People of the Book/Scripture (Arabic: أهل الكتاب ′Ahl
al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term referring to Jews, Christians, and
Sabians and sometimes applied to members of other religions such as
Zoroastrians. It is also used in
Judaism to refer to the Jewish
people and by members of some
Christian denominations to refer to
Quran uses the term in reference to Jews,
Christians and Sabians
in a variety of contexts, from religious polemics to passages
emphasizing community of faith between those who possess monotheistic
scriptures. The term was later extended to other religious communities
that fell under
Muslim rule, including even polytheistic Indians.
Historically, these communities were subject to the dhimma contract in
an Islamic state.
Judaism the term "People of the Book" (Hebrew: עם הספר, Am
HaSefer) has come to refer to the
Jewish people and the Torah.
Members of some
Christian denominations, such as the Baptists,
Methodists, Seventh-day Adventist Church, as well as Puritans
and Shakers, have embraced the term "People of the Book" in reference
1 In the Qur'an
2 Later Islamic usage
6 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
In the Qur'an
Quran the term "people of the book" refers to Jews, Christians,
and Sabians. The scriptures referred to in the
Quran are the Torah
Psalms (al-zabur) and the
Quran emphasizes the community of faith between possessors of
monotheistic scriptures, and occasionally pays tribute to the
religious and moral virtues of communities that have received earlier
revelations, calling on Muhammad to ask them for information. More
often, reflecting the refusal of
Christians in Muhammad's
environment to accept his message, the
Quran stresses their inability
to comprehend the message they possess but do not put into practice
and to appreciate that Muhammad's teaching fulfills that message.
People of the Book are also referenced in the jizya verse
(9:29), which has received varied interpretations.
Later Islamic usage
The use of the term was later extended to Zoroastrians, Samaritans,
Mandeans, and even polytheistic Indians.
Islamic scholars differ on whether Hindus are People of the Book.
Islamic conquest of India
Islamic conquest of India necessitated that the definition be
revised, as most India's inhabitants were followers of the Indian
religions. Many of the
Muslim clergy of India considered Hindus as
people of the book, and from
Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim to Aurangzeb,
Muslim rulers were willing to consider Hindus as people of the
book. Many Muslims did not treat Hindus as pagans or
Hinduism does not include Adam, Eve, nor
the various prophets of Abrahamic religions.
Buddhism does not explicitly recognize a monotheistic
God or the
concept of prophet-hood. Muslims however had at one point accorded
them the status of "people of the Book", and
Al-Biruni wrote of Buddha
as the prophet "Burxan".
Main article: Dhimmi
Dhimmi is a historical term referring to the status accorded to
People of the Book living in an Islamic state. The word literally
means "protected person." According to scholars, dhimmis had their
rights fully protected in their communities, but as citizens in the
Islamic state, had certain restrictions, and it was obligatory for
them to pay the jizya tax, which complemented the zakat, or alms, paid
Muslim subjects. Dhimmis were excluded from specific duties
assigned to Muslims, and did not enjoy certain political rights
reserved for Muslims, but were otherwise equal under the laws of
property, contract, and obligation.
Under sharia, the dhimmi communities were usually subjected to their
own special laws, rather than some of the laws which were applicable
only to the
Muslim community. For example, the Jewish community in
Medina was allowed to have its own Halakhic courts, and the
Ottoman millet system allowed its various dhimmi communities to rule
themselves under separate legal courts. These courts did not cover
cases that involved religious groups outside of their own community,
or capital offences.
Dhimmi communities were also allowed to engage in
certain practices that were usually forbidden for the Muslim
community, such as the consumption of alcohol and pork.
Historically, dhimmi status was originally applied to Jews,
Christians, and Sabians. This status later also came to be applied to
Zoroastrians, Hindus, Jains and Buddhists. Moderate
Muslims generally reject the dhimma system as inappropriate for the
age of nation-states and democracies.
Thirty-one times In the Koran
Jews are referred to as "people of the
book." However before the rise of Islam, during Biblical times,
Levitical scribes redacted and canonized of the book of books. In
the transition from what has been called "text to tradition," Efforts
are made to try to reconstruct the archival repositories for these
ancient textual collections in addition to sifrei Yichusin
(genealogical texts). The Babylonian Talmud Baba Batra 14b-14b
describes the order of biblical books. Indeed Rashi himself comments
on the mishnaic statement, "
Moses received the
Torah from Sinai" by
noting since the text does not say "ha-torah" (the written torah) but
Torah (in general) this refers to both the written torah (24 books of
the Old Testament) and the oral torah, which in Rabbinic theology are
co-terminous, as suggested by Soloveitchik who notes a recent
trend in the Artscroll generation to eclipse oral transmission with
written translations. Scholars of antiquity and the early middle ages
do know about the canonization process of the Tanakh (the Hebrew
Bible) and the redaction processes of the Talmudim and Midrashim.
Thus the interplay between written text and orality is essential in
trying to reconstruct the textual collections of Jewish texts n the
middle ages and modernity.
Rabbinic tradition has demonstrated a reverence, respect, and love for
sacred divinely revealed "text," both written and oral in the process
of the chain of transmission (the masorah). Indeed the metaphor of the
book is marshaled in Talmudic Tractate Rosh Hashanah, that on Rosh
Hashanah the fate of each person for the year is written, on Yom
Kippur sealed, and on Hoshanah Rabbah the angels of the heavenly court
deliver the verdict to God's archive.
The Hai Gaon in 998 in Pumbeditah comments, "Three possessions should
you prize- a field, a friend, and a book." However the Hai Gaon
mentions that a book is more reliable than even friends for sacred
books span across time, indeed can express external ideas, that
transcend time itself.
The Spanish philosopher, physician, and poet
Rabbi Yehudah HaLevi
writes of the importance of books by commenting, "My pen is my harp
and my lyre, my library is my garden and orchard."
The Provencal scholar
Rabbi Yehudah ibn Tibbon (Adler recension)
further elaborates on the importance of his library by commenting,
"Make books your companions; let your bookshelves be your gardens:
bask in their beauty, gather their fruit, pluck their roses, take
their spices and myrrh. And when your soul be wary, change form one
garden to garden, and from one prospect to prospect."
The Spanish statesman
Rabbi Shmuel ha-Nagid writes, "the wise of heart
will abandon ease and pleasures for in his library he will find
Abraham ibn Daud writes in his sefer ha-qabbala
about rabbi Shmuel ha-Nagid that he had sofrim who copied Mishnah and
Talmudim, and he used to donated these commissioned core texts to
students who could not afford to purchase them."
Rabbi Yitzchak ben Yosef of Corbeil (ca 1280, France) in his Sefer
Mitzvot Qatan composed in 1276 outlines a detailed strategy for the
dissemination of his texts by asserting that every community should
finance a copy of his halkhic code and keep it for public
Rabbi Shimon ben Zemach Duran (Tashbaz) in his introduction to his
halakhic code, Zohar HaRakiah, writes, "When the wise man lies down
with his fathers he leaves behind him a treasured and organized
blessing: books that enlighten like the brilliance of the firmament
(Daniel 12:3) and that extend peace like an eternal flowing river (ISa
The love and reverence for Jewish books is seen in Jewish law. IT is
not permissible for a sacred Jewish text to lie on the ground and if
by accident a book is dropped to the floor it should be picked up and
given a kiss. A Jewish book is not to be left open unless it is being
read, nor is it to be held upside down. It is not permitted to
place a book of lesser sanctity on top of a book of higher holiness,
so for example one must never place any book on top of the Tanakh. If
one says to someone, "Please hand me this book," the book should be
given with the right hand and not with the left hand." If two men
are walking and one who is carrying a sacred books should be given the
courtesy of entering and leaving the room first, as the second is
enjoined to pursue knowledge."
David ibn Zimra of the 16th
century comments that "if one buys a new book he should recite the
benediction of the She-Heheyanu."
In the early
Christian experience the
New Testament was added to the
whole Old Testament, which after Jerome's translation tended more and
more to be bound up as a single volume, and was accepted as a unified
locus of authority: "the Book", as some contemporary authors refer to
Christian missionaries in Africa, Asia and in the New
World, developed writing systems for indigenous people and then
provided them with a written translation of the Bible. As a
result of this work, "People of the Book" became the usual vernacular
locution to refer to
Christians among many African, Asian, and Native
American people of both hemispheres. The work of organizations
such as the Wycliffe
Bible Translators and the United
has resulted in Bibles being available in 2,100 languages. This fact
has further promoted an identification with the phrase among
Christian converts among evangelized
cultures, in particular, have the strongest identification with the
term "People of the Book". This arises because the first written text
produced in their native language, as with the English-speaking
peoples, has often been the Bible. Many denominations, such as
Baptists and the Methodist Church, which are notable for their mission
work, have therefore embraced the term "People of the Book".
As stated on its official world website, the Seventh-day Adventist
Church (SDA) also embraces the term People of the Book. As also
noted in its official flagship publication Adventist World (February
2010 edition), it is claimed that prominent Islamic leaders have
endorsed Seventh-day Adventists as the Qur'an's true People of the
Islam and Judaism
Christianity and Islam
Pact of Umar II
Islam and other religions
Divisions of the world in Islam
^ a b John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Ahl al-Kitab". The Oxford
Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
^ Kerry M. Olitzky, Ronald H. Isaacs (1992). A Glossary of Jewish
Life. Jason Aronson. p. 217.
David Lyle Jeffrey. People of the Book:
Christian Identity and
Literary Culture. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Retrieved
2007-10-18. Though first intended pejoratively, "People of the Book"
in Jewish tradition came to be accepted with pride as a legitimate
reference to a culture and religious identity rooted fundamentally in
Torah, the original book of the Law.
^ a b
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 June 2011.
Retrieved 23 July 2011.
^ a b Dr. Andrea C. Paterson. Three Monotheistic Faiths - Judaism,
Christianity, Islam: An Analysis And Brief History. Retrieved
Baptists are "people of the Book". The
Bible serves as a
guide for faith and practice, instructing local churches and
individual believers on faith, conduct, and polity. Scripture is also
the final authority in determining faith and practice, and is the Word
God which is revealed to the Church in order that God's people may
know God's will.
^ a b c d
David Lyle Jeffrey. People of the Book:
and Literary Culture. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Retrieved 2007-10-18. Nor is it unusual that the badge should be worn
proudly as one means of resisting further denigration: one need only
think of Puritans, Methodists, Quakers, and Shakers. In fact, the
first of these groups are foremost in the
Christian tradition who
claimed the term in question, proud themselves to be in their own way
identified as "a People of the Book". In the early Christian
New Testament was added to the whole Jewish "Tanakh"
(an acronym from Torah, the Law, Nebi'im, the prophets, and Kethubim,
the other canonical writings). This larger anthology, which after St.
Jerome's translation tended more and more to be bound up as a single
volume, had for those to whom the
Christian missionaries came bearing
it all the import of a unified locus of authority: "the Book".
^ a b c d e f Vajda, G (2012). "Ahl al-Kitāb". In P. Bearman, Th.
Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia
of Islam. 1 (2nd ed.). Brill. p. 264. (Subscription required
(help)). CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
^ a b c Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1973). Sufi Essays. State University of
New York Press. p. 139. ISBN 0-87395-233-2.
^ Desika Char, S. V. (1997).
Islam in India: Caste,
Religion, and Society from Antiquity to Early Modern Times. Markus
Wiener Publishers. p. 127. ISBN 1-55876-151-9.
^ Alexander Berzin (2006). "The Historical Interaction between the
Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire".
^ a b Juan Eduardo Campo, ed. (2010-05-12). "dhimmi". Encyclopedia of
Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 194–195. Dhimmis are
non-Muslims who live within Islamdom and have a regulated and
protected status. ... In the modern period, this term has generally
has occasionally been resuscitated, but it is generally
Clinton Bennett (2005). Muslims and Modernity: An Introduction to
the Issues and Debates. Continuum International Publishing Group.
p. 163. ISBN 082645481X. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
^ Glenn, H. Patrick (2007). Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford
University Press. pp. 218–219. A
Dhimmi is a non-
of a state governed in accordance to sharia law. The term connotes an
obligation of the state to protect the individual, including the
individual's life, property, and freedom of religion and worship, and
required loyalty to the empire, and a poll tax known as the jizya,
which complemented the Islamic tax paid by the
Muslim subjects, called
^ H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University
Press, 2007, p. 219.
^ The French scholar Gustave Le Bon (the author of La civilisation des
Arabes) writes "that despite the fact that the incidence of taxation
fell more heavily on a
Muslim than a non-Muslim, the non-
free to enjoy equally well with every
Muslim all the privileges
afforded to the citizens of the state. The only privilege that was
reserved for the Muslims was the seat of the caliphate, and this,
because of certain religious functions attached to it, which could not
naturally be discharged y a non-Muslim." Mun'im Sirry (2014),
Scriptural Polemics: The Qur'an and Other Religions, p.179. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 978-0199359363.
^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling
the Extremists. HarperOne. p. 204. ISBN 978-0061189036.
According the dhimma status system, non-Muslims must pay a poll tax in
Muslim protection and the privilege of living in Muslim
territory. Per this system, non-Muslims are exempt from military
service, but they are excluded from occupying high positions that
involve dealing with high state interests, like being the president or
prime minister of the country. In Islamic history, non-Muslims did
occupy high positions, especially in matters that related to fiscal
policies or tax collection.
^ Cohen, Mark R. (1995). Under Crescent and Cross: The
Jews in the
Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. p. 74.
ISBN 0-691-01082-X. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
^ Al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveler (edited and translated by Nuh Ha
Mim Keller), p. 608. Amana Publications, 1994.
^ Al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveler (ed. and trans. Nuh Ha Mim
Keller), pp. 977, 986. Amana Publications, 1994.
^ Ghazi, Kalin & Kamali 2013, pp. 240–1.
^ Wael B. Hallaq (2009). Sharī'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations.
Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 327.
Annemarie Schimmel (2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History,
Art and Culture. p. 107. ISBN 978-1861891853. The conqueror
Muhammad Ibn Al Qasem gave both Hindus and Buddhists the same status
as the Christians,
Sabaeans the Middle East. They were all
"dhimmi" ('protected people')
^ Michael Bonner (2008). Jihad in Islamic History. Princeton
University Press (Kindle edition). p. 89.
^ "[…] the overwhelming majority of moderate Muslims reject the
dhimma system as ahistorical, in the sense that it is inappropriate
for the age of nation-states and democracies." Abou El Fadl, Khaled
(January 23, 2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling
Islam from the
Extremists. HarperOne. p. 214. ISBN 978-0061189036.
Ishmael (2008). "The
People of the Book in the Qur'an".
Islamic Studies. 47:3: 301–325.
^ Halbertal, Moshe (1997). People of the book: canon, meaning, and
authority. Harvard University Press.
David B (2001). "Ancient to Modern Jewish Classification
Systems: A Historical Overview" (PDF).
^ Soloveitchik, Haym (1994). "Rupture and Reconstruction:The
Transformation of Contemporary Orthodoxy". Tradition: A Journal of
Orthodox Jewish Thought. 28:4: 64–130.
^ Lundberg,, Marilyn J (2013). "The Hebrew
Bible Canon" in The Book of
Books. pp. 20–25.
^ Schiffman, Lawrence (2013). "The
Bible in the Talmud and Midrash" in
The Book of Books. pp. 36–39.
David (2013). "Jewish Archives and Libraries in the Middle
Ages and the Medieval Educational Curriculum".
David (2016). "19th and 20th Century Scholarly Judaica
Research Librarians, and Judaica Collections".
^ Brodi, Hayim (1896–1930). Diyan: ve-hu sefer kolel kol shirei
Yehudah ha-Levi.. im hagahot u-ve'urim ve-'im mavo me-et Hayim Brodi.
Berlin: bi-derus Tsevi Hirsch b.R. Yitshak Ittskovski. pp. 166,
^ Steinschneider, Moritz (1852). Ermahnungsschreiben des Jehudah ibn
Tibbon. Berlin. pp. 6–12.
^ Abraham, Israel (1926). Hebrew Ethical Wills. JPS. p. 64.
^ Assaf, Simcha (1930–1954). Meḳorot le-toldot ha-ḥinukh
be-Yiśraʼel. Tel-Aviv, Dvir. pp. vol 4, p. 17.
^ Asaf, Simcha (1943). Be-ohole Yaʻaḳov : peraḳim me-ḥaye
ha-tarbut shel ha-Yehudim bi-yeme ha-benayim. Yerushalayim :
Mosad ha-Rav Ḳuḳ.
^ Duran, Shimon. "Hebrewbooks.org Sefer Zohar Ha-Rakiah".
^ Karo, Yosef. Shulchan Arukh:Yoreah Deah 277.
^ Babylonian Talmud: Maseket Sofrim 83.
^ Likutei Mahril 118.
^ Goldman, Israel (1970). The Life and Times of
David ibn Zimra.
New York : Jewish Theological Seminary of America.
^ Perry, Marvin; Chase, Myrna; Jacob, Margaret; Jacob, James; Daly,
Jonathan W.; Von Laue, Theodore H. (2014). Western Civilization:
Ideas, Politics, and Society. Volume II: Since 1600 (11th ed.).
Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. p. 635.
ISBN 978-1-305-09142-9. LCCN 2014943347.
OCLC 898154349. Retrieved 2016-02-01. In the nineteenth century,
in contrast to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Europeans,
except for missionaries, rarely adopted the customs or learned the
languages of local people. They had little sense that other cultures
and other peoples deserved respect. Many Westerners believed that it
Christian duty to set an example and to educate others.
Missionaries were the first to meet and learn about many peoples and
the first to develop writing for those without a written language.
Christian missionaries were ardently opposed to slavery....
^ a b c
David Lyle Jeffrey. People of the Book:
Christian Identity and
Literary Culture. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Retrieved
2007-10-18. "People of the Book" unsurprisingly translates many an
early vernacular name for
Christian missionaries among African, Asian,
and Native American people of both hemispheres. The fact that these
missionaries put enormous effort into reducing the language of these
people to writing so as to provide a written translation of the Bible
- an activity which, under such organizations as the Wycliffe Bible
Translators and the United
Bible Societies, has resulted in at least
part of the
Bible now being available in 2,100 languages -
has lent an identification with the phrase among evangelical
Christians in particular as strong as pertains among Jews. This
identity comprises the
Christian converts among evangelized cultures,
the more recently evangelized the more natural so, since for many of
them, just as for the English-speaking people, the first written texts
ever produced in their language have been a portion of the
^ American Methodism. S.S. Scranton & Co. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
But the most noticeable feature of British Methodism is its missionary
spirit, and its organized, effective missionary work. It takes the
lead of all other churches in missionary movements. From its origin,
Methodism has been characterized for its zeal in propagandism. It has
always been missionary.
Boekhoff-van der Voort, Nicolet, "Ahl al-Kitab (People of the Book)",
in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the
God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker,
Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I, pp. 9–11.
Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Non-Muslims in
Muslim societies, American Trust
Publications, 1985 details many issues including what a dhimmi is,
jizyah, rights, responsibilities, and more.
"People of the Book". Oxford Bibliographies Online: Islamic Studies.
The Books of the
People of the Book at the US Library of Congress,
People and things in the Quran
Allâh ("The God")
Allah found in the Quran
Beings in Paradise
Ghilmān or Wildān
The baqarah (cow) of Israelites
The dhi’b (wolf) that
Jacob feared could attack Joseph
The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians)
Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey)
The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon
The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave
The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh
The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah
Ḥimār (Wild ass)
Qaswarah ('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')
‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one")
Mârid ("Rebellious one")
Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)
‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam)
Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise)
Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?)
Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd (
Solomon son of David)
Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā (
John the Baptist
John the Baptist the son of Zechariah)
Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the
Fish (or Whale)" or "Owner of the
Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")
Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb (
Joseph son of Jacob)
Other names and titles of Muhammad
Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah)
Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)
Mūsā Kalīmullāh (
Moses He who spoke to God)
Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh (
Abraham Friend of God)
Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?)
Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)
Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)
People of Prophets
Āzar (possibly Terah)
Pharaoh of Moses' time)
Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses)
Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)
Adam's immediate relatives
Believer of Ya-Sin
Family of Noah
Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos
People of Aaron and Moses
Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura)
Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah)
Magicians of the Pharaoh
People of Abraham
Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo
People of Jesus
Disciples (including Peter)
People of Joseph
Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon)
‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin)
Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd))
Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)
People of Solomon
Queen of Sheba
Implied or not specified
Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua
Rahmah the wife of Ayyub
People of Paradise
People of the Burnt Garden
Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath)
Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)
Companions of Noah's Ark
Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim?
Companions of the Elephant
People of al-Ukhdūd
People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin
People of Yathrib or Medina
Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah)
Nation of Noah
Tribes, ethnicities or families
A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)
ʿĀd (people of Hud)
Companions of the Rass
Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')
People of Saba’ or Sheba
Thamûd (people of Saleh)
Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")
Rûm (literally "The Romans")
Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel)
Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah)
People of Ibrahim
People of Ilyas
People of Nuh
People of Shuaib
Ahl Madyan People of Madyan)
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah ("Companions of the Wood")
Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah)
Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog
Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")
Household of Abraham
Brothers of Yūsuf
Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.)
Progeny of Imran
Household of Moses
Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim
Daughters of Muhammad
Wives of Muhammad
Household of Salih
People of Fir'aun
Current Ummah of
Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)
Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)
Anṣār Muslims of
Medina who helped Muhammad and his Meccan
followers, literally 'Helpers')
People of Mecca
Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)
Children of Ayyub
Dead son of Sulaiman
Qabil/Cain (son of Adam)
Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh)
Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut)
Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog)
Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)
Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah)
Aus & Khazraj
People of Quba
Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi)
People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)
Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)
Ahbār (Jewish scholars)
Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad
Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of
Abraham and Lot
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah ("The Land The Blessed")
Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")
Arabian Peninsula (excluding Madyan)
Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")
Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)
Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib)
Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham)
Safa and Marwah
‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)
Jannah (Paradise, literally 'Garden')
Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")
Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)
Door of Hittah
Miṣr (Mainland Egypt)
Salsabîl (A river in Paradise)
Sinai Region or Tīh Desert
Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)
Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of
Tuwa and Mount Sinai)
Mount Sinai or Mount Tabor
Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn
Bayt al-Muqaddas & 'Ariha
Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia)
Cave of Seven Sleepers
Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")
Black Stone (Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il
Hira & Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull)
Paradise of Shaddad
Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām ("The Monument the Sacred")
Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The
Place-of-Prostration The Farthest")
Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred
Mosque of Mecca)
Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly:
Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque)
The Prophet's Mosque
Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk)
Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba)
Forbidden fruit of Adam
Bushes, trees or plants
Plants of Sheba
Līnah (Tender palm tree)
Nakhl (date palm)
Rayḥān (Scented plant)
Gospel of Jesus)
Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad)
Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham)
Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)
Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses)
Tablets of Stone
Psalms of David)
Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")
Objects of people or beings
Heavenly Food of
Staff of Musa
Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah)
Throne of Bilqis
Trumpet of Israfil
Idols of Israelites:
The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites
Idols of Noah's people:
Idols of Quraysh:
Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ
Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):
Al-Qamar (The Moon)
Al-Arḍ (The Earth)
Ash-Shams (The Sun)
Water or fluid)
River or sea)
Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates")
Battle of Badr
Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Khaybar
Battle of Tabouk
Battle of Uhud
Conquest of Mecca
Incident of Ifk
Sayl al-‘Arim (Flood of the Great Dam of
Marib in Sheba)
The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage (Hujja al-Wada')
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Event of Ghadir Khumm
Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name
/ Biblical name (title or r