HOME
TheInfoList



The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of
exploration Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery when ...

exploration
,
extraction
extraction
,
refining{{Unreferenced|date=December 2009 Refining (also perhaps called by the mathematical term affining) is the process of purification of a (1) substance or a (2) form. The term is usually used of a natural resource that is almost in a usable form, but wh ...

refining
,
transporting Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of an organism ...

transporting
(often by
oil tanker An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products. There are two basic types of oil tankers: crude tankers and product tankers. Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude ...

oil tanker
s and
pipelines
pipelines
), and marketing of
petroleum products Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. Unlike petrochemicals, which are a collection of well-defined usually pure organic compounds, petroleum products are complex mixtures. The ...

petroleum products
. The largest volume products of the industry are
fuel oil Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel, bunker, furnace oil, or gasoil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation. It includes distillates - the lighter fractions, and residues - the heavier fractions. The term ''fuel oil'' genera ...

fuel oil
and
gasoline Gasoline () or petrol () (see the etymology for naming differences) is a transparent, petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compoun ...

gasoline
(petrol).
Petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separate ...

Petroleum
is also the raw material for many
chemical products
chemical products
, including
pharmaceuticals A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on ...

pharmaceuticals
,
solvent A solvent (from the Latin ''solvō'', "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. Water is a solvent for polar mo ...

solvent
s,
fertilizer A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply plant nutrients. Fertilizers may be distinct from li ...

fertilizer
s,
pesticide Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests. The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides (which may include insect growth regulators, termiticides, etc.) nematicide, molluscicide, piscicide, avicide, ...

pesticide
s, synthetic fragrances, and
plastic Plastics are a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that use polymers as a main ingredient. Their plasticity makes it possible for plastics to be moulded, extruded or pressed into solid objects of various shapes. This adaptability, ...

plastic
s. The extreme monetary value of oil and its products has led to it being known as "black gold". The industry is usually divided into three major components:
upstream Upstream may refer to: * Upstream (bioprocess) * ''Upstream'' (film), a 1927 film by John Ford * Upstream (mobile marketing), a company * Upstream (networking) * ''Upstream'' (newspaper), a newspaper covering the oil and gas industry * Upstream (pe ...

upstream
,
midstreamThe oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream. The midstream sector involves the transportation (by pipeline, rail, barge, oil tanker or truck), storage, and wholesale marketing of crude o ...

midstream
, and
downstream Downstream may refer to: * Downstream (bioprocess) * Downstream (manufacturing) * Downstream (networking) * Downstream (software development) * Downstream (petroleum industry) * Upstream and downstream (DNA), determining relative positions on DNA * ...

downstream
. Upstream deals with Drilling and Production mainly. Petroleum is vital to many industries, and is necessary for the maintenance of industrial
civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbolic systems of communication (such as writing). Civilizations are intimately associat ...

civilization
in its current configuration, making it a critical concern for many nations. Oil accounts for a large percentage of the world’s
energy consumption Energy consumption is the amount of energy or power used. Biology In the body, energy consumption is part of energy homeostasis. It derived from food energy. Energy consumption in the body is a product of the basal metabolic rate and the physical a ...

energy consumption
, ranging from a low of 32% for
Europe Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlant ...

Europe
and
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with b ...

Asia
, to a high of 53% for the
Middle East The Middle East is a transcontinental region in Afro-Eurasia which generally includes Western Asia (except for Transcaucasia), all of Egypt (mostly in North Africa), and Turkey (partly in Southeast Europe). The term has come into wider usa ...

Middle East
. Other geographic regions' consumption patterns are as follows:
South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic ''*sunþaz'' ("south" ...

South
and
Central America Central America ( es|América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas. It is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central Ame ...

Central America
(44%),
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of it ...

Africa
(41%), and
North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to ...

North America
(40%). The world consumes 36 billion
barrels A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container with a bulging center, longer than it is wide. They are traditionally made of wooden staves and bound by wood or metal hoops. The word vat is often used for large containers for liquids, usual ...

barrels
(5.8 km³) of oil per year, with developed nations being the largest consumers. The
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...

United States
consumed 18% of the oil produced in 2015. The production, distribution, refining, and retailing of petroleum taken as a whole represents the world's largest industry in terms of dollar value. Governments such as the United States government provide a heavy public
subsidy to petroleum companies
subsidy to petroleum companies
, with major tax breaks at virtually every stage of oil exploration and extraction, including the costs of oil field leases and drilling equipment.New York Times, 2010 July 3, "As Oil Industry Fights a Tax, It Reaps Subsidies," https://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/04/business/04bptax.html?_r=1 In recent years,
enhanced oil recovery Enhanced oil recovery (abbreviated EOR), also called tertiary recovery, is the extraction of crude oil from an oil field that cannot be extracted otherwise. EOR can extract 30% to 60% or more of a reservoir's oil, compared to 20% to 40% using prim ...

enhanced oil recovery
techniques — most notably multi-stage drilling and
hydraulic fracturing#REDIRECT Hydraulic fracturing {{R from other capitalisation ...

hydraulic fracturing
("fracking") — have moved to the forefront of the industry as this new technology plays a crucial and controversial role in new methods of oil extraction.


History


Prehistory

Petroleum is a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations. It consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds. It is generally accepted that oil is formed mostly from the carbon rich remains of ancient plankton after exposure to heat and pressure in
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 71% is covered with water, mostly by oceans, seas, gulfs, an ...

Earth
's crust over hundreds of millions of years. Over time, the decayed residue was covered by layers of mud and silt, sinking further down into Earth’s crust and preserved there between hot and pressured layers, gradually transforming into oil reservoirs.


Early history

Petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separate ...

Petroleum
in an unrefined state has been utilized by humans for over 5000 years. Oil in general has been used since early
human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, by recorded histor ...

human history
to keep fires ablaze and in
war War is an intense armed conflict between states, governments, societies, or paramilitary groups such as mercenaries, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using ...

war
fare. Its importance to the
world economy The world economy or the global economy is the economy of all humans of the world, referring to the global economic system which includes all economic activities which are conducted both within and between nations, including production, consumption ...

world economy
however, evolved slowly, with
whale oil Whale oil is oil obtained from the blubber of whales. Whale oil from the bowhead whale was sometimes known as train oil, which comes from the Dutch word ''traan'' ("tear" or "drop"). Sperm oil, a special kind of oil obtained from the head cavitie ...

whale oil
being used for lighting in the 19th century and wood and coal used for heating and cooking well into the 20th century. Even though the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machin ...

Industrial Revolution
generated an increasing need for energy, this was initially met mainly by coal, and from other sources including whale oil. However, when it was discovered that
kerosene Kerosene, also known as paraffin, is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum. It is widely used as a fuel in aviation as well as households. Its name derives from el|κηρός (''keros'') meaning "wax", and was regis ...

kerosene
could be extracted from
crude oil Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separate ...

crude oil
and used as a lighting and heating fuel, the demand for petroleum increased greatly, and by the early twentieth century had become the most valuable commodity traded on world markets.Halliday, Fred. The Middle East in International Relations: Cambridge University Press: USA, p. 270


Modern history

oil wells
Galician</a><span class=
 [[Galicia (Central Europe)|Galician
oil wells" >
[[Imperial Russia produced 3,500 tons of oil in 1825 and doubled its output by mid-century. After oil drilling began in the region of present-day [[Azerbaijan in 1846, in [[Baku, two large pipelines were built in the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the Februar ...

Russian Empire
: the 833 km long pipeline to transport oil from the
Caspian
Caspian
to the
Black Sea#REDIRECT Black Sea#REDIRECT Black Sea {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Black Sea port of
Batum Batumi (; ka|ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia and the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, located on the coast of the Black Sea in Georgia's southwest. It is situated in a subtropical zone at the foot of the ...

Batum
(Baku-Batum pipeline), completed in 1906, and the 162 km long pipeline to carry oil from
Chechnya Chechnya,; ce|Нохчийчоь|Noxçiyçö officially the Chechen Republic,; ce|Нохчийн Республика|Noxçiyn Respublika is a constituent republic of Russia situated in the North Caucasus in Eastern Europe, close to the Cas ...

Chechnya
to the Caspian. At the turn of the 20th century, Imperial Russia's output of oil, almost entirely from the
Apsheron Peninsula The Absheron Peninsula ( az|Abşeron yarımadası) is a peninsula in Azerbaijan. It is the location of Baku, the biggest and the most populous city of the country, and also the Baku metropolitan area, with its satellite cities Sumqayit and Khyrdala ...

Apsheron Peninsula
, accounted for half of the world's production and dominated international markets.Shirin Akiner, Anne Aldis. ''The Caspian: Politics, Energy and Security''. Routledge, 2004. P. 5. Nearly 200 small refineries operated in the suburbs of Baku by 1884. As a side effect of these early developments, the Apsheron Peninsula emerged as the world's "oldest legacy of oil pollution and environmental negligence". In 1846 Baku (Bibi-Heybat settlement) featured the first ever well drilled with percussion tools to a depth of 21 meters for oil exploration. In 1878 [[Ludvig Nobel and his [[Branobel company "revolutionized oil transport" by commissioning the first
oil tanker An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products. There are two basic types of oil tankers: crude tankers and product tankers. Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude ...

oil tanker
and launching it on the [[Caspian Sea. [[Samuel Kier established America's first oil refinery in Pittsburgh on Seventh avenue near Grant Street in 1853. [[Ignacy Łukasiewicz built one of the first modern oil-refineries near [[Jasło (then in the Austrian dependent [[Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria in [[Galicia (Central Europe)|Central European Galicia), present-day Poland, in 1854–56. Galician refineries were initially small, as demand for refined fuel was limited. The refined products were used in artificial asphalt, machine oil and lubricants, in addition to Łukasiewicz's [[kerosene lamp. As kerosene lamps gained popularity, the refining industry grew in the area. The [[History of the petroleum industry in Canada#Early origins|first commercial oil-well in Canada became operational in 1858 at [[Oil Springs, Ontario (then [[Canada West). Businessman [[James Miller Williams dug several wells between 1855 and 1858 before discovering a rich reserve of oil four metres below ground. Williams extracted 1.5 million litres of crude oil by 1860, refining much of it into kerosene-lamp oil. Some historians challenge Canada's claim to North America's first [[oil field, arguing that [[Pennsylvania's famous [[Drake Well was the continent's first. But there is evidence to support Williams, not least of which is that the Drake well did not come into production until August 28, 1859. The controversial point might be that Williams found oil above bedrock while [[Edwin Drake’s well located oil within a bedrock [[oil reservoir|reservoir. The discovery at Oil Springs touched off an oil boom which brought hundreds of speculators and workers to the area. Canada's first gusher (flowing well) erupted on January 16, 1862, when local oil-man John Shaw struck oil at 158 feet (48 m). For a week the oil gushed unchecked at levels reported as high as 3,000 barrels per day. The first modern oil-drilling in the United States began in West Virginia and Pennsylvania in the 1850s. [[Edwin Drake's 1859 well near [[Titusville, Pennsylvania, typically considered the first true modern [[oil well, touched off a major boom.John Steele Gordon
"10 Moments That Made American Business," ''American Heritage'', February/March 2007 - "Drake, who seems to have awarded himself the title of colonel by which he is often known, had a great deal of trouble persuading a salt-drilling crew to try to drill for oil, but on August 27, 1859, he struck it at 69 feet."
Vassiliou, Marius (2018). Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry, 2nd Ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 621 pp. In the first quarter of the 20th century, the United States overtook Russia as the world's largest oil producer. By the 1920s, oil fields had been established in many countries including Canada, Poland, Sweden, Ukraine, the United States, Peru and Venezuela. The first successful
oil tanker An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products. There are two basic types of oil tankers: crude tankers and product tankers. Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude ...

oil tanker
, the ''Zoroaster'', was built in 1878 in Sweden, designed by [[Ludvig Nobel. It operated from [[Baku to [[Astrakhan. A number of new tanker designs developed in the 1880s. In the early 1930s [[Texaco|the Texas Company developed the first mobile steel barges for drilling in the brackish coastal areas of the [[Gulf of Mexico. In 1937 [[Pure Oil Company (now part of [[Chevron Corporation) and its partner [[Superior Oil Company (now part of [[ExxonMobil Corporation) used a fixed platform to develop a field in of water, one mile (1.6 km) offshore of [[Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. In early 1947 Superior Oil erected a drilling/production [[oil platform|oil-platform in of water some 18 miles off [[Vermilion Parish, Louisiana. [[Kerr-McGee Oil Industries, as operator for partners [[Phillips Petroleum ([[ConocoPhillips) and [[Stanolind Oil & Gas ([[BP), completed its historic Ship Shoal Block 32 well in November 1947, months before Superior actually drilled a discovery from their Vermilion platform farther offshore. In any case, that made Kerr-McGee's Gulf of Mexico well, Kermac No. 16, the first oil discovery drilled out of sight of land. Forty-four Gulf of Mexico exploratory wells discovered 11 oil and natural gas fields by the end of 1949. During [[World War II (1939–1945) [[Oil campaign of World War II|control of oil supply from Romania, Baku, the Middle East and the [[Dutch East Indies played a huge role in the events of the war and the ultimate victory of the [[Allies of World War II|Allies. The [[Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran (1941) secured Allied control of oil-production in the Middle East. [[Operation Edelweiss failed to secure the [[Caucasus oil-fields for the [[Axis powers|Axis military in 1942, while the Soviet Union deprived the [[Wehrmacht of access to [[Ploesti from 1944. Cutting off the East Indies oil-supply (especially via [[Allied submarines in the Pacific War|submarine campaigns) considerably weakened [[Empire of Japan|Japan in the latter part of the war. After World War II ended, the countries of the
Middle East The Middle East is a transcontinental region in Afro-Eurasia which generally includes Western Asia (except for Transcaucasia), all of Egypt (mostly in North Africa), and Turkey (partly in Southeast Europe). The term has come into wider usa ...

Middle East
took the lead in oil production from the United States. Important developments since World War II include deep-water drilling, the introduction of the [[drillship, and the growth of a global shipping network for petroleum relying upon oil tankers and pipelines. In 1949 the first offshore oil-drilling at Oil Rocks (Neft Dashlari) in the Caspian Sea off Azerbaijan eventually resulted in a city built on pylons. In the 1960s and 1970s, multi-governmental organizations of oil–producing nations [[OPEC and [[Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries|OAPEC played a major role in setting petroleum prices and policy. [[Oil spills and their cleanup have become an issue of increasing political, environmental, and economic importance. New fields of hydrocarbon production developed in places such as Siberia, [[Sakhalin, [[History of the Venezuelan oil industry|Venezuela and North and West Africa. With the advent of hydraulic fracturing and other [[horizontal drilling techniques, shale play has seen an enormous uptick in production. Areas of shale such as the [[Permian Basin (North America)|Permian Basin and [[Eagle Ford Shale|Eagle-Ford have become huge hotbeds of production for the largest oil corporations in the United States.


Structure

The [[American Petroleum Institute divides the petroleum industry into five sectors: * [[Upstream (oil industry)|upstream ([[oil exploration|exploration, development and production of crude oil or natural gas) * [[Downstream (oil industry)|downstream ([[Tanker (ship)|oil tankers, [[oil refinery|refiners, retailers and consumers) * [[Pipeline transport|pipeline * marine * service and supply


Upstream

[[Oil companies used to be classified by sales as ''"[[supermajors"'' ([[BP, [[Chevron Corporation|Chevron, [[ExxonMobil, [[ConocoPhillips, [[Royal Dutch Shell|Shell, [[Eni and [[Total S.A.), ''"majors",'' and ''"independents" or "jobbers".'' In recent years however, National Oil Companies (NOC, as opposed to IOC, International Oil Companies) have come to control the rights over the largest oil reserves; by this measure the top ten companies all are NOC. The following table shows the ten largest national oil companies ranked by reservesRanking by oil reserves and production, 2006 values and by production in 2012. Most upstream work in the [[oil field or on an [[oil well is [[contracted out to drilling contractors and oil field service companies. Aside from the NOCs which dominate the Upstream sector, there are many international companies that have a market share. For example: * [[BG Group * [[BHP Billiton * [[ConocoPhillips * [[Chevron Corporation|Chevron * [[Eni * [[ExxonMobil * [[OMV * [[Hess Corporation|Hess Ltd * [[Marathon Oil * [[Total S.A.|Total * [[Tullow Oil * First Texas Energy Corp


Midstream

[[Midstream operations are sometimes classified within the downstream sector, but these operations compose a separate and discrete sector of the petroleum industry. Midstream operations and processes include the following: * Gathering: The gathering process employs narrow, low-pressure pipelines to connect oil- and gas-producing wells to larger, long-haul pipelines or processing facilities. * Processing/refining: Processing and refining operations turn crude oil and gas into marketable products. In the case of crude oil, these products include [[heating oil,
gasoline Gasoline () or petrol () (see the etymology for naming differences) is a transparent, petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compoun ...

gasoline
for use in vehicles, [[jet fuel, and [[diesel oil."Refining and Product Specifications Module Overview,"
Petroleum Online, Retrieved December 14, 2012.
[[Petroleum refining processes|Oil refining processes include distillation, [[vacuum distillation, [[catalytic reforming, [[catalytic cracking, [[alkylation, [[isomerization and [[hydrotreating. [[Natural-gas processing|Natural gas processing includes [[Gas compressor|compression; [[glycol dehydration; [[Amine gas treating|amine treating; separating the product into pipeline-quality natural gas and a stream of mixed natural gas liquids; and fractionation, which separates the stream of mixed natural gas liquids into its components. The fractionation process yields [[ethane, [[propane, [[butane, [[isobutane, and [[natural gasoline. * Transportation: Oil and gas are transported to processing facilities, and from there to end users, by [[Pipeline transport|pipeline, [[Barge|tanker/barge, [[Trucking industry in the United States|truck, and [[Rail transport|rail. Pipelines are the most economical transportation method and are most suited to movement across longer distances, for example, across continents. Tankers and barges are also employed for long-distance, often international transport. Rail and truck can also be used for longer distances but are most cost-effective for shorter routes. * Storage: Midstream service providers provide storage facilities at [[Oil depot|terminals throughout the oil and gas distribution systems. These facilities are most often located near refining and processing facilities and are connected to pipeline systems to facilitate shipment when product demand must be met. While petroleum products are held in storage tanks, natural gas tends to be stored in underground facilities, such as salt dome caverns and depleted reservoirs. * Technological applications: Midstream service providers apply technological solutions to improve efficiency during midstream processes. Technology can be used during compression of fuels to ease flow through pipelines; to better detect [[Leak detection|leaks in pipelines; and to automate communications for better pipeline and equipment monitoring. While some upstream companies carry out certain midstream operations, the midstream sector is dominated by a number of companies that specialize in these services. Midstream companies include: * Aux Sable * Bridger Group * [[DCP Midstream Partners * [[Enbridge Energy Partners * [[Enterprise Products Partners * Genesis Energy * [[Gibson Energy * [[Inergy|Inergy Midstream * [[Kinder Morgan Energy Partners * [[ONEOK|Oneok Partners * [[Plains All American * Sunoco Logistics * [[Targa Resources|Targa Midstream Services * [[Targray|Targray Natural Gas Liquids * [[TransCanada Corp.|TransCanada * [[Williams Companies


Environmental impact


Water pollution

Some petroleum industry operations have been responsible for [[water pollution through by-products of refining and [[oil spills. Though hydraulic fracturing has significantly increased natural gas extraction, there is some belief and evidence to support that consumable water has seen increased in methane contamination due to this gas extraction. Leaks from underground tanks and abandoned refineries may also contaminate groundwater in surrounding areas. Hydrocarbons that comprise refined petroleum are resistant to biodegradation and have been found to remain present in contaminated soils for years. To hasten this process, [[bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants is often employed by means of aerobic degradation. More recently, other bioremediative methods have been explored such as [[phytoremediation and thermal remediation.


Air pollution

The industry is the largest industrial source of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a group of chemicals that contribute to the formation of ground-level [[ozone ([[smog). The combustion of fossil fuels produces [[greenhouse gases and other air pollutants as by-products. Pollutants include [[nitrogen oxides, [[sulphur dioxide, [[volatile organic compounds and [[Heavy metal (chemistry)|heavy metals. Researchers have discovered that the [[petrochemical industry can produce ground-level ozone pollution at higher amounts in winter than in summer.


Climate change

The [[greenhouse gases due to [[fossil fuels drive [[climate change. Already in 1959, at a symposium organised by the [[American Petroleum Institute for the centennial of the [[American oil industry, the [[physicist [[Edward Teller warned then of the danger of global [[climate change. Edward Teller explained that carbon dioxide "in the atmosphere causes a [[greenhouse effect" and that burning more [[fossil fuels could "melt the icecap and submerge New York".Benjamin Franta
"On its 100th birthday in 1959, Edward Teller warned the oil industry about global warming"
''[[The Guardian'', 1 January 2018 (page visited on 2 January 2018).
The [[Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, founded by the [[United Nations in 1988, concludes that [[Human impact on the environment|human-sourced [[greenhouse gases are [[Attribution of recent climate change|responsible for most of the [[Instrumental temperature record|observed temperature increase since the middle of the twentieth century. As a result of climate change concerns, many alternative energy enthusiasts have begun using other methods of energy such as solar and wind, among others. This recent view has some petroleum enthusiasts skeptical about the true future of the industry.


See also


Notes and references


Further reading

* * Nevins, Alan. ''John D. Rockefeller The Heroic Age Of American Enterprise'' (1940); 710pp; favorable scholarly biography
online

Ordons Oil & Gas Information & News
* [[Robert Sobel ''The Money Manias: The Eras of Great Speculation in America, 1770–1970'' (1973) reprinted (2000). * [[Daniel Yergin, ''[[The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power'', (Simon and Schuster 1991; paperback, 1993), . * [[Matthew R. Simmons, ''[[Twilight in the Desert: The Coming Saudi Oil Shock and the World Economy'', John Wiley & Sons, 2005, . * Matthew Yeomans, ''Oil: Anatomy of an Industry'' (New Press, 2004), . * Smith, GO (1920): Where the World Gets Its Oil: National Geographic, February 1920, pp 181–202 * [[Marius Vassiliou, ''Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry, 2nd Ed.''. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2018, 621 pp. . * * Miryusif Mirbabayev, ''Concise History of Azerbaijani Oil''. Baku, Azerneshr, (2008), 340pp. * Miryusif Mirbabayev, ''Brief history of the first drilled oil well; and the people involved - Oil-Industry History (USA), 2017, v.18, #1, p.25-34. * James Douet, ''The Heritage of the Oil Industry TICCIH Thematic Study - The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage, 2020, 79pp.


External links

* http://www.petroleumworld.com/lagniappe18043001.htm * http://www.petroleumworld.com/eveditorial-op18102901.htm * http://www.petroleumworld.com/eveditorial20123101.htm {{DEFAULTSORT:Petroleum Industry [[Category:Petroleum industry| [[Category:Fossil fuels [[Category:Industries (economics) [[de:Petroleumindustrie