

22. Ferdinand I of Aragon

11. Eleanor of Aragon

23. Eleanor of Alburquerque

1. Philip I of Castile

24. John I, Duke of Burgundy

12. Philip III, Duke of Burgundy

25. Margaret of Bavaria

6. Charles I, Duke of Burgundy

26. John I of Portugal
Portugal
(= 20)

13. Isabella of Portugal

27. Philippa of Lancaster
Philippa of Lancaster
(= 21)

3. Mary, Duchess of Burgundy

28. John I, Duke of Bourbon

14. Charles I, Duke of Bourbon

29. Marie, Duchess of Auvergne

7. Isabella of Bourbon

30. John I, Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy
(= 24)

15. Agnes of Burgundy

31. Margaret of Bavaria
Margaret of Bavaria
(= 25)

Titles[edit]

Coat of arms of Philip as an Archduke and Titular Duke of Burgundy

Coat of arms of Philip as King of Castile

27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Titular Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy
as Philip IV 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Duke of Brabant
Duke of Brabant
as Philip III 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Duke of Limburg as Philip III 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Duke of Lothier as Philip III 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Duke of Luxemburg
Duke of Luxemburg
as Philip II 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Margrave of Namur
Margrave of Namur
as Philip V 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Count Palatine of Burgundy
Count Palatine of Burgundy
as Philip VI 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Count of Artois
Count of Artois
as Philip VI 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Count of Charolais
Count of Charolais
as Philip III 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Count of Flanders
Count of Flanders
as Philip IV 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Count of Hainaut
Count of Hainaut
as Philip II 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Count of Holland
Count of Holland
as Philip II 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506: Count of Zeeland
Count of Zeeland
as Philip II 27 March 1482 – 1492: Duke of Guelders
Duke of Guelders
as Philip I 27 March 1482 – 1492: Count of Zutphen as Philip I 26 November 1504 – 25 September 1506: jure uxoris King of Castile as Philip I

Notes[edit]

^ German: Philipp, Spanish: Felipe, French: Philippe, Dutch: Filips ^ , Constantin von Wurzbach
Constantin von Wurzbach
(1861). "Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich". Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. 7. L. C. Zamarski. p. 112.  ^ King Henry VII and Archduke Philip met for the first time outside Calais in 1500, Prince Henry was not included in the English party; and the Archduke's visit to England was not until 1506. Ref: Gairdner, Letters and Patents illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III & Henry VII, ii, p.89 et seq.; Pub. for the Master of The Rolls by The Treasury, 1878 ^ marcalcide. "The marriage of Philip I of Castile". Youtube.com. Retrieved 23 August 2012.  ^ Hermann Wiesflecker, Maximilian I. und die habsburgische-spanischen Heirats- und Bündnisverträge von 1495–1496, in Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 67 (1959) ^ Penn, Thomas (2011). Winter King: The Dawn of Tudor England. London: Allen Lane. pp. 213–226. ISBN 9781439191569. 

Sources[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Philip I of Castile.

Cauchies, Jean-Marie (2003). Philippe le Beau: le dernier duc de Bourgogne. Turnhout: Brepols. 

Philip I of Castile House of Habsburg Born: 22 February 1478 Died: 25 September 1506

Regnal titles

Preceded by Joanna as sole monarch King of Castile
King of Castile
and Leon 1506 with Joanna Succeeded by Joanna as sole monarch

Preceded by Mary Duke of Brabant, Limburg, Lothier and Duke of Luxemburg Margrave of Namur Count of Artois, Flanders, Charolais, Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland; Count Palatine of Burgundy 1482–1506 Succeeded by Charles II & III

Duke of Guelders; Count of Zutphen 1482–1492 Succeeded by Charles II

v t e

Monarchs of Castile

House of Jiménez

Ferdinand I "the Magno" Sancho II "the Strong" Alfonso VI "the Brave" Urraca "the Reckless"

House of Burgundy

Alfonso VII "the Emperor" Sancho III "the Desired" Alfonso VIII "the Noble" Henry I Berengaria Ferdinand III "the Saint" Alfonso X "the Wise" Sancho IV "the Brave" Ferdinand IV "the Summoned" Alfonso XI "the Avenger" Peter "the Cruel"

House of Trastámara

Henry II "the Fracticidal" John I Henry III "the Mourner" John II Henry IV "the Impotent" Isabella I "the Catholic" Ferdinand V "the Catholic" Joanna "the Mad"

House of Habsburg

Philip I "the Handsome" Charles I "the Emperor" Philip II "the Prudent" Philip III "the Devotional" Philip IV "the Stunned" Charles II "the Bewitched"

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Monarchs of Luxembourg

County of Luxemburg
County of Luxemburg
(963–1354)

Elder House of Luxembourg (963–1136)

Siegfried (963–998) Henry I (998–1026) Henry II (1026–1047) Giselbert (1047–1059) Conrad I (1059–1086) Henry III (1086–1096) William I (1096–1131) Conrad II (1131–1136)

House of Namur (1136–1189)

Henry IV (1136–1189)

House of Hohenstaufen (1196–1197)

Otto (1196–1197)

House of Namur (1197–1247)

Ermesinde (1197–1247), with Theobald (1197–1214), and then Waleran (1214–1226)

House of Limburg (1247–1354)

Henry V (1247–1281) Henry VI (1281–1288) Henry VII (1288–1313) John I (1313–1346) Charles I (1346–1353) Wenceslaus I (1353–1354)

Duchy of Luxemburg
Duchy of Luxemburg
(1354–1794)

House of Limburg (1354–1443)

Wenceslaus I (1354–1383) Wenceslaus II (1383–1388) Jobst (1388–1411) Elisabeth (1411–1443) with Anthony (1411–1415), and then John II (1418–1425)

House of Valois-Burgundy (1443–1482)

Philip I (1443–1467) Charles II (1467–1477) Mary I (1477–1482) and Maximilian I (1477–1482)

House of Habsburg (1482–1700)

Philip II (1482–1506) Charles III (1506–1556) Philip III (1556–1598) Isabella Clara Eugenia
Isabella Clara Eugenia
(1598–1621) and Albert (1598–1621) Philip IV (1621–1665) Charles IV (1665–1700)

House of Bourbon (1700–1712)

Philip V (1700–1712)

House of Wittelsbach (1712–1713)

Maximilian II (1712–1713)

House of Habsburg (1713–1780)

Charles V (1713–1740) Mary II (1740–1780)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine (1780–1794)

Joseph (1780–1790) Leopold (1790–1792) Francis (1792–1794)

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(since 1815)

House of Orange-Nassau (1815–1890)

William I (1815–1840) William II (1840–1849) William III (1849–1890)

House of Nassau-Weilburg (1890–present)

Adolphe (1890–1905) William IV (1905–1912) Marie-Adélaïde (1912–1919) Charlotte (1919–1964) Jean (1964–2000) Henri (since 2000)

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Austrian archdukes

1st generation

Frederick V Albert VI Sigismund

2nd generation

Cristopher Maximilian I John Wolfgang

3rd generation

Philip I of Castile Archduke Francis

4th generation

Charles I Ferdinand I

5th generation

Philip II of SpainS Maximilian II Ferdinand II FerdinandS JohnS John FerdinandS Charles II

6th generation

Charles, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand Rudolf V Ernest Matthias Maximilian III Albert VII Wenzel Frederick Charles Ferdinand, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand Carlos LorenzoS Diego, Prince of AsturiasS Philip III of SpainS Ferdinand III Charles Maximilian Ernest Leopold V Charles, Bishop of Wroclaw

7th generation

Charles Philip IV of SpainS Philipp John-Charles Albert CharlesS Ferdinand IV FerdinandS Alfonso Mauricio Leopold Wilhelm Ferdinand Charles Sigismund Francis

8th generation

Balthasar Charles, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand IV of Hungary Francisco FernandoS Philip August Maximilian Thomas Leopold VI Charles Joseph Ferdinand Joseph Alois Philip Prospero, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand ThomasS Charles II of SpainS

9th generation

Ferdinand Wenzel John Leopold Joseph I Leopold Joseph Charles III

10th generation

Leopold Joseph Leopold John

11th generation

Joseph IIT Charles JosephT Leopold VIIT FerdinandT Maximilian Franz, Archbishop-Elector of CologneT

12th generation

Emperor Francis IT Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Charles, Duke of TeschenT Alexander Leopold, Palatine of HungaryT Joseph, Palatine of HungaryT Anton VictorT JohnT Rainer JosephT Archduke LouisT Cardinal-Archduke RudolfT Joseph FranzM Francis IV, Duke of ModenaM Ferdinand Karl JosephM MaximilianM Karl, Primate of HungaryM

13th generation

Emperor Ferdinand I Francis Leopold, Grand Prince of TuscanyT Leopold II, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Joseph Franz Franz Karl Johann Nepomuk Albert, Duke of Teschen Stephen, Palatine of Hungary Karl Ferdinand Francis V, Duke of ModenaM Frederick Ferdinand Ferdinand Karl ViktorM Archduke Rudolf Leopold Ludwig Ernest Alexander Sigismund Leopold Rainer Ferdinand Wilhelm Franz Heinrich Anton Maximilian Karl Joseph Karl

14th generation

Emperor Franz Joseph I Maximilian I of Mexico Karl Ludwig Ludwig Viktor Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Karl SalvatorT RainierT Ludwig SalvatorT John SalvatorT Karl Franz Joseph Friedrich, Duke of Teschen Charles Stephen Eugen Joseph August Ladislaus

15th generation

Crown Prince Rudolf Franz FerdinandM Otto Francis Ferdinand Karl Leopold FerdinandT Josef FerdinandT Peter FerdinandT Heinrich FerdinandT Robert FerdinandT Leopold SalvatorT Franz SalvatorT Albrecht SalvatorT Rainier SalvatorT Ferdinand SalvatorT Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen Karl Albrecht Leo Karl Wilhelm Joseph Francis Ladislaus Joseph Matthias

16th generation

Emperor Charles I Maximilian Eugen

Habsburg Tuscany

GottfriedT GeorgT RainerT Leopold MariaT AntonT Franz JosephT Karl PiusT Franz KarlT Hubert SalvatorT Theodor SalvatorT Clemens SalvatorT

Palatines of Hungary

Joseph Árpád István Géza Michael Koloman

17th generation

Descent of Charles I

Crown Prince Otto RobertM Felix Carl Ludwig Rudolf

Descent of Maximilian

Ferdinand Karl Heinrich Maria

Tuscany

Leopold FranzT GuntramT RadbotT JohannT GeorgT StephanT DominicT Friederich SalvatorT Andreas SalvatorT MarkusT JohannT MichaelT Franz SalvatorT Karl SalvatorT

Palatines

Joseph Karl Andreas Agustinus Nicholas Franz Johann Jacob Edward Karl Paul Rudolf

18th generation

Charles

Karl Georg LorenzM GerhardM MartinM Karl Philipp Raimund Joseph István Rudolf Carl Christian Karl Peter Simeon Johannes

Maximilian

Maximilian Heinrich Philipp Joachim Ferdinand Karl Konrad

Tuscany

SigismundT GeorgT GuntramT LeopoldT Alexander SalvatorT Thaddäus SalvatorT Casimir SalvatorT MatthiasT JohannesT BernhardT BenediktT

Palatines

Joseph Albrecht (1994–) Paul Leo (1996–) Friedrich Cyprian (1995–) Pierre (1997–) Benedikt Alexander (2005–) Nicolás (2003–) Santiago (2006–) Johannes (2010–) Paul Benedikt (2000–)

19th generation

Charles

Ferdinand Zvonimir Karl Konstantin AmedeoM JoachimM BartholomaeusM EmmanuelM LuigiM Felix Carl Andreas Franz Paul Johannes Carl Christian Johannes Thomas Franz Ludwig Michael Joseph Imre Christoph Alexander Lorenz Carl Johannes Ludwig Philipp

Maximilian

Nicholas Constantin Jacob Maximilian

Tuscany

Leopold AmedeoT MaximilianT LeopoldT Constantin SalvatorT Paul SalvatorT

S: also an infante of Spain T: also a prince of Tuscany M: also a prince of Modena

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Monarchs of León

Astur-Leonese house

Alfonso III García I Ordoño II Fruela II Alfonso IV Ramiro II Ordoño III Sancho I Ordoño IV Sancho I Ramiro III Bermudo II Alfonso V Bermudo III

House of Jiménez

Ferdinand I Sancho II Alfonso VI Urraca

House of Burgundy

Alfonso VII Ferdinand II Alfonso IX Ferdinand III Alfonso X Sancho IV Ferdinand IV Alfonso XI Peter

House of Trastámara

Henry II John I Henry III John II Henry IV Isabella I & Ferdinand V Joanna & Philip I

House of Habsburg

Charles I

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89752946 LCCN: n96018646 ISNI: 0000 0001 0823 5048 GND: 11864162X SUDOC: 166255130 BNF: cb14465657g (da

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