The Info List - Peshtigo Fire

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The Peshtigo Fire
was a massive forest fire that took place on October 8, 1871, in and around Peshtigo, Wisconsin. It was the deadliest wildfire in American history,[1] with estimated deaths of around 1,500 people,[1] possibly as many as 2,500.[2] Occurring on the same day as the more famous Great Chicago Fire, the Peshtigo fire has been largely forgotten.[3][4] On the same day as the Peshtigo and Chicago fires, Holland and Manistee, Michigan
Manistee, Michigan
(across Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
from Peshtigo), and Port Huron at the southern end of Lake Huron
Lake Huron
also had major fires, leading to various theories of mutual cause by contemporaries and later historians.


1 Firestorm 2 Comet theory 3 Legacy 4 See also

4.1 Other October 8, 1871, fires 4.2 Other fire disasters in the Great Lakes

5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Firestorm[edit] The setting of small fires was a common way to clear forest land for farming and railroad construction. On the day of the Peshtigo fire, a cold front moved in from the west, bringing strong winds that fanned the fires out of control and escalated them to massive proportions.[5] A firestorm ensued. In the words of Gess and Lutz, in a firestorm "superheated flames of at least 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit...advance on winds of 110 miles per hour or stronger. The diameter of such a fire ranges from one thousand to ten thousand feet.... When a firestorm erupts in a forest, it is a blowup, nature's nuclear explosion...."[6]:101 By the time it was over, 1,875 square miles (4,860 km2 or 1.2 million acres) of forest had been consumed,[7][8][9] an area 50% larger than Rhode Island. Twelve communities were destroyed. An accurate death toll has never been determined because local records were destroyed in the fire. Between 1,200 and 2,500 people are thought to have lost their lives. The 1873 Report to the Wisconsin
Legislature listed 1,182 names of deceased or missing residents.[10] In 1870, the Town of Peshtigo had 1,749 residents.[11][12] More than 350 bodies were buried in a mass grave,[13] primarily because so many had died that no one remained alive who could identify all the bodies.

Mass grave

The fire jumped across the Peshtigo River
Peshtigo River
and burned on both sides of the inlet town.[14] Survivors reported that the firestorm generated a fire whirl (described as a tornado) that threw rail cars and houses into the air. Many escaped the flames by immersing themselves in the Peshtigo River, wells, or other nearby bodies of water. Some drowned while others succumbed to hypothermia in the frigid river. The Green Island Light was kept lit during the day because of the obscuring smoke, but the three-masted schooner George L. Newman was wrecked offshore, although the crew was rescued.[15] At the same time, another fire burned parts of the Door Peninsula; because of the coincidence, some incorrectly assumed that the fire had jumped across the waters of Green Bay.[16][Note 1] In Robinsonville (now Champion) on the Door Peninsula, Sister Adele Brise and other nuns, farmers, and families fled to a local chapel for protection. There they participated in prayers and devotions to the Virgin Mary. Although the chapel was surrounded by flames, it survived.[17][18][19] Those gathered at the chapel considered their survival a miracle.[19] Comet theory[edit] One speculation, first suggested in 1883, is that the occurrence of the Peshtigo and Chicago fires on the same day was not just a coincidence, but that all the major fires that occurred in Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin
on that day were caused by the impact of fragments from Comet Biela. This theory was revived in a 1985 book[20][21] and investigated in a 2004 paper to the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.[22] Scientists with expertise in the area argue that meteorites cannot ignite a fire as they are cold to the touch when they reach the Earth's surface,[23] and there are no credible reports of any fire anywhere having been started by a meteorite.[23][24] Additionally, various aspects of the behaviors of the Chicago and Peshtigo fires attributed to extraterrestrial agency have more mundane explanations.[25] In any event, no external source of ignition was needed; numerous small fires from land-clearing operations and other causes were already burning in the area after a tinder-dry summer,[6][26] generating so much smoke that the Green Island Light was kept lit 24 hours a day for weeks before the main fire.[27] All that was needed to generate the firestorm, as well as other fires in the Midwest, were the winds from the front that moved in that evening.[26] Legacy[edit]

Peshtigo Fire

The Peshtigo Fire
Museum, just west of U.S. Highway 41, has a small collection of artifacts from the fire, first-person descriptions of the event, and a graveyard dedicated to victims of the tragedy. A memorial commemorating the fire was dedicated on October 8, 2012 at the bridge over the Peshtigo River.[28] The chapel where Sister Adele Brise and others sheltered from the fire has become the National Shrine of Our Lady of Good Help. The site is a Marian shrine, where visitors can make religious pilgrimages.[19] The combination of wind, topography and ignition sources that created the firestorm, primarily representing the conditions at the boundaries of human settlement and natural areas, is known as the Peshtigo Paradigm.[29] The condition was closely studied by the American and British military during World War II
World War II
to learn how to recreate firestorm conditions for bombing campaigns against cities in Germany and Japan. The bombing of Dresden and the even more severe one of Tokyo by incendiary devices resulted in death tolls comparable to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[29] See also[edit] Other October 8, 1871, fires[edit]

Great Chicago Fire Great Michigan Fire Port Huron Fire
of 1871

Other fire disasters in the Great Lakes[edit]

Thumb Fire of 1881 Great Hinckley Fire
Great Hinckley Fire
of 1894 Baudette Fire
of 1910 1918 Cloquet Fire


^ "Because of the timing, many people later thought—incorrectly, it now appears—that this fire was an offshoot of the one that had struck Peshtigo and that it had somehow jumped across the 30-mile-wide bay."[16]


^ a b Biondich, S. (2010-06-09). "The Great Peshtigo Fire". Shepherd Express. Retrieved 2011-11-09.  ^ Scott Knickelbine. The Great Peshtigo Fire: Stories and Science from America's Deadliest Firestorm. Madison, WI: Wisconsin
Historical Society Press, 2012. ^ Christine Gibson. "Our 10 Greatest Natural Disasters". American Heritage, vol. 57, no. 4 (August/September 2006). ^ John Steele Gordon. "Forgotten Fury". American Heritage, vol. 55, no. 4 (April/May 2003). Retrieved May 24, 2017. ^ Hemphill, Stephanie (November 27, 2002). "Peshtigo: a tornado of fire revisited". News and Features. Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved March 30, 2008.  ^ a b Gess, D.; Lutz, W. (2003). Firestorm
at Peshtigo: A Town, Its People, and the Deadliest Fire
in American History. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-8050-7293-8. OCLC 52421495.  ^ Kim Estep. "The Peshtigo Fire" Green Bay Press-Gazette. National Weather Service. ^ Wisconsin
Department of Natural Resources. Wisconsin
Wildfires > 250 Acres, 1871 - Present. September 11, 2017. ^ Everett Rosenfeld. Top 10 Devastating Wildfires: The Peshtigo Fire, 1871". Time, June 8, 2011. ^ Wisconsin. Legislature. Assembly (1873). Journal of Proceedings. pp. 167–172. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ United States Census Bureau. The Statistics of the Population of the United States ... Compiled, from the Original Returns of the Ninth Census (June 1, 1870), Vol. 1. Washington, DC: G.P.O., 1872, p. 292. ^ "1870 Federal Census of town of Peshtigo". Rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08.  ^ registered historic marker (Image:PeshtigoFireCemetery.jpg), dated 1951, accessed August 26, 2007 ^ Hipke, Deana C. "The Great Peshtigo Fire
of 1871". Retrieved 2013-01-26.  ^ "Green Island Lighthouse". Terry Pepper. Retrieved 2010-11-26.  ^ a b Watson, Benjamin A. 1993. Acts of God: The Old Farmer's Almanac Unpredictable Guide to Weather and Natural Disasters. New York: Random House, p. 106. ^ "Shrine escaped devastation of Peshtigo Fire", The Compass, February 17, 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2013. ^ "Robinsonville: A Wisconsin
Shrine of Mary", Catholic Herald, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, May 23, 1935. Retrieved October 8, 2013. ^ a b c Cipin, Vojtech (2011). "Troubles and Miracles". Shrine of Our Lady of Good Help. Archived from the original on 2013-11-27. Retrieved March 1, 2013.  ^ Waskin, Mel (1985). Mrs. O'Leary's Comet: Cosmic Causes of the Great Chicago Fire. Academy Chicago Publishers. ISBN 0897331818.  ^ Fire
From The Sky. WTBS documentary, 1997 ^ Wood, Robert M. (2004). "Did Biela's Comet Cause The Chicago And Midwest Fires?" (PDF). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved May 31, 2012.  ^ a b Calfee, Mica (February 2003). "Was It A Cow Or A Meteorite?". Meteorite
Magazine. 9 (1). Retrieved 2011-11-10.  ^ "Meteorites Don't Pop Corn". NASA
Science. NASA. 2001-07-27. Retrieved 2011-11-10.  ^ Bales, R. F.; Schwartz, T. F. (April 2005). "Debunking Other Myths". The Great Chicago Fire
Great Chicago Fire
and the Myth of Mrs. O'Leary's Cow. McFarland. pp. 101–104. ISBN 978-0-7864-2358-3. OCLC 68940921.  ^ a b Bales, R. F.; Schwartz, T. F. (April 2005). "Debunking Other Myths". The Great Chicago Fire
Great Chicago Fire
and the Myth of Mrs. O'Leary's Cow. McFarland. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-7864-2358-3. OCLC 68940921.  ^ "Keepers of the Light – 1871 account". Survivor Stories of the Peshtigo Fire. Oconto County WIGenWeb Project. Retrieved 2011-11-20.  ^ "Large Crowd Attends Fire
Monument Event." 2012. Peshtigo Times (11 October). ^ a b Tasker, G. (2003-10-10). "Worst fire largely unknown". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 

Further reading[edit]

Ball, Jacqueline A. Wildfire! The 1871 Peshtigo Firestorm. New York: Bearport Pub., 2005. ISBN 1597160113. Bergstrom, Bill (June 2003). Peshtigo. Philadelphia: Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 978-1401098889. .[self-published source] Holbrook, Stewart. " Fire
Makes Wind: Wind Makes Fire". American Heritage, vol. 7, no. 5 (August 1956). Pernin, Peter. "The Great Peshtigo Fire: An Eyewitness Account," Wisconsin
Magazine of History, 54: 4 (Summer, 1971), 246–272. Wells, Robert W. Fire
at Peshtigo. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

External links[edit]

"The Fire
Fiend" New York Times, October 13, 1871. DeLaluzern, Guillaume (Oct 1871). "IN WISCONSIN. Particulars of the Burning of Williamsonville and Peshtigo – Frightful Number of Deaths". Green Bay Advocate.  Geyer, Rev. Kurt (October 6, 1921). "History of the Peshtigo fire, October 8, 1871". Peshtigo Times. Retrieved March 1, 2013.  Hipke, Deana C. The Great Peshtigo Fire
of 1871 Website about fire with survivors' stories. "Peshtigo: a tornado of fire revisited". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved March 1, 2013.  "Survivor's stories". Rootsweb.com. Retrieved March 1, 2013.  The Great Peshtigo Fire
Memorial at Find a Grave Peshtigo Fire
at Wisconsin
Historical Society's Dictionary of Wisconsin
History "Peshtigo fire photos". Wisconsin
Historical Society. 

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