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The Persian Gulf ( fa|خلیج فارس|translit=Xalij-e Fârs|lit=Gulf of Fars, ) is a
mediterranean sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east ...
in
Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It includes Anatolia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Mesopotamia, the Levant region, the island of Cyprus, the Sinai Peninsula, and ...
. The body of water is an extension of the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water on Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Sou ...

Indian Ocean
(
Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (Gulf of Makran or Sea of Makran) ( ar|خليج عمان ، خلیج مکران ''khalīj ʿumān , khalīj makrān''; fa|دریای عمان ، دریای مکران ''daryâ-ye omân ,daryâ-ye'' makrān) is ...
) through the
Strait of Hormuz The Strait of Hormuz as seen from an airliner at 35,000 feet. Musandam is in the foreground. The Strait of Hormuz ( fa|تنگه هرمز ''Tangeh-ye Hormoz'' ar|مَضيق هُرمُز ''Maḍīq Hurmuz'' ) is a strait between the Persian ...

Strait of Hormuz
and lies between
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
to the northeast and the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar|شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the A ...
to the southwest.United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Name
Working Paper No. 61
, 23rd Session, Vienna, 28 March – 4 April 2006. accessed October 9, 2010
The
Shatt al-Arab#REDIRECT Shatt al-Arab#REDIRECT Shatt al-Arab {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from alternative spelling ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from alternative spelling ...
river delta A river delta is a landform created by deposition of sediment that is carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, or (more ra ...
forms the northwest shoreline. The body of water is historically and internationally known as the "Persian Gulf". Arab governments refer to it as the "Arabian Gulf" ( ar|اَلْخَلِيْجُ ٱلْعَرَبِيُّ|Al-Khalīj al-ˁArabī) or "The Gulf".Niusha Boghrati
''Omission of 'Persian Gulf' Name Angers Iran''
, World Press.com, December 28, 2006
The name "Gulf of Iran (Persian Gulf)" is used by the
International Hydrographic Organization The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organization representing hydrography. In January 2021 the IHO comprised 94 Member States. A principal aim of the IHO is to ensure that the world's seas, oceans and navig ...
. The Persian Gulf was a battlefield of the 1980–1988
Iran–Iraq War | commander1 = Ruhollah Khomeini | commander2 = | units1 = see order of battle | units2 = see order of battle | strength1 = Start of war:Pollack, p. 186. 110,000–150,000 soldiers | strength ...
, in which each side attacked the other's
oil tanker An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products. There are two basic types of oil tankers: crude tankers and product tankers. Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude ...
s. It is the namesake of the 1991
Gulf War The Gulf War was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. It was codenamed Operation Deser ...
, the largely air- and land-based conflict that followed
Iraq Iraq ( ar|ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku|عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar|جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku|کۆماری عێراق '), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to th ...
's invasion of
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar|الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar|دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to the north ...
. The Persian Gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive
reef A reef is a ridge or shoal of rock, coral or similar relatively stable material, lying beneath the surface of a natural body of water. Many reefs result from natural, abiotic processes—deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock outcr ...

reef
s (mostly rocky, but also
coral Corals are marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. They typically live in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. Coral species include the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secre ...

coral
), and abundant
pearl oyster ''Pinctada'' is a genus of saltwater oysters, marine bivalve mollusks in the family Pteriidae, the pearl oysters. These oysters have a strong inner shell layer composed of nacre, also known as "mother of pearl". Pearl oysters are not closely rel ...

pearl oyster
s, but its ecology has been damaged by industrialization and
oil spill An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually given to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ...
s. The Persian Gulf is in the
Persian Gulf Basin The Persian Gulf Basin, is found between the Eurasian and the Arabian Plate. The Persian Gulf is described as a shallow marginal sea of the Indian Ocean that is located between the south western side of Iran and the Arabian Peninsula and south and s ...
, which is of
Cenozoic The Cenozoic Era ( ) meaning "new life" is the current and most recent of the three geological eras of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event (also referred to as the K-Pg, or K-T, extinction event) is the boundary betwee ...
origin and related to the subduction of the
Arabian Plate The Arabian Plate is a minor tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres. It is one of three continental plates (along with the African and Indian plates) that have been moving northward in recent geological history and colliding wit ...
under the
Zagros Mountains The Zagros Mountains ( fa|کوه‌های زاگرس; ku|چیاکانی زاگرۆس|translit=Çiyayên Zagros;) are a long mountain range in Iran, northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of . The Zagros moun ...
. The current flooding of the basin started 15,000 years ago due to rising sea levels of the
Holocene glacial retreat The Holocene glacial retreat is a geographical phenomenon that involved the global deglaciation of glaciers that previously had advanced during the Last Glacial Maximum. Ice sheet retreat initiated ca. 19,000 years ago and accelerated after ca. 1 ...
.


Geography

This inland sea of some is connected to the
Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (Gulf of Makran or Sea of Makran) ( ar|خليج عمان ، خلیج مکران ''khalīj ʿumān , khalīj makrān''; fa|دریای عمان ، دریای مکران ''daryâ-ye omân ,daryâ-ye'' makrān) is ...
in the east by the
Strait of Hormuz The Strait of Hormuz as seen from an airliner at 35,000 feet. Musandam is in the foreground. The Strait of Hormuz ( fa|تنگه هرمز ''Tangeh-ye Hormoz'' ar|مَضيق هُرمُز ''Maḍīq Hurmuz'' ) is a strait between the Persian ...

Strait of Hormuz
; and its western end is marked by the major
river delta A river delta is a landform created by deposition of sediment that is carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, or (more ra ...
of the
Shatt al-Arab#REDIRECT Shatt al-Arab#REDIRECT Shatt al-Arab {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from alternative spelling ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from alternative spelling ...
, which carries the waters of the
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). Originating in the Armenian Highlan ...
and the
Tigris The Tigris, () is the eastern of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of the Armenian Highlands through the Syrian and Arabian Deserts, and empties into the Persian ...

Tigris
. In Iran this is called "Arvand Rood", where "Rood" means "river". Its length is , with
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
covering most of the northern coast and
Saudi Arabia (Shahada) | national_anthem = "" "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" | image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg | capital = Riyadh | coordinates = | largest_city = Riyadh | official_languages = Arabic | languages_type = Spoken l ...
most of the southern coast. The Persian Gulf is about wide at its narrowest, in the Strait of Hormuz. The waters are overall very shallow, with a maximum depth of and an average depth of . Countries with a coastline on the Persian Gulf are (clockwise, from the north): Iran;
Oman Oman ( ; ar|عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar|سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia and the oldest independent state in the Arab world. Located in a s ...

Oman
's Musandam exclave; the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; Arabic: الإمارات العربية المتحدة '), sometimes simply called the Emirates (Arabic: الإمارات '), is a country in Western Asia located at the eastern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It b ...
; Saudi Arabia;
Qatar Qatar (, , or ; ar|قطر ' ; local vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the State of Qatar ( ar|دولة قطر '), is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peni ...
, on a
peninsula A peninsula ( la|paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though n ...

peninsula
off the Saudi coast;
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar|البحرين|al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar|مملكة البحرين|links=no '), is a country in the Persian Gulf. The island nation comprises a small archipelago made up of 51 natural isl ...
, on an island;
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar|الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar|دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to the north ...
; and
Iraq Iraq ( ar|ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku|عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar|جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku|کۆماری عێراق '), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to th ...
in the northwest. Various small islands also lie within the Persian Gulf, some of which are the subject of territorial disputes between the states of the region.


Extent

The
International Hydrographic Organization The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organization representing hydrography. In January 2021 the IHO comprised 94 Member States. A principal aim of the IHO is to ensure that the world's seas, oceans and navig ...
defines the Persian Gulf's southern limit as "The Northwestern limit of Gulf of Oman". This limit is defined as "A line joining Ràs Limah (25°57'N) on the coast of
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar|شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the A ...
and Ràs al Kuh (25°48'N) on the coast of Iran (Persia)".


Exclusive economic zone

Exclusive economic zones#REDIRECT Exclusive economic zone {{R from other capitalisation ...
in Persian Gulf:


Coastline length

Coastline length This article contains a list of countries by length of coastline, in kilometers. A coastline of zero indicates that the country is landlocked. Overview The coastline paradox states that a coastline does not have a well-defined length. Measurement ...
:


Oceanography

The Persian Gulf is connected to the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz. Writing the water balance budget for the Persian Gulf, the inputs are river discharges from Iran and Iraq (estimated to be per second), as well as precipitation over the sea which is around /year in
Qeshm Island Qeshm ( fa|قشم, ) is an arrow-shaped Iranian island in the Strait of Hormuz, separated from the mainland by the Clarence Strait/Khuran in the Persian Gulf (). It is the largest island in Iran. Geography Qeshm Island is located a few kilomete ...
. The evaporation of the sea is high, so that after considering river discharge and rain contributions, there is still a deficit of per year. This difference is supplied by currents at the
Strait of Hormuz The Strait of Hormuz as seen from an airliner at 35,000 feet. Musandam is in the foreground. The Strait of Hormuz ( fa|تنگه هرمز ''Tangeh-ye Hormoz'' ar|مَضيق هُرمُز ''Maḍīq Hurmuz'' ) is a strait between the Persian ...

Strait of Hormuz
. The water from the Persian Gulf has a higher salinity, and therefore exits from the bottom of the Strait, while ocean water with less salinity flows in through the top. Another study revealed the following numbers for water exchanges for the Persian Gulf: evaporation = –/year, precipitation = /year, inflow from the Strait = /year, outflow from the Strait = -/year, and the balance is 0 m (0 ft)/year. Data from different 3D computational fluid mechanics models, typically with spatial resolution of and depth each element equal to are predominantly used in computer models.


Oil and gas

The Persian Gulf and its coastal areas are the world's largest single source of petroleum, and related industries dominate the region.
Safaniya Oil Field Safaniya Oil Field ( ar|حقل السفانية النفطي), operated and owned by Saudi Aramco, is the largest offshore oil field in the world. It is located about north of the company headquarters in Dhahran on the coast of the Persian Gulf, S ...
, the world's largest offshore
oilfield A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations. Petroleum reservoirs are broadly classified as ''conventional'' and ''unconventional'' reservoirs. In conventiona ...
, is located in the Persian Gulf. Large gas finds have also been made, with Qatar and Iran sharing a giant field across the territorial median line (North Field in the Qatari sector; South Pars Field in the Iranian sector). Using this gas, Qatar has built up a substantial
liquefied natural gas#REDIRECT Liquefied natural gas#REDIRECT Liquefied natural gas {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
(LNG) and petrochemical industry. In 2002, the Persian Gulf nations of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE produced about 25% of the world's oil, held nearly two-thirds of the world's crude oil reserves, and about 35% of the world's
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carb ...
reserves. The oil-rich countries (excluding
Iraq Iraq ( ar|ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku|عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar|جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku|کۆماری عێراق '), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to th ...
) that have a coastline on the Persian Gulf are referred to as the ''
Persian Gulf States#REDIRECT Arab states of the Persian Gulf {{R from move ...
''. Iraq's egress to the Persian gulf is narrow and easily blockaded consisting of the marshy river delta of the
Shatt al-Arab#REDIRECT Shatt al-Arab#REDIRECT Shatt al-Arab {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from alternative spelling ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from alternative spelling ...
, which carries the waters of the
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). Originating in the Armenian Highlan ...
and the
Tigris The Tigris, () is the eastern of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of the Armenian Highlands through the Syrian and Arabian Deserts, and empties into the Persian ...

Tigris
rivers, where the east bank is held by Iran.


Name

In 550 BC, the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo|𐎧𐏁𐏂|translit=Xšāça|translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the B ...

Achaemenid Empire
established the first ancient empire in
Persis Persis ( grc-gre| , ''Persís''), better known in English as Persia (Old Persian: 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ''Parsa''; fa|پارس, ''Pârs''), or Persia proper, is the Fars region located to the southwest of modern Iran, now a province. The Persians ...
(''Pars'', or modern '' Fars''), in the southwestern region of the
Iranian plateau#REDIRECT Iranian Plateau {{R from move ...
. Consequently, in the Greek sources, the body of water that bordered this province came to be known as the "Persian Gulf". In the book of
Nearchus Nearchus or Nearchos ( el|Νέαρχος; – 300 BC) was one of the officers, a navarch, in the army of Alexander the Great. He is known for his celebrated expeditionary voyage starting from the Indus River, through the Persian Gulf and ending at ...
known as The Indikê (300 BC), the word "Persikon kaitas" is mentioned for multiple times meaning "Persian gulf". During the years 550 to 330 BC, coinciding with the sovereignty of the Achaemenid Persian Empire over the Middle East area, especially the whole part of the Persian Gulf and some parts of the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar|شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the A ...
, the name of "Pars Sea" is widely found in the compiled written texts. In the travel account of
Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos, or simply ; in Ionian Greek ( 570 – c. 495 BC) was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced ...
, several chapters are related to description of his travels accompanied by the Achaemenid king
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo|𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁|translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius the Great
, to
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform: ''šušinki''; fa|شوش ''Šuš'' ; he|שׁוּשָׁן ''Šušān''; Greek: Σοῦσα ; syr|ܫܘܫ ''Šuš''; Middle Persian: 𐭮𐭥𐭱𐭩 ''Sūš'', 𐭱𐭥𐭮 ''Šūs''; Old Persian: 𐏂𐎢𐏁𐎠 ''Çūš ...
and
Persepolis Persepolis (; peo|𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, ; ) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (). It is situated in the plains of Marvdasht, encircled by southern Zagros mountains of Iran. Modern day Shiraz is situated southwest of the ruins of P ...

Persepolis
, and the area is described. From among the writings of others in the same period, there is the inscription and engraving of Darius the Great, installed at junction of waters of
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar|البحر الأحمر ''Al Baḥr al aḥmar''; Hebrew: ''Yam Soof'' ים סוף or ''Hayam Haadom'' הים האדום; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲟⲙ `ⲛϩⲁϩ ''Phiom Enhah'' or ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ̀ⲛϣⲁⲣⲓ ''Phiom ̀nšari''; Tigr ...
and the
Nile river The Nile ( ar|النيل|an-Nīl, , Bohairic , lg|Kiira , Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. The longest river in Africa, it has historically been considered the longest river in the world, though this ...
and the Rome river (current Mediterranean) which belongs to the 5th century BC where Darius the Great has named the Persian Gulf Water Channel: "Pars Sea" ("Persian Sea"). King Darius says: Considering the historical background of the name Persian Gulf, Sir Arnold Wilson mentions in a book published in 1928 that "no water channel has been so significant as the Persian Gulf to the geologists, archaeologists, geographers, merchants, politicians, excursionists, and scholars whether in past or in present. This water channel which separates the Iran Plateau from the Arabia Plate, has enjoyed an Iranian Identity since at least 2200 years ago." Before being given its present name, the Persian Gulf was called many different names. The classical Greek writers, like
Herodotus Herodotus (; grc|Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book ''The Histories'' ( grc|Ἱσ ...
, called it "the Red Sea." In Babylonian texts, it was known as "the sea above Akkad."


Naming dispute

The name of this gulf, historically and internationally known as the Persian Gulf after the land of
Persia (Iran) Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
, has been disputed by some
Arab countries The Arab world ( ar|العالم العربي '), formally the Arab homeland ( '), also known as the Arab nation ( '), the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Arab countries which are members of the Arab League. A majority of thes ...
since the 1960s. Rivalry between Iran and some Arab states, along with the emergence of
pan-Arabism Pan-Arabism ( ar|الوحدة العربية or ) is an ideology that espouses the unification of the countries of North Africa and Western Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, which is referred to as the Arab world. It is closely conne ...
and
Arab nationalism#REDIRECT Arab nationalism#REDIRECT Arab nationalism {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, has seen the name ''Arabian Gulf'' become predominant in most Arab countries. Names beyond these two have also been applied to or proposed for this body of water.


History


Ancient history

Earliest evidence of human presence on Persian Gulf islands dates back to Middle
Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers  99% of the period of human technological prehistory. It ...
and consist of stone tools discovered at Qeshm Island. The world's oldest known civilization (
Sumer Sumer ()The name is from Akkadian '; Sumerian ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", iĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian)from ''The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary''). Li ...
) developed along the Persian Gulf and southern
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar|بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc|Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām''-Nahrīn'' or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ''Bēṯ Nahrīn'') is a historical region of Western Asia situated withi ...
. The shallow basin that now underlies the Persian Gulf was an extensive region of river valley and wetlands during the transition between the end of the
Last Glacial Maximum The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), also referred to as the Late Glacial Maximum, was the most recent time during the Last Glacial Period that ice sheets were at their greatest extent. Ice sheets covered much of North America, Northern Europe, and As ...
and the start of the
Holocene The Holocene ( ) is the current geological epoch. It began approximately 11,650 cal years before present, after the last glacial period, which concluded with the Holocene glacial retreat. The Holocene and the preceding Pleistocene together for ...
, which, according to University of Birmingham archaeologist Jeffrey Rose, served as an environmental refuge for early humans during periodic hyperarid climate oscillations, laying the foundations for the legend of
Dilmun Dilmun, or Telmun, (Sumerian: , later 𒉌𒌇(𒆠), ni.tukki = DILMUNki; ar|دلمون) was an ancient Semitic-speaking polity in Arabia mentioned from the 3rd millennium BC onwards. Based on contextual evidence, it was located in the Persian G ...
. For most of the early history of the settlements in the Persian Gulf, the southern shores were ruled by a series of nomadic tribes. During the end of the
fourth millennium BC The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC. Some of the major changes in human culture during this time included the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing, which played a major role in starting recorded history ...
, the southern part of the Persian Gulf was dominated by the
Dilmun Dilmun, or Telmun, (Sumerian: , later 𒉌𒌇(𒆠), ni.tukki = DILMUNki; ar|دلمون) was an ancient Semitic-speaking polity in Arabia mentioned from the 3rd millennium BC onwards. Based on contextual evidence, it was located in the Persian G ...
civilization. For a long time the most important settlement on the southern coast of the Persian Gulf was
Gerrha:''Gerrha may also refer to Ancient Egyptian city and former bishopric Gera (Egypt) Gerrha ( ar|جرهاء) was an ancient city of Eastern Arabia, on the west side of the Persian Gulf. History Prior to Gerrha, the area belonged to the Dilmun civi ...
. In the 2nd century the Lakhum tribe, who lived in what is now Yemen, migrated north and founded the Lakhmid Kingdom along the southern coast. Occasional ancient battles took place along the Persian Gulf coastlines, between the Sassanid Persian empire and the Lakhmid Kingdom, the most prominent of which was the invasion led by
Shapur II Shapur II ( pal|𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩 ; New Persian: , ''Šāpur'', 309 – 379), also known as Shapur the Great, was the tenth Sasanian King of Kings (Shahanshah) of Iran. The longest-reigning monarch in Iranian history, he reigned for h ...
against the Lakhmids, leading to Lakhmids' defeat, and advancement into Arabia, along the southern shore lines. During the 7th century the Sassanid Persian empire conquered the whole of the Persian Gulf, including southern and northern shores. Between 625 BC and 226 AD, the northern side was dominated by a succession of Persian empires including the
Median In statistics and probability theory, the median is the value separating the higher half from the lower half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution. For a data set, it may be thought of as "the middle" value. The basic feat ...

Median
,
Achaemenid The Achaemenid Empire (; peo|𐎧𐏁𐏂|translit=Xšāça|translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the B ...

Achaemenid
,
Seleucid The Seleucid Empire (; grc|Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Hellenistic state in Western Asia that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of t ...
and
ParthianParthian may be: Historical * A demonym "of Parthia", a region of north-eastern of Greater Iran * Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD) * Parthian language, a now-extinct Middle Iranian language * Parthian shot, an archery skill famously employed by P ...
empires. Under the leadership of the Achaemenid king
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo|𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁|translit=Dārayava(h)uš; New Persian: ; ; c. 550 – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in ...

Darius the Great
(Darius I), Persian ships found their way to the Persian Gulf. Persian naval forces laid the foundation for a strong Persian maritime presence in Persian Gulf, that started with Darius I and existed until the arrival of the
British East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
, and the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against the K ...
by mid-19th century AD. Persians were not only stationed on islands of the Persian Gulf, but also had ships often of 100 to 200 capacity patrolling empire's various rivers including
Shatt-al-Arab#REDIRECT Shatt al-Arab {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from alternative spelling ...
,
Tigris The Tigris, () is the eastern of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of the Armenian Highlands through the Syrian and Arabian Deserts, and empties into the Persian ...
, and the
Nile The Nile ( ar|النيل|an-Nīl, , Bohairic , lg|Kiira , Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. The longest river in Africa, it has historically been considered the longest river in the world, though this ...

Nile
in the west, as well as Sind waterway, in
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Oce ...

India
. The Achaemenid high naval command had established major naval bases located along Shatt al-Arab river, Bahrain, Oman, and Yemen. The Persian fleet would soon not only be used for peacekeeping purposes along the Shatt al-Arab but would also open the door to trade with India via Persian Gulf. Following the fall of Achaemenid Empire, and after the fall of the
Parthian Empire The Parthian Empire (), also known as the Arsacid Empire (), was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran from 247 BC to 224 AD. Its latter name comes from its founder, Arsaces I, who led the Parni tribe in conquerin ...
, the
Sassanid empire The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 ''Ērānshahr''), and called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last Persian imperial dynasty before ...
ruled the northern half and at times the southern half of the Persian Gulf. The Persian Gulf, along with the [[Silk Road, were important trade routes in the Sassanid empire. Many of the trading ports of the Persian empires were located in or around Persian Gulf. [[Siraf, an ancient Sassanid port that was located on the northern shore of the Persian gulf, located in what is now the Iranian province of [[Bushehr, is an example of such commercial port. Siraf, was also significant in that it had a flourishing commercial trade with [[China by the 4th century, having first established connection with the far east in 185 AD.


Colonial era

Portuguese influence in the Persian Gulf lasted for 250 years; however, since the beginning of the 16th-century, Portuguese dominance contended with the local powers and the Ottoman Empire. Following the arrival of the English and the Dutch, the Safavid Empire allied with the newcomers to contest Portuguese dominance of the seas in the 17th century. [[Portuguese Empire|Portuguese expansion into the Indian Ocean in the early 16th century following [[Vasco da Gama's voyages of exploration saw them battle the [[Ottomans up the coast of the Persian Gulf. In 1521, a Portuguese force led by commander [[António Correia (admiral)|Antonio Correia invaded Bahrain to take control of the wealth created by its pearl industry. On April 29, 1602, Shāh Abbās, the [[Persian people|Persian emperor of the [[Safavid Persian Empire, expelled the Portuguese from Bahrain, and that date is commemorated as [[Persian Gulf naming dispute#National Persian Gulf Day|National Persian Gulf day in
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
. With the support of the British fleet, in 1622 'Abbās took the island of [[Hormuz Island|Hormuz from the Portuguese; much of the trade was diverted to the town of [[Bandar Abbas|Bandar 'Abbās, which he had taken from the Portuguese in 1615 and had named after himself. The Persian Gulf was therefore opened to a flourishing commerce with the Portuguese, Dutch, French, Spanish and the British merchants, who were granted particular privileges. The [[Ottoman Empire reasserted itself into Eastern Arabia in 1871. Under military and political pressure from the governor of the Ottoman [[Vilayet of Baghdad, [[Midhat Pasha, the ruling [[Al Thani tribe submitted peacefully to Ottoman rule. The Ottomans were forced to withdraw from the area with the start of [[World War I and the need for troops in various other frontiers. In [[World War II, the [[Allies of World War II|Western Allies used Iran as a conduit to transport military and industrial supply to the USSR, through a pathway known historically as the "[[Persian Corridor". Britain utilized the Persian Gulf as the entry point for the supply chain in order to make use of the [[Trans-Iranian Railway. The Persian Gulf therefore became a critical maritime path through which the Allies transported equipment to Soviet Union against the [[Operation Barbarossa|Nazi invasion.The [[piracy in the Persian Gulf was prevalent until the 19th century. Many of the most notable historical instances of piracy were perpetrated by the [[Al Qasimi tribe. This led to the British mounting the [[Persian Gulf campaign of 1819. The campaign led to the signing of the [[General Maritime Treaty of 1820 between the British and the Sheikhs of what was then known as the '[[Pirate Coast'. From 1763 until 1971, the [[British Empire maintained varying degrees of political control over some of the Persian Gulf states, including the United Arab Emirates (originally called the [[Trucial States) and at various times Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Qatar through the [[British Residency of the Persian Gulf.


Modern history

The United States' role in the Persian Gulf grew in the second half of the Twentieth Century. On July 3, 1988, [[Iran Air Flight 655 was shot down by the U.S. military (which had mistaken the [[Airbus A300 operating the flight for an Iranian [[Grumman F-14 Tomcat|F-14 Tomcat) while it was flying over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people on board. The United Kingdom maintains a profile in the region; in 2006 alone, over 1 million British nationals visited [[Dubai. In 2018, the UK opened a permanent military base, , in the Persian Gulf, the first since it withdrew from [[East of Suez in 1971 and is developing a support facility in Oman.


Islands

The Persian Gulf is home to many islands such as
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar|البحرين|al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar|مملكة البحرين|links=no '), is a country in the Persian Gulf. The island nation comprises a small archipelago made up of 51 natural isl ...
, an Arab state. Geographically the biggest island in the Persian Gulf is [[Qeshm island, belonging to Iran and located in the
Strait of Hormuz The Strait of Hormuz as seen from an airliner at 35,000 feet. Musandam is in the foreground. The Strait of Hormuz ( fa|تنگه هرمز ''Tangeh-ye Hormoz'' ar|مَضيق هُرمُز ''Maḍīq Hurmuz'' ) is a strait between the Persian ...

Strait of Hormuz
. Other significant islands in the Persian Gulf include [[Greater Tunb, [[Lesser Tunb and [[Kish Island|Kish administered by Iran, [[Bubiyan Island|Bubiyan administered by Kuwait, [[Tarout administered by Saudi Arabia, and [[Dalma (island)|Dalma administered by UAE. In recent years, there has also been the addition of [[artificial islands for [[tourist attractions, such as [[The World Islands in [[Dubai and [[The Pearl-Qatar in [[Doha. Persian Gulf islands are often also historically significant, having been used in the past by colonial powers such as the [[Portuguese Empire|Portuguese and the [[British empire|British in their trade or as acquisitions for their empires.


Cities and population

Eight nations have coasts along the Persian Gulf:
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar|البحرين|al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar|مملكة البحرين|links=no '), is a country in the Persian Gulf. The island nation comprises a small archipelago made up of 51 natural isl ...
,
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
,
Iraq Iraq ( ar|ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku|عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar|جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku|کۆماری عێراق '), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to th ...
,
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar|الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar|دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to the north ...
,
Oman Oman ( ; ar|عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar|سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia and the oldest independent state in the Arab world. Located in a s ...

Oman
,
Qatar Qatar (, , or ; ar|قطر ' ; local vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the State of Qatar ( ar|دولة قطر '), is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peni ...
,
Saudi Arabia (Shahada) | national_anthem = "" "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" | image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg | capital = Riyadh | coordinates = | largest_city = Riyadh | official_languages = Arabic | languages_type = Spoken l ...
, and the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; Arabic: الإمارات العربية المتحدة '), sometimes simply called the Emirates (Arabic: الإمارات '), is a country in Western Asia located at the eastern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It b ...
. The Persian gulf's strategic location has made it an ideal place for human development over time. Today, many major cities of the [[Middle East are located in this region.


Wildlife

The wildlife of the Persian Gulf is diverse, and entirely unique due to the Persian gulf's geographic distribution and its isolation from the international waters only breached by the narrow
Strait of Hormuz The Strait of Hormuz as seen from an airliner at 35,000 feet. Musandam is in the foreground. The Strait of Hormuz ( fa|تنگه هرمز ''Tangeh-ye Hormoz'' ar|مَضيق هُرمُز ''Maḍīq Hurmuz'' ) is a strait between the Persian ...

Strait of Hormuz
. The Persian Gulf has hosted some of the most magnificent marine fauna and flora, some of which are near [[Local extinction|extirpation or at serious environmental risk. From corals, to [[dugongs, Persian Gulf is a diverse cradle for many species who depend on each other for survival. However, the Persian Gulf is not as biologically diverse as the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar|البحر الأحمر ''Al Baḥr al aḥmar''; Hebrew: ''Yam Soof'' ים סוף or ''Hayam Haadom'' הים האדום; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲟⲙ `ⲛϩⲁϩ ''Phiom Enhah'' or ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ̀ⲛϣⲁⲣⲓ ''Phiom ̀nšari''; Tigr ...
. Overall, the wild life of the Persian Gulf is endangered from both global factors, and regional, local negligence. Most pollution is from ships; land generated pollution counts as the second most common source of pollution.


Aquatic mammals

Along the [[Mediterranean sea (oceanography)|mediterranean regions of the Arabian Sea, including the Persian Gulf, the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar|البحر الأحمر ''Al Baḥr al aḥmar''; Hebrew: ''Yam Soof'' ים סוף or ''Hayam Haadom'' הים האדום; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲟⲙ `ⲛϩⲁϩ ''Phiom Enhah'' or ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ̀ⲛϣⲁⲣⲓ ''Phiom ̀nšari''; Tigr ...
, the [[Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch|Gulf of Kutch, the [[Gulf of Suez, the [[Gulf of Aqaba, the [[Gulf of Aden, and the
Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (Gulf of Makran or Sea of Makran) ( ar|خليج عمان ، خلیج مکران ''khalīj ʿumān , khalīj makrān''; fa|دریای عمان ، دریای مکران ''daryâ-ye omân ,daryâ-ye'' makrān) is ...
, [[dolphins and [[finless porpoises are the most common marine mammals in the waters, while larger [[whales and [[orcas are rarer today. Historically, whales had been abundant in the Persian gulf before commercial hunts wiped them out. Whales were reduced even further by illegal mass hunts by the Soviet Union and Japan in the 1960s and 1970s. Along with [[Bryde's whales, these once common residents can still can be seen in deeper marginal seas such as Gulf of Aden, [[Israel coasts,https://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/mar/ebsaws-2015-02/other/ebsaws-2015-02-gobi-submission9-en.pdf and in the
Strait of Hormuz The Strait of Hormuz as seen from an airliner at 35,000 feet. Musandam is in the foreground. The Strait of Hormuz ( fa|تنگه هرمز ''Tangeh-ye Hormoz'' ar|مَضيق هُرمُز ''Maḍīq Hurmuz'' ) is a strait between the Persian ...

Strait of Hormuz
. Other species such as the critically endangered Arabian [[humpback whale, (also historically common in [[Gulf of Aden and increasingly sighted in the Red Sea since 2006, including in the [[Gulf of Aqaba), [[omura's whale, [[minke whale, and [[orca also swim into the Persian gulf, while many other large species such as [[blue whale, [[Sei whale|sei, and [[sperm whales were once migrants into the
Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (Gulf of Makran or Sea of Makran) ( ar|خليج عمان ، خلیج مکران ''khalīj ʿumān , khalīj makrān''; fa|دریای عمان ، دریای مکران ''daryâ-ye omân ,daryâ-ye'' makrān) is ...
and off the coasts in deeper waters, and still migrate into the Red Sea, but mainly in deeper waters of outer seas. In 2017, waters of the Persian Gulf along [[Emirate of Abu Dhabi|Abu Dhabi were revealed to hold the world's largest population of [[Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphins. One of the more unusual marine mammals living in the Persian Gulf is the [[dugong (''Dugong dugon''). Also called "sea cows", for their grazing habits and mild manner resembling livestock, dugongs have a life expectancy similar to that of humans and they can grow up to in length. These gentle mammals feed on sea grass and are closer relatives of certain land mammals than are [[dolphins and [[whales. Their simple grass diet is negatively affected by new developments along the Persian Gulf coastline, particularly the construction of artificial islands by Arab states and pollution from [[Gulf War oil spill|oil spills caused during the "Persian Gulf war" and various other natural and artificial causes. Uncontrolled hunting has also had a negative impact on the survival of dugongs. After Australian waters, which are estimated to contain some 80,000 dugong inhabitants, the waters off Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, and Saudi Arabia make the Persian Gulf the second most important habitat for the species, hosting some 7,500 remaining dugongs. However, the current number of dugongs is dwindling and it is not clear how many are currently alive or what their reproductive trend is. Unfortunately, ambitious and uncalculated construction schemes, political unrest, ever-present international conflict, the most lucrative world supply of oil, and the lack of cooperation between Arab states and Iran, have had a negative impact on the survival of many marine species, including dugongs.


Birds

The Persian Gulf is also home to many migratory and local birds. There is great variation in color, size, and type of the bird species that call the Persian gulf home. Concerns regarding the endangerment of the ''kalbaensis'' subspecies of the [[collared kingfishers were raised by conservationists due to real state development by the United Arab Emirates and Oman. Estimates from 2006 showed that only three viable nesting sites were available for this ancient bird, one located from Dubai, and two smaller sites in Oman. Such real estate expansion could prove devastating to this subspecies. A UN plan to protect the mangroves as a biological reserve was ignored by the emirate of Sharjah, which allowed the dredging of a channel that bisects the wetland and construction of an adjacent concrete walkway. Environmental watchdogs in Arabia are few, and those that do advocate the wildlife are often silenced or ignored by developers of real estate many of whom have governmental connections. Real estate development in the Persian Gulf by the United Arab Emirates and Oman also raised concerns that habitats of species such as the [[hawksbill turtle, [[greater flamingo, and [[booted warbler may be destroyed. The dolphins that frequent the Persian gulf in northern waters around Iran are also at risk. Recent statistics and observations show that dolphins are at danger of entrapment in purse [[seine fishing nets and exposure to chemical pollutants; perhaps the most alarming sign is the "mass suicides" committed by dolphins off Iran's [[Hormozgan province, which are not well understood, but are suspected to be linked with a deteriorating marine environment from water pollution from oil, sewage, and industrial run offs.


Fish and reefs

The Persian Gulf is home to over 700 species of fish, most of which are native. Of these 700 species, more than 80% are reef associated. These reefs are primarily rocky, but there are also a few [[coral reefs. Compared to the Red Sea, the coral reefs in the Persian Gulf are relatively few and far between. This is primarily connected to the influx of major rivers, especially the
Shatt al-Arab#REDIRECT Shatt al-Arab#REDIRECT Shatt al-Arab {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from alternative spelling ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from alternative spelling ...
(Euphrates and Tigris), which carry large amounts of sediment (most reef-building corals require strong light) and causes relatively large variations in temperature and salinity (corals in general are poorly suited to large variations). Nevertheless, coral reefs have been found along sections of coast of all countries in the Persian gulf. Corals are vital ecosystems that support multitude of marine species, and whose health directly reflects the health of the Persian gulf. Recent years have seen a drastic decline in the coral population in the Persian gulf, partially owing to [[global warming but majorly due to irresponsible dumping by Arab states like the UAE and Bahrain. Construction garbage such as tires, cement, and chemical by products have found their way to the Persian Gulf in recent years. Aside from direct damage to the coral, the [[construction waste creates "traps" for marine life in which they are trapped and die. The end result has been a dwindling population of the coral, and as a result a decrease in number of species that rely on the corals for their survival.


Flora

A great example of this [[symbiosis are the [[mangroves in the Persian gulf, which require tidal flow and a combination of fresh and salt water for growth, and act as nurseries for many crabs, small fish, and insects; these fish and insects are the source of food for many of the marine birds that feed on them. Mangroves are a diverse group of shrubs and trees belonging to the genus ''[[Avicennia'' or ''[[Rhizophora'' that flourish in the salt water shallows of the Persian gulf, and are the most important habitats for small crustaceans that dwell in them. They are as crucial an indicator of biological health on the surface of the water, as the corals are to biological health of the Persian gulf in deeper waters. Mangroves' ability to survive the salt water through intricate molecular mechanisms, their unique reproductive cycle, and their ability to grow in the most oxygen-deprived waters have allowed them extensive growth in hostile areas of the Persian gulf. However, with the advent of artificial island development, most of their habitat is destroyed, or occupied by man-made structures. This has had a negative impact on the crustaceans that rely on the mangrove, and in turn on the species that feed on them.


Gallery

File:Dugong.jpg|[[Dugong mother and her offspring in shallow water File:HengamDolphins.jpg|[[Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins off the southern shore of Iran, around [[Hengam Island File:Dolphins Oman.JPG|[[Spinner dolphins [[Cetacean surfacing behaviour|leaping in the Persian gulf File:The-Worlds-Most-Isolated-and-Distinct-Whale-Population-Humpback-Whales-of-the-Arabian-Sea-pone.0114162.s001.tif|Critically endangered Arabian [[humpback whales (being the most isolated, and the only resident population in the world) off [[Dhofar Governorate|Dhofar, Oman File:Nakhl-Minoo.jpg|[[Arecaceae|Palm and [[sunset in [[Minoo Island


See also

* [[Eastern Arabia * [[Eastern Arabian cuisine * [[Cradle of civilization * [[Deluge (prehistoric) * [[Musandam Peninsula * [[History of the United Arab Emirates#The pearling industry and the Portuguese empire: 16th - 18th century * [[Saeed bin Butti#Perpetual Maritime Truce * [[Trucial States * [[Sultan bin Saqr Al Qasimi#Perpetual Maritime Truce of 1853 * [[Persian Gulf campaign of 1809 * [[Persian Gulf campaign of 1819 * [[General Maritime Treaty of 1820 * [[Geography of Iran * [[Geography of Saudi Arabia * [[Geography of Oman * [[Geography of United Arab Emirates * [[Geography of Qatar * [[Geography of Bahrain * [[Geography of Kuwait * [[Geography of Iraq


References


External links


Qatar Digital Library
– an online portal providing access to previously undigitised British Library archive materials relating to Gulf history and Arabic science
''Persian Gulf'', Encyclopædia Iranica


* [https://www.flickr.com/photos/54272266@N06/6863021370/in/photostream/ 32 historical map of Persian gulf], at flickr.com
Persian Gulf
from 1920
Sharks in the Gulf
; Videos
Documents on the Persian Gulf's name the eternal heritage ancient time by Dr.Mohammad Ajam
{{Authority control [[Category:Persian Gulf| [[Category:Bahrain–Saudi Arabia border [[Category:Bahrain–Qatar border [[Category:Bodies of water of Bahrain [[Category:Bodies of water of Iraq [[Category:Bodies of water of Kuwait [[Category:Geography of the Middle East [[Category:Geography of Western Asia [[Category:Seas of Asia [[Category:Seas of Iran [[Category:Bodies of water of Saudi Arabia [[Category:Bodies of water of Qatar [[Category:Iran–Iraq border [[Category:Iraq–Kuwait border [[Category:Kuwait–Saudi Arabia border [[Category:Marginal seas of the Indian Ocean [[Category:Qatar–Saudi Arabia border [[Category:Saudi Arabia–United Arab Emirates border