Frederick George Peter Ingle Finch (28 September 1916 – 14 January 1977) was an English-Australian actor. He is best remembered for his role as "crazed" television anchorman Howard Beale in the film Network, which earned him a posthumous Academy Award for Best Actor, his fifth Best Actor award from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, and a Best Actor award from the Golden Globes. He was the first of two persons to win a posthumous Academy Award in an acting category, and coincidentally also the first of the two Australian actors to have done so, the other being Heath Ledger.
George Finch was born in New South Wales, Australia, but was educated in Paris and Zürich. He was a research chemist when he moved to Britain in 1912 and later served during the First World War with the Royal Army Ordnance Depot and the Royal Field Artillery. In 1915, at Portsmouth, Hampshire, George married Alicia Fisher, the daughter of a Kent barrister. However, George Finch was not Peter Finch's biological father. He learned only in his mid-40s that his biological father was Wentworth Edward Dallas "Jock" Campbell, an Indian Army officer, whose adultery with Finch's mother was the cause of George and Alicia's divorce, when Peter was two years old. Alicia Finch married Jock Campbell in 1922.
George gained custody of Peter, who was taken from his biological mother and brought up by his adoptive paternal grandmother, Laura Finch (formerly Black) in Vaucresson, France. In 1925 Laura took Peter with her to Adyar, a theosophical community near Madras, India, for a number of months, and the young boy lived for a time in a Buddhist monastery. Undoubtedly as a result of his childhood contact with Buddhism Finch always claimed to be a Buddhist. He is reported to have said: "I think a man dying on a cross is a ghastly symbol for a religion. And I think a man sitting under a bo tree and becoming enlightened is a beautiful one."
In 1926 he was sent to Australia to live with his great-uncle Edward Herbert Finch at Greenwich Point in Sydney. He attended the local school until 1929, then North Sydney Intermediate High School for three years. A school friend was RAF pilot and author Paul Brickhill.
After graduating, Finch went to work as a copy boy for the Sydney Sun and began writing. However he was more interested in acting, and in late 1933 appeared in a play, Caprice, at the Repertory Theatre.
In 1934–35 he appeared in a number of productions for Doris Fitton at the Savoy Theatre, some with a young Sumner Locke Elliott. He also worked as a sideshow spruiker at the Sydney Royal Easter Show, in vaudeville with Joe Cody and as a foil to American comedian Bert le Blanc. At age 19 Finch toured Australia with George Sorlie's travelling troupe.
He did radio acting work with Hugh Denison's BSA Players (for Broadcasting Service Association, later to become Macquarie Players). He came to the attention of Australian Broadcasting Commission radio drama producer Lawrence H. Cecil, who was to act as his coach and mentor throughout 1939 and 1940. He was "Chris" in the Children's Session and the first Muddle-Headed Wombat.
He made his feature film debut in Dad and Dave Come to Town (1938), playing a small comic role for director Ken G. Hall. His performance was well received and Hall subsequently cast Finch in a larger role in Mr. Chedworth Steps Out (1939), supporting Cecil Kellaway.
During his war service Finch was given leave to act in radio, theatre and film. He appeared in a number of propaganda shorts, including Another Threshold (1942), These Stars Are Mine (1943), While There is Still Time (1943) and South West Pacific (1943), the latter for Ken G. Hall. He also appeared in two of the few Australian feature films made during the war, The Rats of Tobruk (1944) and the less distinguished Red Sky at Morning (1944).
Finch produced and performed Army Concert Party work, and in 1945 toured bases and hospitals with two Terence Rattigan plays he directed, French Without Tears and While the Sun Shines. He narrated the widely seen documentaries Jungle Patrol (1944) and Sons of the Anzacs (1945).
After the war, Finch continued to work extensively in radio and established himself as Australia's leading actor in that medium, winning Macquarie Awards for best actor in 1946 and 1947. He also worked as a compere, producer and writer.
In 1946, Finch co-founded the Mercury Theatre Company, which put on a number of productions in Sydney over the next few years (initially in the diminutive St James' Hall), as well as running a theatre school.
Finch continued to appear in the (rare) Australian feature films made around this time including A Son is Born (1946) and Eureka Stockade (1949). He was a leading contender to play Sir Charles Kingsford-Smith in Smithy (1946) but lost out to Ron Randell.
Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh toured Australia in 1948 with the Old Vic Company. They attended Mercury production of The Imaginary Invalid on the factory floor of O'Brien's Glass Factory starring Finch. Olivier was impressed with Finch's acting and encouraged him to move to London, his birthplace. He left Australia for good in 1948.
When Finch arrived in Britain, Olivier became his mentor and put him under long-term contract. His first big break was being cast in James Bridie's play Daphne Laureola at the Old Vic supporting Edith Evans. This was a significant critical and commercial success and established Finch in London immediately.
He was soon cast in his first British movie, playing a murderous actor in Train of Events (1949). Critic C. A. Lejeune praised his work in the London Observer commenting that he "adds good cheekbones to a quick intelligence and is likely to become a cult, I fear." The Scotsman said "he should be regarded as one of the most hopeful recruits to the British screen."
He had a small role as an Australian prisoner of war in The Wooden Horse (1950), the third most popular film at the British box office in 1950. His performance as a Pole in Daphne Laureola led to his casting as a Polish soldier in The Miniver Story, the sequel to the wartime morale boosting film Mrs. Miniver; unlike its predecessor, it was poorly received critically.
During this time, Finch continued to appear on stage in various productions while under contract to Olivier. Finch's closeness to the Olivier family led to an affair with Olivier's beautiful but increasingly unstable wife, Vivien Leigh, which began in 1948, and continued on and off for several years, ultimately falling apart due to her deteriorating mental condition.
Finch's film roles increased in size and prestige through the early 1950s. For Walt Disney he played the Sheriff of Nottingham in The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men (1952). He was given two good roles in films from Alexander Korda: as Richard D'Oyly Carte in The Story of Gilbert and Sullivan (1953), and as a priest in The Heart of the Matter (1953), from the Graham Greene novel.
In 1953 he appeared in his first Hollywood movie, Elephant Walk (1954), shot in Sri Lanka and Los Angeles. The circumstances of production were turbulent; filming started with Vivien Leigh in the lead but she had a nervous breakdown during production and had to be replaced by Elizabeth Taylor. The experience helped sour Finch on a Hollywood career and he would only work occasionally there for the rest of his career.
Towards the end of 1954 Finch's contract with Laurence Olivier was about to expire and he instead signed a seven-year contract with the Rank Organisation worth £87,500 to make one film a year for them. "We are going to build Peter into a major British star", said Earl St. John, Rank's head of production, at the time.
Finch's first roles for Rank under the new arrangement gave him star parts but were, on the whole, undistinguished: Make Me an Offer (1954), Simon and Laura (also 1954), Josephine and Men (1955), and Passage Home (also 1955).
However, he was then cast as an Australian soldier in A Town Like Alice (1956), which became the third most popular film at the British box office in 1956 and won Finch a BAFTA for Best Actor. He followed it with The Battle of the River Plate (1956), playing Captain Hans Langsdorff. This was also successful financially and British exhibitors voted Finch the seventh most popular British star at the box office for 1956.
Finch returned to Australia to make The Shiralee (1957), one of his favourite parts, and the tenth most popular movie at the British box office that year. He followed it with another Australian story, the bushranger tale Robbery Under Arms (1957), which did less well. However exhibitors still voted Finch the third most popular British star of 1957, and the fifth most popular overall, regardless of nationality.
His next two films for Rank were not particularly successful: Windom's Way (1957), where he played a doctor caught up in the Malayan Emergency, and Operation Amsterdam (1959), a war time diamond thriller.
Finch's career received a boost when Fred Zinnemann cast him opposite Audrey Hepburn in The Nun's Story (1959). This was an enormous financial and critical success and established Finch's reputation internationally.
For Disney he played Alan Breck in a version of Kidnapped (1960). He then received great acclaim for his performance as Oscar Wilde in The Trials of Oscar Wilde (1960), winning another BAFTA; the film however was not popular.
Finch co-wrote and directed an award-winning short film, The Day (1960) and announced plans to direct a feature but it did not eventuate. He won his third BAFTA for Best Actor for No Love for Johnnie (1961), although like Oscar Wilde, the film lost money. He was originally chosen to play Julius Caesar in Cleopatra (1963) and filmed scenes in London, but when the film was postponed he withdrew; the role was recast with Rex Harrison.
Finch made a series of unsuccessful Hollywood films: The Sins of Rachel Cade (1961), an attempt to repeat the success of The Nun's Story, with Angie Dickinson; then two for director Robert Stevens at MGM: I Thank a Fool (1962) and In the Cool of the Day (1963).
Finch restored his critical reputation with two highly acclaimed British films: The Pumpkin Eater (1964) and Girl with Green Eyes (1964). He had an uncredited cameo in First Men in the Moon (1964), then had a good role in tough adventure film for Robert Aldrich, The Flight of the Phoenix (1965).
Finch's next three films saw him support notable female stars: Sophia Loren in Judith (1966), Melina Mercouri in 10:30 P.M. Summer (1966) and Julie Christie in Far from the Madding Crowd (1967). He was reunited with Aldrich for The Legend of Lylah Clare (1968). The Red Tent (1970) was an expensive international adventure film, with Finch as Umberto Nobile.
Finch's career received another boost when Ian Bannen dropped out of the lead in Sunday Bloody Sunday (1971). Finch replaced him and his performance was rewarded with another BAFTA for Best Actor and an Oscar Nomination.
The momentum of this was lost somewhat by Something to Hide (1972) and the disastrous musical remake of Lost Horizon (1973). He played Lord Nelson in Bequest to the Nation (1973) and an opportunistic financier in England Made Me (1973). The Abdication (1974) was an unsuccessful historical drama.
Finch was asked if he wanted to audition for the part of news presenter Howard Beale in Network (1976), written by Paddy Chayefsky and directed by Sidney Lumet. The audition was successful and Finch played the role. The movie was his biggest commercial and critical hit in years.
Shortly after Raid on Entebbe finished shooting, Finch undertook a promotional tour for Network. On 13 January 1977 he appeared on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. The day after, he had a heart attack in the lobby of the Beverly Hills Hotel and died at the age of 60. He is interred in the Hollywood Forever Cemetery.
Finch was nominated for an Oscar for Network and went on to posthumously win the award, which was accepted by his widow, Eletha Finch. Although James Dean, Spencer Tracy and Massimo Troisi were also posthumously nominated for a Best Actor Oscar, Peter Finch was the first actor to have won the award posthumously, as well as the first Australian actor to win a Best Actor award. He was the only posthumous winner of an Oscar in an acting category until Heath Ledger won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in 2009 (there were many earlier posthumous Oscar winners in non-acting categories; Ledger was also an Australian). Finch also won five Best Actor awards from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), including one for Network.
Shortly before he died, Finch told a journalist:
We all say we're going to quit occasionally... I'd like to have been more adventurous in my career. But it's a fascinating and not ignoble profession. No one lives more lives than the actor. Movie making is like geometry and I hated maths. But this kind of jigsaw I relish. When I played Lord Nelson I worked the poop deck in his uniform. I got extraordinary shivers. Sometimes I felt like I was staring at my own coffin. I touched that character. There lies the madness. You can't fake it.
Finch was married three times. In 1943, he married Romanian-born French ballerina Tamara Tchinarova; they worked together on a number of films. They had a daughter, Anita, born in 1950. They divorced in 1959, after she discovered his affair with actress Vivien Leigh in California. He then married South African-born actress Yolande Turner (née Yolande Eileen Turnbull); they had two children together, Samantha and Charles Peter. During their marriage, Finch had an affair with the singer Shirley Bassey. Bassey had a daughter, also named Samantha, born in 1963; Bassey's husband at the time, the openly gay film producer Kenneth Hume, believed that Finch was her biological father. Finch and Turner divorced in 1965. In 1972 Finch married Mavis "Eletha" Barrett, who was known as Eletha Finch. They had a daughter together, Diana.
In 1954, the Australian journalist and author George Johnston wrote a well-researched series of biographical articles on Finch, his life, and his work, which appeared in the Sydney Sun-Herald on four consecutive Sundays, which were certainly the first detailed account of Finch's life to be published. Finch later provided the inspiration for the character Archie Calverton in Johnston's novel, Clean Straw for Nothing.
In 1980, American author Elaine Dundy published a biography of Finch titled Finch, Bloody Finch: A Biography of Peter Finch. That year, his second wife, Yolande Finch, also published a posthumous account of their life together, Finchy: My Life with Peter Finch. Another biography had previously been published by his friend and colleague Trader Faulkner, in 1979.
According to an entry in Brian McFarlane's The Encyclopedia of British Film, republished on the British Film Institute's Screenonline website, Finch "did not emerge unscathed from a life of well-publicised hell-raising, and several biographies chronicle the affairs and the booze, but a serious appraisal of a great actor remains to be written."
|1935||The Magic Shoes||Prince Charming||A short film, now considered lost, although some stills exist at Australia's National Film and Sound Archive.|
|1938||Dad and Dave Come to Town||Bill Ryan||Finch only has one scene of note, acting opposite Bert Bailey. A copy of the scene is available at Australian Screen Online.|
|1939||Mr. Chedworth Steps Out||Arthur Jacobs||A clip of Finch acting opposite Cecil Kellaway is available at Australian Screen Online|
|1941||While There is Still Time||Jim||A propaganda short film made for the Australian government during the Second World War.|
|The Power and the Glory||Frank Miller|
|1942||Another Threshold||A propaganda short film made for the Australian government during the Second World War.|
|1943||South West Pacific||RAAF pilot||A propaganda short film made for the Australian government during the Second World War.|
|These Stars Are Mine||Reynolds Jnr||A propaganda short film|
|1944||The Rats of Tobruk||Peter Linton||A clip of Finch's death scene is available at Australian Screen Online|
|Jungle Patrol||Narrator||Documentary made for the Australian government during the Second World War.|
|1945||Sons of the Anzacs||Narrator||Documentary about the Australian army during World War II.|
|1946||A Son Is Born||Paul Graham|
|1948||Red Sky at Morning||Michael||This is considered a lost film.|
|1949||Eureka Stockade||Humffray||Australian film made before he left for Britain|
|Train of Events||Philip Mason||(segment The Actor)|
|Primitive Peoples||Narrator, camera assistant||Three-part documentary about the people of Arnhem Land|
|1950||The Wooden Horse||Australian in Hospital|
|The Miniver Story||Polish officer||First Hollywood-financed film|
|1952||The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men||Sheriff of Nottingham|
|1953||The Story of Gilbert and Sullivan||Richard D'Oyly Carte|
|The Heart of the Matter||Father Rank|
|1954||Elephant Walk||John Wiley||First Hollywood film. He was originally to co-star with Vivien Leigh but she had a nervous breakdown and was replaced by Elizabeth Taylor.|
|The Queen in Australia||Narrator||Australian documentary|
|1955||Passage Home||Captain Lucky Ryland|
|The Dark Avenger||Comte De Ville||He stars opposite fellow Australian Errol Flynn.|
|Make Me an Offer||Charlie|
|Josephine and Men||David Hewer|
|Simon and Laura||Simon Foster|
|1956||A Town Like Alice||Joe Harman||BAFTA Award for Best British Actor|
|The Battle of the River Plate||Capt. Langsdorff, Admiral Graf Spee|
|1957||The Shiralee||Jim Macauley||Clips from the film are available at Australian Screen Online|
|Robbery Under Arms||Captain Starlight|
|Windom's Way||Alec Windom||Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best British Actor|
|1959||Kidnapped||Alan Breck Stewart|
|Operation Amsterdam||Jan Smit|
|The Nun's Story||Dr. Fortunati||Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best British Actor|
|1960||The Day||Co-wrote and directed award-winning short film.|
|The Trials of Oscar Wilde||Oscar Wilde||BAFTA Award for Best British Actor
Moscow International Film Festival Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
|1961||The Sins of Rachel Cade||Colonel Henry Derode|
|No Love for Johnnie||Johnnie Byrne||BAFTA Award for Best British Actor
Silver Bear for Best Actor at the 11th Berlin International Film Festival.
|1962||I Thank a Fool||Stephen Dane|
|1963||In the Cool of the Day||Murray Logan|
|1964||The Pumpkin Eater||Jake Armitage|
|Girl with Green Eyes||Eugene Gaillard|
|First Men in the Moon||Bailiff's man||Finch plays an uncredited cameo in this film. He was visiting the set when the actor who was supposed to play the part failed to show up.|
|1965||The Flight of the Phoenix||Capt. Harris|
|10:30 P.M. Summer||Paul|
|1967||Come Spy with Me||Cameo appearance||Uncredited|
|Far from the Madding Crowd||William Boldwood||National Board of Review Award for Best Actor|
|1968||The Legend of Lylah Clare||Lewis Zarken|
|1969||The Red Tent||General Umberto Nobile|
|The Greatest Mother of Them All||Sean Howard||Short film (20 mins). Dir. Robert Aldrich|
|1971||Sunday Bloody Sunday||Dr. Daniel Hirsh||BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor
Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
Nominated – New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
|1972||Something to Hide||Harry Field|
|1973||Lost Horizon||Richard Conway|
|Bequest to the Nation||Adm. Lord Horatio Nelson|
|England Made Me||Erich Krogh|
|1974||The Abdication||Cardinal Azzolino|
|1976||Network||Howard Beale||Academy Award for Best Actor
BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
|Raid on Entebbe||Yitzhak Rabin||TV film
Nominated – Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor – Miniseries or a Movie, (final film role)
|1956||BAFTA Award for Best British Actor||A Town Like Alice||Won|
|1957||BAFTA Award for Best British Actor||Windom's Way||Nominated|
|1959||BAFTA Award for Best British Actor||The Nun's Story||Nominated|
|1960||BAFTA Award for Best British Actor||The Trials of Oscar Wilde||Won|
|1961||BAFTA Award for Best British Actor||No Love for Johnnie||Won|
|1971||BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role||Sunday Bloody Sunday||Won|
|1971||Academy Award for Best Actor||Sunday Bloody Sunday||Nominated|
|1971||Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama||Sunday Bloody Sunday||Nominated|
|1976||Academy Award for Best Actor||Network||Won|
|1976||BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role||Network||Won|
|1976||Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama||Network||Won|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peter Finch.|