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Philip Wilson Steer
Philip Wilson Steer
OM (28 December 1860 – 18 March 1942) was a British painter of landscapes, seascapes plus portraits and figure studies. He was also an influential art teacher. His sea and landscape paintings made him a leading figure in the Impressionist
Impressionist
movement in Britain but in time he turned to a more traditional English style, clearly influenced by both John Constable
John Constable
and J. M. W. Turner, and spent more time painting in the countryside rather than on the coast. As a painting tutor at the Slade School of Art
Slade School of Art
for many years he influenced generations of young artists.[1]

Contents

1 Life and work 2 References 3 Note 4 Further reading 5 External links

Life and work[edit]

The Bridge (1887) (Tate)

Girls Running: Walberswick
Walberswick
Pier (Tate)

Steer was born in Birkenhead, in Merseyside, the son of a portrait painter and art teacher, Philip Steer (1810–1871) and his wife, Emma Harrison (1816-1898).[2] When Steer was three years old the family moved to Whitchurch near Monmouth
Monmouth
from where, after a period of home schooling, he attended the Hereford Cathedral School.[3] After finding the examinations of the British Civil Service
British Civil Service
too demanding, he became an artist in 1878. He studied at the Gloucester
Gloucester
School of Art and then from 1880 to 1881 at the South Kensington Drawing Schools. He was rejected by the Royal Academy of Art, and so studied in Paris between 1882 and 1884, firstly at the Académie Julian, and then in the École des Beaux Arts under Alexandre Cabanel, where he became a follower of the Impressionist
Impressionist
school.[1] In Paris he was greatly influenced by seeing works by Edouard Manet
Edouard Manet
and James McNeill Whistler
James McNeill Whistler
and the French impressionists.[4] When he returned to England, Steer established a studio in London and began to develop an impressionist style in which he depicted beach scenes and seascapes in a silvery translucent light.[2] His painting of Poole Harbour, completed in 1890, is an example of the outstanding atmospheric effects he was able to capture.[4] Steer often stayed at the Suffolk
Suffolk
coastal town of Walberswick
Walberswick
and the works he painted there are remarkable for their freshness and depiction of light and shade.[5] Works such as The Bridge, The Beach at Walberswick
Walberswick
(1890) and Girls Running: Walberswick
Walberswick
Pier (1894) show Steer at the peak of his abilities.[6][7] His misty Impressionist
Impressionist
style is striking in such paintings as The Beach and Fisher Children. Steer also painted scenes at nearby Southwold.[8] Between 1883 and 1885 Steer exhibited at the Royal Academy and in 1886 he became a founder of the New English Art Club, with whom he continued to exhibit regularly. With Walter Sickert
Walter Sickert
he became a leading British Impressionist, showing works at the London Impressionist
Impressionist
exhibition held at the Goupil Gallery in 1889.[2] Besides the French Impressionists he was influenced by Whistler and, later, such old masters as Francois Boucher, Thomas Gainsborough, John Constable and J. M. W. Turner. Steer was frequently criticised by conservative British critics for his impressionist works such as Boulogne Sands, so much so that for a period he stopped showing his more adventurous works. In the 1890s as he moved away from French Impressionism, Steer's work received greater appreciation. Portraits, such as Girl Reading A Book from 1895, a portrait of Rose Pettigrew, his model and girlfriend, and Portrait of Mrs Raynes (1922) were well-received.[2] In 1887 Steer spent some time at the Etaples art colony. In the early 1890s he began to paint more in watercolours than he had previously. Between 1893 and 1911 he visited several sites associated with the 18th century picturesque tour.[9] In 1893 Frederick Brown, the newly appointed Slade Professor of Art, appointed Steer as Professor of Painting at the Slade School of Fine Art in London. Steer would teach there, alongside Brown, Henry Tonks and Walter Russell until 1930. This group would continue the Slade tradition of realism in painting and drawing and would influence generations of young artists including Augustus John, William Orpen, Stanley Spencer, Paul Nash and Anna Airy.[10] Based in Chelsea, in the summers he painted in Yorkshire, the Cotswolds
Cotswolds
and the West Country and on the south and east coasts of Britain. During World War I
World War I
Steer was recruited by Lord Beaverbrook, the chairman of the British War Memorials Committee, to paint pictures of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and he spent some time painting naval formations at Dover.[11][12] In 1927 Steer began to lose the sight in one eye but he continued to paint, although mostly in watercolours rather than in oils, and his compositions became much looser, at times almost abstract but by 1940 he had stopped painting.[9] In 1931 he was awarded the Order of Merit and died in London, 18 March 1942. His self-portrait is in the collection in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. Steer never married and throughout his life was a hypochondriac but was also benign, modest, amusing and held in great regard by those who knew him.[5] References[edit]

^ a b Frances Spalding (1990). 20th Century Painters and Sculptors. Antique Collectors' Club. ISBN 1 85149 106 6.  ^ a b c d HCG Matthew & Brian Harrison (Editors) (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Vol 52 (Spruce-Starakosch). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861402-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Tate. "Works by Philip Wilson Steer
Philip Wilson Steer
(1929)". Tate. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ a b Stephen Farthing
Stephen Farthing
(Editor) (2006). 1001 Paintings You Must See Before You Die. Cassell Illustrated/Quintessence. ISBN 978-1-84403-563-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b Ian Chilvers (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0 19 860476 9.  ^ "Display caption, The Bridge". Tate. September 2004. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ "Display caption, Girls Running, Walberswick
Walberswick
Pier (1888-94)". Tate. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ "Display caption, Southwold
Southwold
(c.1889)". Tate. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ a b Jane Munro. "Artist biography:Philip Wilson Steer". Tate. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ David Boyd Haycock (2009). A Crisis of Brilliance: Five Young British Artists and the Great War. Old Street Publishing (London). ISBN 978-1-905847-84-6.  ^ John Ferguson (1980). The Arts In Britain In World War 1. Stainer & Bell. ISBN 0 85249 548 X.  ^ Imperial War Museum. "First World War Art archive, Steer, P Wilson". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 21 October 2015. 

Note[edit] Note: Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
of 1911 incorrectly refers to Philip Wilson Steer
Philip Wilson Steer
as Paul Wilson Steer. Further reading[edit]

J. Rothenstein, ' Philip Wilson Steer
Philip Wilson Steer
1860-1942', in J. Rothenstein, Modern English Painters Sickert To Smith (1952), p. 59-74.

External links[edit]

Works by or about Philip Wilson Steer
Philip Wilson Steer
at Internet Archive 171 Painting(s) by or after Philip Wilson Steer
Philip Wilson Steer
at the Art UK site

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Impressionism

Originators

Frédéric Bazille Eugène Boudin Gustave Caillebotte Mary Cassatt Paul Cézanne Edgar Degas Armand Guillaumin Édouard Manet Claude Monet Berthe Morisot Camille Pissarro Pierre-Auguste Renoir Alfred Sisley

Patrons

Gustave Caillebotte Henry O. Havemeyer Ernest Hoschedé

Dealers

Paul Durand-Ruel Georges Petit Ambroise Vollard

American artists

William Merritt Chase Frederick Carl Frieseke Childe Hassam Willard Metcalf Lilla Cabot Perry Theodore Robinson John Henry Twachtman J. Alden Weir

Canadian artists

Henri Beau William Blair Bruce William Brymner Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté Maurice Galbraith Cullen Helen Galloway McNicoll James Wilson Morrice Robert Wakeham Pilot

Other artists

Marie Bracquemond Giovanni Battista Ciolina Lovis Corinth Antoine Guillemet Nazmi Ziya Güran Max Liebermann Laura Muntz Lyall Konstantin Korovin Henry Moret Francisco Oller Władysław Podkowiński John Peter Russell Valentin Serov Max Slevogt Joaquín Sorolla Philip Wilson Steer Eliseu Visconti

Other media

Music Literature French Impressionist
Impressionist
Cinema

See also

American Impressionism

The Ten

California Impressionism Pennsylvania Impressionism Canadian Impressionism Heidelberg School Amsterdam Impressionism Decorative Impressionism Post-Impressionism

Related

The Impressionists (2006 drama)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 40174630 LCCN: n86068502 ISNI: 0000 0000 6676 803X GND: 118798553 SUDOC: 027626962 BNF: cb11962716w (data) ULAN: 500019703 NLA: 35937769 NKC: ola2003192348 RKD: 74876 SN

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