The Info List - People Of The Book

People of the Book/Scripture (Arabic: أهل الكتاب‎ ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term referring to Jews, Christians, and Sabians
and sometimes applied to members of other religions such as Zoroastrians.[1] It is also used in Judaism
to refer to the Jewish people and by members of some Christian denominations
Christian denominations
to refer to themselves. The Quran
uses the term in reference to Jews, Christians
and Sabians in a variety of contexts, from religious polemics to passages emphasizing community of faith between those who possess monotheistic scriptures. The term was later extended to other religious communities that fell under Muslim
rule, including even polytheistic Indians. Historically, these communities were subject to the dhimma contract in an Islamic state. In Judaism
the term "People of the Book" (Hebrew: עם הספר, Am HaSefer)[2] has come to refer to the Jewish people
Jewish people
and the Torah.[3] Members of some Christian
denominations, such as the Baptists, Methodists, Seventh-day Adventist Church,[4][5] as well as Puritans and Shakers, have embraced the term "People of the Book" in reference to themselves.[6][7]


1 In the Qur'an 2 Later Islamic usage 3 Dhimmi 4 Judaism 5 Christian
usage 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Citations

8 Further reading 9 External links

In the Qur'an[edit] In the Quran
the term "people of the book" refers to Jews, Christians, and Sabians.[8] The scriptures referred to in the Quran
are the Torah (at-tawraat), the Psalms
(al-zabur) and the Gospel
(al-injiil).[8] The Quran
emphasizes the community of faith between possessors of monotheistic scriptures, and occasionally pays tribute to the religious and moral virtues of communities that have received earlier revelations, calling on Muhammad to ask them for information.[8] More often, reflecting the refusal of Jews
and Christians
in Muhammad's environment to accept his message, the Quran
stresses their inability to comprehend the message they possess but do not put into practice and to appreciate that Muhammad's teaching fulfills that message.[8] The People of the Book are also referenced in the jizya verse (9:29),[8] which has received varied interpretations. Later Islamic usage[edit] The use of the term was later extended to Zoroastrians, Samaritans, Mandeans, and even polytheistic Indians.[1][8] Islamic scholars differ on whether Hindus are People of the Book.[9] The Islamic conquest of India
Islamic conquest of India
necessitated that the definition be revised, as most India's inhabitants were followers of the Indian religions. Many of the Muslim
clergy of India considered Hindus as people of the book,[9] and from Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
to Aurangzeb, Muslim
rulers were willing to consider Hindus as people of the book.[10] Many Muslims did not treat Hindus as pagans or idol-worshipers,[9] although Hinduism
does not include Adam, Eve, nor the various prophets of Abrahamic religions. Buddhism
does not explicitly recognize a monotheistic God
or the concept of prophet-hood. Muslims however had at one point accorded them the status of "people of the Book", and Al-Biruni
wrote of Buddha as the prophet "Burxan".[11] Dhimmi[edit] Main article: Dhimmi Dhimmi is a historical[12] term referring to the status accorded to People of the Book living in an Islamic state.[12] The word literally means "protected person."[13] According to scholars, dhimmis had their rights fully protected in their communities, but as citizens in the Islamic state, had certain restrictions,[14] and it was obligatory for them to pay the jizya tax, which complemented the zakat, or alms, paid by the Muslim
subjects.[15] Dhimmis were excluded from specific duties assigned to Muslims, and did not enjoy certain political rights reserved for Muslims, but were otherwise equal under the laws of property, contract, and obligation.[16][17][18] Under sharia, the dhimmi communities were usually subjected to their own special laws, rather than some of the laws which were applicable only to the Muslim
community. For example, the Jewish community in Medina
was allowed to have its own Halakhic courts,[19] and the Ottoman millet system allowed its various dhimmi communities to rule themselves under separate legal courts. These courts did not cover cases that involved religious groups outside of their own community, or capital offences. Dhimmi communities were also allowed to engage in certain practices that were usually forbidden for the Muslim community, such as the consumption of alcohol and pork.[20][21][22] Historically, dhimmi status was originally applied to Jews, Christians, and Sabians. This status later also came to be applied to Zoroastrians, Hindus, Jains and Buddhists.[23][24][25] Moderate Muslims generally reject the dhimma system as inappropriate for the age of nation-states and democracies.[26] Judaism[edit] Thirty-one times In the Koran Jews
are referred to as "people of the book."[27] However before the rise of Islam, during Biblical times, Levitical scribes redacted and canonized of the book of books.[28] In the transition from what has been called "text to tradition," Efforts are made to try to reconstruct the archival repositories for these ancient textual collections in addition to sifrei Yichusin (genealogical texts).[29] The Babylonian Talmud Baba Batra 14b-14b describes the order of biblical books. Indeed Rashi himself comments on the mishnaic statement, " Moses
received the Torah
from Sinai" by noting since the text does not say "ha-torah" (the written torah) but Torah
(in general) this refers to both the written torah (24 books of the Old Testament) and the oral torah, which in Rabbinic theology are co-terminous[30], as suggested by Soloveitchik who notes a recent trend in the Artscroll generation to eclipse oral transmission with written translations. Scholars of antiquity and the early middle ages do know about the canonization process of the Tanakh[31] (the Hebrew Bible) and the redaction processes of the Talmudim and Midrashim.[32] Thus the interplay between written text and orality is essential in trying to reconstruct the textual collections of Jewish texts n the middle ages[33] and modernity.[34] Rabbinic tradition has demonstrated a reverence, respect, and love for sacred divinely revealed "text," both written and oral in the process of the chain of transmission (the masorah). Indeed the metaphor of the book is marshaled in Talmudic Tractate Rosh Hashanah, that on Rosh Hashanah the fate of each person for the year is written, on Yom Kippur sealed, and on Hoshanah Rabbah the angels of the heavenly court deliver the verdict to God's archive. The Hai Gaon in 998 in Pumbeditah comments, "Three possessions should you prize- a field, a friend, and a book." However the Hai Gaon mentions that a book is more reliable than even friends for sacred books span across time, indeed can express external ideas, that transcend time itself. The Spanish philosopher, physician, and poet Rabbi
Yehudah HaLevi writes of the importance of books by commenting, "My pen is my harp and my lyre, my library is my garden and orchard."[35] The Provencal scholar Rabbi
Yehudah ibn Tibbon (Adler recension) further elaborates on the importance of his library by commenting, "Make books your companions; let your bookshelves be your gardens: bask in their beauty, gather their fruit, pluck their roses, take their spices and myrrh. And when your soul be wary, change form one garden to garden, and from one prospect to prospect."[36] The Spanish statesman Rabbi
Shmuel ha-Nagid writes, "the wise of heart will abandon ease and pleasures for in his library he will find treasures."[37] Rabbi
ibn Daud writes in his sefer ha-qabbala about rabbi Shmuel ha-Nagid that he had sofrim who copied Mishnah and Talmudim, and he used to donated these commissioned core texts to students who could not afford to purchase them."[38] Rabbi
Yitzchak ben Yosef of Corbeil (ca 1280, France) in his Sefer Mitzvot Qatan composed in 1276 outlines a detailed strategy for the dissemination of his texts by asserting that every community should finance a copy of his halkhic code and keep it for public consultation.[39] Rabbi
Shimon ben Zemach Duran (Tashbaz) in his introduction to his halakhic code, Zohar HaRakiah, writes, "When the wise man lies down with his fathers he leaves behind him a treasured and organized blessing: books that enlighten like the brilliance of the firmament (Daniel 12:3) and that extend peace like an eternal flowing river (ISa 66:12)."[40] The love and reverence for Jewish books is seen in Jewish law. IT is not permissible for a sacred Jewish text to lie on the ground and if by accident a book is dropped to the floor it should be picked up and given a kiss. A Jewish book is not to be left open unless it is being read, nor is it to be held upside down.[41] It is not permitted to place a book of lesser sanctity on top of a book of higher holiness, so for example one must never place any book on top of the Tanakh. If one says to someone, "Please hand me this book," the book should be given with the right hand and not with the left hand."[42] If two men are walking and one who is carrying a sacred books should be given the courtesy of entering and leaving the room first, as the second is enjoined to pursue knowledge."[43] Rabbi
ibn Zimra of the 16th century comments that "if one buys a new book he should recite the benediction of the She-Heheyanu."[44] Christian
usage[edit] In the early Christian
experience the New Testament
New Testament
was added to the whole Old Testament, which after Jerome's translation tended more and more to be bound up as a single volume, and was accepted as a unified locus of authority: "the Book", as some contemporary authors refer to it.[7] Many Christian
missionaries in Africa, Asia and in the New World, developed writing systems for indigenous people and then provided them with a written translation of the Bible.[45][46] As a result of this work, "People of the Book" became the usual vernacular locution to refer to Christians
among many African, Asian, and Native American people of both hemispheres.[46] The work of organizations such as the Wycliffe Bible
Translators and the United Bible
Societies has resulted in Bibles being available in 2,100 languages. This fact has further promoted an identification with the phrase among Christians
themselves.[7] Christian
converts among evangelized cultures, in particular, have the strongest identification with the term "People of the Book". This arises because the first written text produced in their native language, as with the English-speaking peoples, has often been the Bible.[46] Many denominations, such as Baptists
and the Methodist Church, which are notable for their mission work,[47] have therefore embraced the term "People of the Book".[6][7] As stated on its official world website, the Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA) also embraces the term People of the Book.[48] As also noted in its official flagship publication Adventist World (February 2010 edition), it is claimed that prominent Islamic leaders have endorsed Seventh-day Adventists as the Qur'an's true People of the Book.[4] See also[edit]

and Judaism Christianity and Islam Pact of Umar II Islam
and other religions Divisions of the world in Islam

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Ahl al-Kitab". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ^ Kerry M. Olitzky, Ronald H. Isaacs (1992). A Glossary of Jewish Life. Jason Aronson. p. 217.  ^ David
Lyle Jeffrey. People of the Book: Christian
Identity and Literary Culture. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Though first intended pejoratively, "People of the Book" in Jewish tradition came to be accepted with pride as a legitimate reference to a culture and religious identity rooted fundamentally in Torah, the original book of the Law.  ^ a b http://archives.adventistworld.org/issue.php?issue=2010-1002&page=11 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.  ^ a b Dr. Andrea C. Paterson. Three Monotheistic Faiths - Judaism, Christianity, Islam: An Analysis And Brief History. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Baptists
are "people of the Book". The Bible
serves as a guide for faith and practice, instructing local churches and individual believers on faith, conduct, and polity. Scripture is also the final authority in determining faith and practice, and is the Word of God
which is revealed to the Church in order that God's people may know God's will.  ^ a b c d David
Lyle Jeffrey. People of the Book: Christian
Identity and Literary Culture. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Nor is it unusual that the badge should be worn proudly as one means of resisting further denigration: one need only think of Puritans, Methodists, Quakers, and Shakers. In fact, the first of these groups are foremost in the Christian
tradition who claimed the term in question, proud themselves to be in their own way identified as "a People of the Book". In the early Christian experience the New Testament
New Testament
was added to the whole Jewish "Tanakh" (an acronym from Torah, the Law, Nebi'im, the prophets, and Kethubim, the other canonical writings). This larger anthology, which after St. Jerome's translation tended more and more to be bound up as a single volume, had for those to whom the Christian
missionaries came bearing it all the import of a unified locus of authority: "the Book".  ^ a b c d e f Vajda, G (2012). "Ahl al-Kitāb". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1 (2nd ed.). Brill. p. 264. (Subscription required (help)). CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ a b c Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1973). Sufi Essays. State University of New York Press. p. 139. ISBN 0-87395-233-2.  ^ Desika Char, S. V. (1997). Hinduism
and Islam
in India: Caste, Religion, and Society from Antiquity to Early Modern Times. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 127. ISBN 1-55876-151-9.  ^ Alexander Berzin (2006). "The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire".  ^ a b Juan Eduardo Campo, ed. (2010-05-12). "dhimmi". Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 194–195. Dhimmis are non-Muslims who live within Islamdom and have a regulated and protected status. ... In the modern period, this term has generally has occasionally been resuscitated, but it is generally obsolete.  ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dhimmi ^ Clinton Bennett
Clinton Bennett
(2005). Muslims and Modernity: An Introduction to the Issues and Debates. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 163. ISBN 082645481X. Retrieved 2012-07-07.  ^ Glenn, H. Patrick (2007). Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press. pp. 218–219. A Dhimmi is a non- Muslim
subject of a state governed in accordance to sharia law. The term connotes an obligation of the state to protect the individual, including the individual's life, property, and freedom of religion and worship, and required loyalty to the empire, and a poll tax known as the jizya, which complemented the Islamic tax paid by the Muslim
subjects, called Zakat.  ^ H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 219. ^ The French scholar Gustave Le Bon (the author of La civilisation des Arabes) writes "that despite the fact that the incidence of taxation fell more heavily on a Muslim
than a non-Muslim, the non- Muslim
was free to enjoy equally well with every Muslim
all the privileges afforded to the citizens of the state. The only privilege that was reserved for the Muslims was the seat of the caliphate, and this, because of certain religious functions attached to it, which could not naturally be discharged y a non-Muslim." Mun'im Sirry (2014), Scriptural Polemics: The Qur'an and Other Religions, p.179. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199359363. ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam
from the Extremists. HarperOne. p. 204. ISBN 978-0061189036. According the dhimma status system, non-Muslims must pay a poll tax in return for Muslim
protection and the privilege of living in Muslim territory. Per this system, non-Muslims are exempt from military service, but they are excluded from occupying high positions that involve dealing with high state interests, like being the president or prime minister of the country. In Islamic history, non-Muslims did occupy high positions, especially in matters that related to fiscal policies or tax collection.  ^ Cohen, Mark R. (1995). Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews
in the Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. p. 74. ISBN 0-691-01082-X. Retrieved April 10, 2010.  ^ Al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveler (edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller), p. 608. Amana Publications, 1994. ^ Al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveler (ed. and trans. Nuh Ha Mim Keller), pp. 977, 986. Amana Publications, 1994. ^ Ghazi, Kalin & Kamali 2013, pp. 240–1. ^ Wael B. Hallaq (2009). Sharī'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 327.  ^ Annemarie Schimmel
Annemarie Schimmel
(2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. p. 107. ISBN 978-1861891853. The conqueror Muhammad Ibn Al Qasem gave both Hindus and Buddhists the same status as the Christians, Jews
and Sabaeans
the Middle East. They were all "dhimmi" ('protected people')  ^ Michael Bonner (2008). Jihad in Islamic History. Princeton University Press (Kindle edition). p. 89.  ^ "[…] the overwhelming majority of moderate Muslims reject the dhimma system as ahistorical, in the sense that it is inappropriate for the age of nation-states and democracies." Abou El Fadl, Khaled (January 23, 2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam
from the Extremists. HarperOne. p. 214. ISBN 978-0061189036.  ^ Albayrak,, Ishmael
(2008). "The People of the Book in the Qur'an". Islamic Studies. 47:3: 301–325.  ^ Halbertal, Moshe (1997). People of the book: canon, meaning, and authority. Harvard University Press.  ^ Levy, David
B (2001). "Ancient to Modern Jewish Classification Systems: A Historical Overview" (PDF).  ^ Soloveitchik, Haym (1994). "Rupture and Reconstruction:The Transformation of Contemporary Orthodoxy". Tradition: A Journal of Orthodox Jewish Thought. 28:4: 64–130.  ^ Lundberg,, Marilyn J (2013). "The Hebrew Bible
Canon" in The Book of Books. pp. 20–25.  ^ Schiffman, Lawrence (2013). "The Bible
in the Talmud and Midrash" in The Book of Books. pp. 36–39.  ^ Levy, David
(2013). "Jewish Archives and Libraries in the Middle Ages and the Medieval Educational Curriculum".  ^ Levy, David
(2016). "19th and 20th Century Scholarly Judaica Research Librarians, and Judaica Collections".  ^ Brodi, Hayim (1896–1930). Diyan: ve-hu sefer kolel kol shirei Yehudah ha-Levi.. im hagahot u-ve'urim ve-'im mavo me-et Hayim Brodi. Berlin: bi-derus Tsevi Hirsch b.R. Yitshak Ittskovski. pp. 166, line 37–8.  ^ Steinschneider, Moritz (1852). Ermahnungsschreiben des Jehudah ibn Tibbon. Berlin. pp. 6–12.  ^ Abraham, Israel (1926). Hebrew Ethical Wills. JPS. p. 64.  ^ Assaf, Simcha (1930–1954). Meḳorot le-toldot ha-ḥinukh be-Yiśraʼel. Tel-Aviv, Dvir. pp. vol 4, p. 17.  ^ Asaf, Simcha (1943). Be-ohole Yaʻaḳov : peraḳim me-ḥaye ha-tarbut shel ha-Yehudim bi-yeme ha-benayim. Yerushalayim : Mosad ha-Rav Ḳuḳ.  ^ Duran, Shimon. "Hebrewbooks.org Sefer Zohar Ha-Rakiah".  ^ Karo, Yosef. Shulchan Arukh:Yoreah Deah 277.  ^ Babylonian Talmud: Maseket Sofrim 83.  ^ Likutei Mahril 118.  ^ Goldman, Israel (1970). The Life and Times of Rabbi
ibn Zimra. New York : Jewish Theological Seminary of America. p. 32.  ^ Perry, Marvin; Chase, Myrna; Jacob, Margaret; Jacob, James; Daly, Jonathan W.; Von Laue, Theodore H. (2014). Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society. Volume II: Since 1600 (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. p. 635. ISBN 978-1-305-09142-9. LCCN 2014943347. OCLC 898154349. Retrieved 2016-02-01. In the nineteenth century, in contrast to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Europeans, except for missionaries, rarely adopted the customs or learned the languages of local people. They had little sense that other cultures and other peoples deserved respect. Many Westerners believed that it was their Christian
duty to set an example and to educate others. Missionaries were the first to meet and learn about many peoples and the first to develop writing for those without a written language. Christian
missionaries were ardently opposed to slavery....  ^ a b c David
Lyle Jeffrey. People of the Book: Christian
Identity and Literary Culture. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Retrieved 2007-10-18. "People of the Book" unsurprisingly translates many an early vernacular name for Christian
missionaries among African, Asian, and Native American people of both hemispheres. The fact that these missionaries put enormous effort into reducing the language of these people to writing so as to provide a written translation of the Bible - an activity which, under such organizations as the Wycliffe Bible Translators and the United Bible
Societies, has resulted in at least part of the Christian
now being available in 2,100 languages - has lent an identification with the phrase among evangelical Christians
in particular as strong as pertains among Jews. This identity comprises the Christian
converts among evangelized cultures, the more recently evangelized the more natural so, since for many of them, just as for the English-speaking people, the first written texts ever produced in their language have been a portion of the Bible.  ^ American Methodism. S.S. Scranton & Co. Retrieved 2007-10-18. But the most noticeable feature of British Methodism is its missionary spirit, and its organized, effective missionary work. It takes the lead of all other churches in missionary movements. From its origin, Methodism has been characterized for its zeal in propagandism. It has always been missionary.  ^ http://www.adventist.org/bible-study/index.html

Further reading[edit]

Boekhoff-van der Voort, Nicolet, "Ahl al-Kitab (People of the Book)", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God
(2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I, pp. 9–11. Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Non-Muslims in Muslim
societies, American Trust Publications, 1985 details many issues including what a dhimmi is, jizyah, rights, responsibilities, and more.

External links[edit]

"People of the Book". Oxford Bibliographies Online: Islamic Studies. The Books of the People of the Book at the US Library of Congress, Hebraic Collections

v t e

People and things in the Quran



Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr



The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah


Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')


‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)




Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)



Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)


Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)


People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier


Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad



Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi



Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
and Lot



Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)


(Hell) Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:


Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor




Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)



Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm


Al-Injîl (The Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)


Mā’ ( Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)


Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār


Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or r