Pentecostalism or Classical
Pentecostalism is a renewal movement
Christianity that places special emphasis on a
direct personal experience of God through the baptism with the Holy
Spirit. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek name
Jewish Feast of Weeks. For Christians, this event commemorates
the descent of the Holy
Spirit upon the followers of
Jesus Christ, as
described in the second chapter of the Book of Acts.
Like other forms of evangelical Protestantism,
to the inerrancy of the
Bible and the necessity of accepting Jesus
Christ as personal Lord and Savior. It is distinguished by belief in
the baptism in the Holy
Spirit that enables a Christian to live a
Spirit-filled and empowered life. This empowerment includes the use of
spiritual gifts such as speaking in tongues and divine healing—two
other defining characteristics of Pentecostalism. Because of their
commitment to biblical authority, spiritual gifts, and the miraculous,
Pentecostals tend to see their movement as reflecting the same kind of
spiritual power and teachings that were found in the
Apostolic Age of
the early church. For this reason, some Pentecostals also use the term
Full Gospel to describe their movement.
Pentecostalism emerged in the early 20th century among radical
adherents of the
Holiness movement who were energized by revivalism
and expectation for the imminent
Second Coming of Christ. Believing
that they were living in the end times, they expected God to
spiritually renew the
Christian Church thereby bringing to pass the
restoration of spiritual gifts and the evangelization of the world. In
1900, Charles Parham, an American evangelist and faith healer, began
teaching that speaking in tongues was the
Bible evidence of Spirit
baptism. The three-year-long Azusa Street Revival, founded and led by
William J. Seymour
William J. Seymour in Los Angeles, California, resulted in the spread
Pentecostalism throughout the United States and the rest of the
world as visitors carried the Pentecostal experience back to their
home churches or felt called to the mission field. While virtually all
Pentecostal denominations trace their origins to Azusa Street, the
movement has experienced a variety of divisions and controversies. An
early dispute centered on challenges to the doctrine of the Trinity.
As a result, the Pentecostal movement is divided between trinitarian
and non-trinitarian branches, resulting in the emergence of Oneness
Comprising over 700 denominations and a large number of independent
churches, there is no central authority governing Pentecostalism;
however, many denominations are affiliated with the Pentecostal World
Fellowship. There are over 279 million Pentecostals worldwide, and the
movement is growing in many parts of the world, especially the global
South. Since the 1960s,
Pentecostalism has increasingly gained
acceptance from other Christian traditions, and Pentecostal beliefs
Spirit baptism and spiritual gifts have been embraced by
non-Pentecostal Christians in
Protestant and Catholic churches through
the Charismatic Movement. Together, Pentecostal and Charismatic
Christianity numbers over 500 million adherents.
Baptism with the Holy Spirit
1.3 Divine healing
1.5 Spiritual gifts
1.5.1 Vocal gifts
Word of wisdom
Word of wisdom and word of knowledge
18.104.22.168 Tongues and interpretation
1.5.2 Power gifts
1.6 Oneness and Trinitarianism
3 Statistics and denominations
3.1 National and regional movements
4.2 Early revivals: 1900–29
4.2.1 Spread and opposition
4.2.2 Zora Neale Hurston's Anthropological Study
4.2.3 Early controversies
6 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
A Pentecostal church in Jyväskylä, Finland
Pentecostalism is an evangelical faith, emphasizing the reliability of
Bible and the need for the transformation of an individual's life
through faith in Jesus. Like other evangelicals, Pentecostals
generally adhere to the Bible's divine inspiration and inerrancy—the
belief that the Bible, in the original manuscripts in which it was
written, is infallible. Pentecostals emphasize the teaching of the
"full gospel" or "foursquare gospel". The term foursquare refers to
the four fundamental beliefs of Pentecostalism:
Jesus saves according
to John 3:16; baptizes with the Holy
Spirit according to
heals bodily according to James 5:15; and is coming again to receive
those who are saved according to
1 Thessalonians 4:16–17.
A Pentecostal congregation in Brazil
Main article: Christian soteriology
The central belief of classical
Pentecostalism is that through the
death, burial, and resurrection of
Jesus Christ, sins can be forgiven
and humanity reconciled with God. This is the
Gospel or "good
news". The fundamental requirement of
Pentecostalism is that one be
born again. The new birth is received by the grace of God through
faith in Christ as Lord and Savior. In being born again, the
believer is regenerated, justified, adopted into the family of God,
and the Holy Spirit's work of sanctification is initiated.
Classical Pentecostal soteriology is generally
Arminian rather than
Calvinist. The security of the believer is a doctrine held within
Pentecostalism; nevertheless, this security is conditional upon
continual faith and repentance. Pentecostals believe in both a
literal heaven and hell, the former for those who have accepted God's
gift of salvation and the latter for those who have rejected it.
For most Pentecostals there is no other requirement to receive
Baptism with the Holy Spirit
Baptism with the Holy Spirit and speaking in tongues are
not generally required, though Pentecostal converts are usually
encouraged to seek these experiences. A notable exception
is Jesus' Name Pentecostalism, most adherents of which believe both
water baptism and
Spirit baptism are integral components of salvation.
Baptism with the Holy Spirit
Baptism with the Holy Spirit
Further information: Second work of grace
Pentecostals identify three distinct uses of the word "baptism" in the
Baptism into the body of Christ: This refers to salvation. Every
believer in Christ is made a part of his body, the Church, through
baptism. The Holy
Spirit is the agent, and the body of Christ is the
Water baptism: Symbolic of dying to the world and living in Christ,
water baptism is an outward symbol of that which has already been
accomplished by the Holy Spirit, namely baptism into the body of
Baptism with the Holy Spirit: This is an experience distinct from
baptism into the body of Christ. In this baptism, Christ is the agent
and the Holy
Spirit is the medium.
While the figure of
Jesus Christ and his redemptive work are at the
center of Pentecostal theology, that redemptive work is believed to
provide for a fullness of the Holy
Spirit of which believers in Christ
may take advantage. The majority of Pentecostals believe that at
the moment a person is born again, the new believer has the presence
(indwelling) of the Holy Spirit. While the
Spirit dwells in every
Christian, Pentecostals believe that all Christians should seek to be
filled with him. The Spirit's "filling", "falling upon", "coming
upon", or being "poured out upon" believers is called the baptism with
the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals define it as a definite experience
occurring after salvation whereby the Holy
Spirit comes upon the
believer to anoint and empower him or her for special service.
It has also been described as "a baptism into the love of God".
The main purpose of the experience is to grant power for Christian
service. Other purposes include power for spiritual warfare (the
Christian struggles against spiritual enemies and thus requires
spiritual power), power for overflow (the believer's experience of the
presence and power of God in his or her life flows out into the lives
of others), and power for ability (to follow divine direction, to face
persecution, to exercise spiritual gifts for the edification of the
Pentecostals believe that the baptism with the Holy
available to all Christians.
Repentance from sin and being born
again are fundamental requirements to receive it. There must also be
in the believer a deep conviction of needing more of God in his or her
life, and a measure of consecration by which the believer yields
himself or herself to the will of God. Citing instances in the Book of
Acts where believers were
Spirit baptized before they were baptized
with water, most Pentecostals believe a Christian need not have been
baptized in water to receive
Spirit baptism. However, Pentecostals do
believe that the biblical pattern is "repentance, regeneration, water
baptism, and then the baptism with the Holy Ghost". There are
Pentecostal believers who have claimed to receive their baptism with
Spirit while being water baptized.
It is received by having faith in God's promise to fill the believer
and in yielding the entire being to Christ. Certain conditions, if
present in a believer's life, could cause delay in receiving Spirit
baptism, such as "weak faith, unholy living, imperfect consecration,
and egocentric motives". In the absence of these, Pentecostals
teach that seekers should maintain a persistent faith in the knowledge
that God will fulfill his promise. For Pentecostals, there is no
prescribed manner in which a believer will be filled with the Spirit.
It could be expected or unexpected, during public or private
Pentecostals expect certain results following baptism with the Holy
Spirit. Some of these are immediate while others are enduring or
permanent. Most Pentecostal denominations teach that speaking in
tongues is an immediate or initial physical evidence that one has
received the experience. Some teach that any of the gifts of the
Spirit can be evidence of having received
Spirit baptism. Other
immediate evidences include giving God praise, having joy, and
desiring to testify about Jesus. Enduring or permanent results in
the believer's life include Christ glorified and revealed in a greater
way, a "deeper passion for souls", greater power to witness to
nonbelievers, a more effective prayer life, greater love for and
insight into the Bible, and the manifestation of the gifts of the
While the baptism with the Holy
Spirit is a definite experience in a
believer's life, Pentecostals view it as just the beginning of living
a Spirit-filled life. Pentecostal teaching stresses the importance of
continually being filled with the Spirit. There is only one baptism
with the Spirit, but there should be many infillings with the Spirit
throughout the believer's life.
Further information: Divine healing
Pentecostalism is a holistic faith, and the belief that
Healer is one quarter of the full gospel. Pentecostals cite four major
reasons for believing in divine healing: 1) it is reported in the
Bible, 2) Jesus' healing ministry is included in his atonement (thus
divine healing is part of salvation), 3) "the whole gospel is for the
whole person"—spirit, soul, and body, 4) sickness is a consequence
Fall of Man
Fall of Man and salvation is ultimately the restoration of the
fallen world. In the words of Pentecostal scholar Vernon L. Purdy,
"Because sin leads to human suffering, it was only natural for the
Early Church to understand the ministry of Christ as the alleviation
of human suffering, since he was God's answer to sin ... The
restoration of fellowship with God is the most important thing, but
this restoration not only results in spiritual healing but many times
in physical healing as well." In the book In Pursuit of Wholeness:
Salvation for the Total Person, Pentecostal writer
and Church historian Wilfred Graves, Jr. describes the healing of the
body as a physical expression of salvation.
For Pentecostals, spiritual and physical healing serves as a reminder
and testimony to Christ's future return when his people will be
completely delivered from all the consequences of the fall.
However, not everyone receives healing when they pray. It is God in
his sovereign wisdom who either grants or withholds healing. Common
reasons that are given in answer to the question as to why all are not
healed include: God teaches through suffering, healing is not always
immediate, lack of faith on the part of the person needing healing,
and personal sin in one's life (however, this does not mean that all
illness is caused by personal sin). Regarding healing and prayer
On the other hand, it appears from Scripture that when we are sick we
should be prayed for, and as we shall see later in this chapter, it
appears that God's normal will is to heal. Instead of expecting that
it is not God's will to heal us, we should pray with faith, trusting
that God cares for us and that the provision He has made in Christ for
our healing is sufficient. If He does not heal us, we will continue to
trust Him. The victory many times will be procured in faith (see Heb.
10:35–36; 1 John 5:4–5).
Pentecostals believe that prayer is central in receiving healing.
Pentecostals look to scriptures such as James 5:13–16 for direction
regarding healing prayer. One can pray for one's own healing
(verse 13) and for the healing of others (verse 16); no special gift
or clerical status is necessary. Verses 14–16 supply the framework
for congregational healing prayer. The sick person expresses his or
her faith by calling for the elders of the church who pray over and
anoint the sick with olive oil. The oil is a symbol of the Holy
Besides prayer, there are other ways in which Pentecostals believe
healing can be received. One way is based on Mark 16:17–18 and
involves believers laying hands on the sick. This is done in imitation
Jesus who often healed in this manner. Another method that is
found in some Pentecostal churches is based on the account in Acts
19:11–12 where people were healed when given handkerchiefs or aprons
worn by the Apostle Paul. This practice is described by Duffield and
Van Cleave in Foundations of Pentecostal Theology:
Many Churches have followed a similar pattern and have given out small
pieces of cloth over which prayer has been made, and sometimes they
have been anointed with oil. Some most remarkable miracles have been
reported from the use of this method. It is understood that the prayer
cloth has no virtue in itself, but provides an act of faith by which
one's attention is directed to the Lord, who is the Great
During the initial decades of the movement, Pentecostals thought it
was sinful to take medicine or receive care from doctors. Over
time, Pentecostals moderated their views concerning medicine and
doctor visits; however, a minority of Pentecostal churches continues
to rely exclusively on prayer and divine healing. For example, doctors
in the United Kingdom reported that a minority of Pentecostal HIV
patients was encouraged to stop taking their medicines and parents
were told to stop giving medicine to their children, trends that
placed lives at risk.
Further information: Christian eschatology
The last element of the gospel is that
Jesus is the "Soon Coming
King". For Pentecostals, "every moment is eschatological" since at any
time Christ may return. This "personal and imminent" Second Coming
is for Pentecostals the motivation for practical Christian living
including: personal holiness, meeting together for worship, faithful
Christian service, and evangelism (both personal and worldwide).
Many, if not the majority, of Pentecostals are premillennial
dispensationalists believing in a pretribulation rapture.
Dispensationalism, Futurism. Pre-tribulation rapture theology was
popularized extensively in the 1830s by John Nelson Darby, and
further popularized in the United States in the early 20th century by
the wide circulation of the Scofield Reference Bible.
Main article: Spiritual gifts
Pentecostals are continuationists, meaning they believe that all of
the spiritual gifts, including the miraculous or "sign gifts", found
in 1 Corinthians 12:4–11, 12:27–31, Romans 12:3–8, and Ephesians
4:7–16 continue to operate within the Church in the present
time. Pentecostals place the gifts of the
Spirit in context with
the fruit of the Spirit. The fruit of the
Spirit is the result of
the new birth and continuing to abide in Christ. It is by the fruit
exhibited that spiritual character is assessed.
Spiritual gifts are
received as a result of the baptism with the Holy Spirit. As gifts
freely given by the Holy Spirit, they cannot be earned or merited, and
they are not appropriate criteria with which to evaluate one's
spiritual life or maturity. Pentecostals see in the biblical
writings of Paul an emphasis on having both character and power,
exercising the gifts in love.
Just as fruit should be evident in the life of every Christian,
Pentecostals believe that every Spirit-filled believer is given some
capacity for the manifestation of the Spirit. It is important to
note that the exercise of a gift is a manifestation of the Spirit, not
of the gifted person, and though the gifts operate through people,
they are primarily gifts given to the Church. They are valuable
only when they minister spiritual profit and edification to the body
of Christ. Pentecostal writers point out that the lists of spiritual
gifts in the
New Testament do not seem to be exhaustive. It is
generally believed that there are as many gifts as there are useful
ministries and functions in the Church. A spiritual gift is often
exercised in partnership with another gift. For example, in a
Pentecostal church service, the gift of tongues might be exercised
followed by the operation of the gift of interpretation.
According to Pentecostals, all manifestations of the
Spirit are to be
judged by the church. This is made possible, in part, by the gift of
discerning of spirits, which is the capacity for discerning the source
of a spiritual manifestation—whether from the Holy Spirit, an evil
spirit, or from the human spirit. While Pentecostals believe in
the current operation of all the spiritual gifts within the church,
their teaching on some of these gifts has generated more controversy
and interest than others. There are different ways in which the gifts
have been grouped. W. R. Jones suggests three categories,
illumination (Word of Wisdom, word of knowledge, discerning of
spirits), action (Faith, working of miracles and gifts of healings)
and communication (Prophecy, tongues and interpretation of tongues).
Duffield and Van Cleave use two categories: the vocal and the power
The gifts of prophecy, tongues, interpretation of tongues, and words
of wisdom and knowledge are called the vocal gifts. Pentecostals
look to 1 Corinthians 14 for instructions on the proper use of the
spiritual gifts, especially the vocal ones. Pentecostals believe that
prophecy is the vocal gift of preference, a view derived from 1
Corinthians 14. Some teach that the gift of tongues is equal to the
gift of prophecy when tongues are interpreted. Prophetic and
glossolalic utterances are not to replace the preaching of the Word of
God  nor to be considered as equal to or superseding the written
Word of God, which is the final authority for determining teaching and
Word of wisdom
Word of wisdom and word of knowledge
Word of wisdom
Word of wisdom and Word of knowledge
Pentecostals understand the word of wisdom and the word of knowledge
to be supernatural revelations of wisdom and knowledge by the Holy
Spirit. The word of wisdom is defined as a revelation of the Holy
Spirit that applies scriptural wisdom to a specific situation that a
Christian community faces. The word of knowledge is often defined
as the ability of one person to know what God is currently doing or
intends to do in the life of another person.
Main article: Prophecy
Pentecostals agree with the
Protestant principle of sola Scriptura.
Bible is the "all sufficient rule for faith and practice"; it is
"fixed, finished, and objective revelation". Alongside this high
regard for the authority of scripture is a belief that the gift of
prophecy continues to operate within the Church. Pentecostal
theologians Duffield and van Cleave described the gift of prophecy in
the following manner: "Normally, in the operation of the gift of
Spirit heavily anoints the believer to speak forth to
the body not premeditated words, but words the
spontaneously in order to uplift and encourage, incite to faithful
obedience and service, and to bring comfort and consolation."
Any Spirit-filled Christian, according to Pentecostal theology, has
the potential, as with all the gifts, to prophesy. Sometimes, prophecy
can overlap with preaching "where great unpremeditated truth or
application is provided by the Spirit, or where special revelation is
given beforehand in prayer and is empowered in the delivery".
While a prophetic utterance at times might foretell future events,
this is not the primary purpose of Pentecostal prophecy and is never
to be used for personal guidance. For Pentecostals, prophetic
utterances are fallible, i.e. subject to error. Pentecostals teach
that believers must discern whether the utterance has edifying value
for themselves and the local church. Because prophecies are
subject to the judgement and discernment of other Christians, most
Pentecostals teach that prophetic utterances should never be spoken in
the first person (e.g. "I, the Lord") but always in the third person
(e.g. "Thus saith the Lord" or "The Lord would have...").
Tongues and interpretation
Pentecostals pray in tongues at an
Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God church in
A Pentecostal believer in a spiritual experience may vocalize fluent,
unintelligible utterances (glossolalia) or articulate a natural
language previously unknown to them (xenoglossy). Commonly termed
"speaking in tongues", this vocal phenomenon is believed by
Pentecostals to include an endless variety of languages. According to
Pentecostal theology, the language spoken (1) may be an unlearned
human language, such as the
Bible claims happened on the Day of
Pentecost, or (2) it might be of heavenly (angelic) origin. In the
first case, tongues could work as a sign by which witness is given to
the unsaved. In the second case, tongues are used for praise and
prayer when the mind is superseded and "the speaker in tongues speaks
to God, speaks mysteries, and ... no one understands him".
Within Pentecostalism, there is a belief that speaking in tongues
serves two functions. Tongues as the initial evidence of the baptism
with the Holy
Spirit and in individual prayer serves a different
purpose than tongues as a spiritual gift. All Spirit-filled
believers, according to initial evidence proponents, will speak in
tongues when baptized in the
Spirit and, thereafter, will be able to
express prayer and praise to God in an unknown tongue. This type of
tongue speaking forms an important part of many Pentecostals' personal
daily devotions. When used in this way, it is referred to as a "prayer
language" as the believer is speaking unknown languages not for the
purpose of communicating with others but for "communication between
the soul and God". Its purpose is for the spiritual edification of
the individual. Pentecostals believe the private use of tongues in
prayer (i.e. "prayer in the Spirit") "promotes a deepening of the
prayer life and the spiritual development of the personality". From
Romans 8:26–27, Pentecostals believe that the
Spirit intercedes for
believers through tongues; in other words, when a believer prays in an
unknown tongue, the Holy
Spirit is supernaturally directing the
Besides acting as a prayer language, tongues also function as the gift
of tongues. Not all Spirit-filled believers possess the gift of
tongues. Its purpose is for gifted persons to publicly "speak with God
in praise, to pray or sing in the Spirit, or to speak forth in the
congregation". There is a division among Pentecostals on the
relationship between the gifts of tongues and prophecy. One school
of thought believes that the gift of tongues is always directed from
man to God, in which case it is always prayer or praise spoken to God
but in the hearing of the entire congregation for encouragement and
consolation. Another school of thought believes that the gift of
tongues can be prophetic, in which case the believer delivers a
"message in tongues"—a prophetic utterance given under the influence
of the Holy Spirit—to a congregation.
Whether prophetic or not, however, Pentecostals are agreed that all
public utterances in an unknown tongue must be interpreted in the
language of the gathered Christians. This is accomplished by the
gift of interpretation, and this gift can be exercised by the same
individual who first delivered the message (if he or she possesses the
gift of interpretation) or by another individual who possesses the
required gift. If a person with the gift of tongues is not sure that a
person with the gift of interpretation is present and is unable to
interpret the utterance him or herself, then the person should not
speak. Pentecostals teach that those with the gift of tongues
should pray for the gift of interpretation. Pentecostals do not
require that an interpretation be a literal word-for-word translation
of a glossolalic utterance. Rather, as the word "interpretation"
implies, Pentecostals expect only an accurate explanation of the
Besides the gift of tongues, Pentecostals may also use glossolalia as
a form of praise and worship in corporate settings. Pentecostals in a
church service may pray aloud in tongues while others pray
simultaneously in the common language of the gathered Christians.
This use of glossolalia is seen as an acceptable form of prayer and
therefore requires no interpretation. Congregations may also
corporately sing in tongues, a phenomenon known as singing in the
Speaking in tongues
Speaking in tongues is not universal among Pentecostal Christians. In
2006, a ten-country survey by the
Pew Forum on Religion and Public
Life found that 49 percent of Pentecostals in the US, 50 percent in
Brazil, 41 percent in South Africa, and 54 percent in India said they
"never" speak or pray in tongues.
The gifts of power are distinct from the vocal gifts in that they do
not involve utterance. Included in this category are the gift of
faith, gifts of healing, and the gift of miracles. The gift of
faith (sometimes called "special" faith) is different from "saving
faith" and normal Christian faith in its degree and application.
This type of faith is a manifestation of the
Spirit granted only to
certain individuals "in times of special crisis or opportunity" and
endues them with "a divine certainty ... that triumphs over
everything". It is sometimes called the "faith of miracles" and is
fundamental to the operation of the other two power gifts.
Oneness and Trinitarianism
Pentecostals are divided over the nature of the Godhead. The majority
of Pentecostal denominations believe in the doctrine of the Trinity,
which is considered to be Christian orthodoxy. Oneness Pentecostals
(self-identifying as "Apostolic Pentecostals") are nontrinitarian
Christians, believing in a "Oneness" theology about God. The
Oneness doctrine may be considered a form of Modalism, an ancient
teaching considered heresy by most Christians.
In the Oneness view, the Godhead is not three different persons united
by one nature, but rather God’s titles. Nevertheless, Oneness
Pentecostals hold to the traditional Christian doctrine of the
Jesus Christ to be God.
In contrast, Trinitarian Pentecostals, and other Trinitarian
Christians alike, may accuse
Oneness Pentecostals of heresy. The
Catholic Church, for example, usually does not recognize Oneness
baptism, in part, because of their beliefs about the Trinity, as well
as their "improper" formula of baptizing in the name of
instead of the entire Trinity; but Trinitarian Pentecostals who do
baptize in the traditional Christian formula of the
accepted by most other Christian denominations at large and their
baptism is considered valid by the Catholic Church, as well as
most other Protestants, and most
Eastern Orthodox by "economy".
Hillsong Church, a Pentecostal mega church in
Sydney Australia, known
for its contemporary worship music
Traditional Pentecostal worship has been described as a "gestalt made
up of prayer, singing, sermon, the operation of the gifts of the
Spirit, altar intercession, offering, announcements, testimonies,
musical specials, Scripture reading, and occasionally the Lord's
supper". Russell P. Spittler identified five values that govern
Pentecostal spirituality. The first was individual experience,
which emphasizes the Holy Spirit's personal work in the life of the
believer. Second was orality, a feature that might explain
Pentecostalism's success in evangelizing nonliterate cultures. The
third was spontaneity; members of Pentecostal congregations are
expected to follow the leading of the Holy Spirit, sometimes resulting
in unpredictable services. The fourth value governing Pentecostal
spirituality was "otherworldliness" or asceticism, which was partly
informed by Pentecostal eschatology. The final and fifth value was a
commitment to biblical authority, and many of the distinctive
practices of Pentecostals are derived from a literal reading of
Spontaneity is a characteristic element of Pentecostal worship. This
was especially true in the movement's earlier history, when anyone
could initiate a song, chorus, or spiritual gift. Even as
Pentecostalism has become more organized and formal, with more control
exerted over services, the concept of spontaneity has retained an
important place within the movement and continues to inform
stereotypical imagery, such as the derogatory "holy roller". The
phrase "Quench not the Spirit", derived from
1 Thessalonians 5:19, is
used commonly and captures the thought behind Pentecostal
Prayer plays an important role in Pentecostal worship. Collective oral
prayer, whether glossolalic or in the vernacular or a mix of both, is
common. While praying, individuals may lay hands on a person in need
of prayer, or they may raise their hands in response to biblical
1 Timothy 2:8). The raising of hands (which itself is a
revival of the ancient orans posture) is an example of some
Pentecostal worship practices that have been widely adopted by the
larger Christian world. Pentecostal musical and liturgical
practice have also played an influential role in shaping contemporary
worship trends, with Pentecostal churches such as Hillsong Church
being the leading producers of congregational music.
Pentecostals worshiping in Slovakia
Several spontaneous practices have become characteristic of
Pentecostal worship. Being "slain in the Spirit" or "falling under the
power" is a form of prostration in which a person falls backwards, as
if fainting, while being prayed over. It is at times
accompanied by glossolalic prayer; at other times, the person is
silent. It is believed by Pentecostals to be caused by "an
overwhelming experience of the presence of God", and Pentecostals
sometimes receive the baptism in the Holy
Spirit in this posture.
Another spontaneous practice is "dancing in the Spirit". This is when
a person leaves their seat "spontaneously 'dancing' with eyes closed
without bumping into nearby persons or objects". It is explained as
the worshipper becoming "so enraptured with God's presence that the
Spirit takes control of physical motions as well as the spiritual and
emotional being". Pentecostals derive biblical precedent for
dancing in worship from
2 Samuel 6, where
David danced before the
Lord. A similar occurrence is often called "running the aisles".
The "Jericho march" (inspired by
Book of Joshua
Book of Joshua 6:1–27) is a
celebratory practice occurring at times of high enthusiasm. Members of
a congregation began to spontaneously leave their seats and walk in
the aisles inviting other members as they go. Eventually, a full
column is formed around the perimeter of the meeting space as
worshipers march with singing and loud shouts of praise and
jubilation. In some Pentecostal churches, these spontaneous
expressions are primarily found in revival meetings or special prayer
meetings, being rare or non-existent in the main services.
Main article: Ordinance (Christian)
Like other Christian churches, Pentecostals believe that certain
rituals or ceremonies were instituted as a pattern and command by
Jesus in the New Testament. Pentecostals commonly call these
ceremonies ordinances. Many Christians call these sacraments, but this
term is not generally used by Pentecostals and certain other
Protestants as they do not see ordinances as imparting grace.
Instead the term sacerdotal ordinance is used to denote the
distinctive belief that grace is received directly from God by the
congregant with the officiant serving only to facilitate rather than
acting as a conduit or vicar.
The ordinance of water baptism is an outward symbol of an inner
conversion that has already taken place. Therefore, most Pentecostal
groups practice believer's baptism by immersion. The majority of
Pentecostals do not view baptism as essential for salvation, and
likewise, most Pentecostals are Trinitarian and use the traditional
Trinitarian baptismal formula. However,
Oneness Pentecostals view
baptism as an essential and necessary part of the salvation experience
and, as non-Trinitarians, reject the use of the traditional baptismal
formula. For more information on Oneness Pentecostal baptismal
beliefs, see the following section on Statistics and denominations.
The ordinance of Holy Communion, or the Lord's Supper, is seen as a
direct command given by
Jesus at the Last Supper, to be done in
remembrance of him. Pentecostal denominations reject the use of wine
as part of communion, using grape juice instead.
Foot washing is also held as an ordinance by some Pentecostals. It
is considered an "ordinance of humility" because
Jesus showed humility
when washing his disciples' feet in John 13:14–17. Other
Pentecostals do not consider it an ordinance; however, they may still
recognize spiritual value in the practice.
Statistics and denominations
Further information: List of Christian denominations
A Pentecostal church in Ravensburg, Germany
Pentecostal pastors pray over the Colombian flag
David Barrett estimated there were 217 million
"Denominational Pentecostals" throughout the world. In 2011, a Pew
Forum study of global
Christianity found that there were an estimated
279 million classical Pentecostals, making 4 percent of the total
world population and 12.8 percent of the world's Christian population
Pentecostal. The study found "Historically pentecostal
denominations" (a category that did not include independent
Pentecostal churches) to be the largest
The largest percentage of Pentecostals are found in Sub-Saharan Africa
(44 percent), followed by the Americas (37 percent) and Asia and the
Pacific (16 percent). The movement is enjoying its greatest surge
today in the global South, which includes Africa, Latin America, and
most of Asia. There are 740 recognized Pentecostal
denominations, but the movement also has a significant number of
independent churches that are not organized into denominations.
Among the over 700 Pentecostal denominations, 240 are classified as
part of Wesleyan, Holiness, or "Methodistic" Pentecostalism. Until
Pentecostalism was universally
Wesleyan in doctrine, and
Pentecostalism continues to predominate in the Southern
Wesleyan Pentecostals teach that there are three crisis
experiences within a Christian's life: conversion, sanctification, and
Spirit baptism. They inherited the holiness movement's belief in
entire sanctification. According to
Wesleyan Pentecostals, entire
sanctification is a definite event that occurs after salvation but
Spirit baptism. This experience cleanses and enables the
believer to live a life of personal holiness. This personal cleansing
prepares the believer to receive the baptism in the Holy Spirit.
Holiness Pentecostal denominations include the Church of God in
Christ, Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal
After William H. Durham began preaching his
Finished Work doctrine in
1910, many Pentecostals rejected the
Wesleyan doctrine of entire
sanctification and began to teach that there were only two definite
crisis experiences in the life of a Christian: conversion and Spirit
Finished Work Pentecostals (also known as "Baptistic"
or "Reformed" Pentecostals because many converts were originally drawn
Presbyterian backgrounds) teach that a person is
initially sanctified at the moment of conversion. After conversion,
the believer grows in grace through a lifelong process of progressive
sanctification. There are 390 denominations that adhere to the
finished work position. They include the Assemblies of God, the
Gospel Church, and the Open
1904–1905 Welsh Revival laid the foundation for British
Pentecostalism and especially for a distinct family of denominations
known as Apostolic
Pentecostalism (not to be confused with Oneness
Pentecostalism). These Pentecostals are led by a hierarchy of living
apostles, prophets, and other charismatic offices. Apostolic
Pentecostals are found worldwide in 30 denominations, including the
Apostolic Church based in the United Kingdom.
There are 80 Pentecostal denominations that are classified as Jesus'
Oneness Pentecostalism (often self identifying as "Apostolic
Pentecostals"). These differ from the rest of
several significant ways.
Oneness Pentecostals reject the doctrine of
the Trinity. They do not describe God as three persons but rather as
three manifestations of the one living God. Oneness Pentecostals
practice Jesus' Name Baptism—water baptisms performed in the name of
Jesus Christ, rather than that of the Trinity. Oneness Pentecostal
adherents believe repentance, baptism in Jesus' name, and Spirit
baptism are all essential elements of the conversion experience.
Oneness Pentecostals hold that repentance is necessary before baptism
to make the ordinance valid, and receipt of the Holy
by speaking in other tongues is necessary afterwards, to complete the
work of baptism. This differs from other Pentecostals, along with
evangelical Christians in general, who see only repentance and faith
in Christ as essential to salvation. This has resulted in Oneness
believers being accused by some (including other Pentecostals) of a
"works-salvation" soteriology, a charge they vehemently deny.
Oneness Pentecostals insist that salvation comes by grace through
faith in Christ, coupled with obedience to his command to be "born of
water and of the Spirit"; hence, no good works or obedience to laws or
rules can save anyone. For them, baptism is not seen as a "work"
but rather the indispensable means that
Jesus himself provided to come
into his kingdom. The major Oneness churches include the United
Pentecostal Church International and the Pentecostal Assemblies of the
In addition to the denominational Pentecostal churches, there are many
Pentecostal churches that choose to exist independently of
denominational oversight. Some of these churches may be
doctrinally identical to the various Pentecostal denominations, while
others may adopt beliefs and practices that differ considerably from
classical Pentecostalism, such as
Word of Faith
Word of Faith teachings or Kingdom
Now theology. Some of these groups have been successful in utilizing
the mass media, especially television and radio, to spread their
National and regional movements
Pentecostalism in Ethiopia
Pentecostalism in South Africa
Pentecostalism in Australia
Pentecostalism in Iceland
Pentecostalism in India
Pentecostalism in Kerala
Pentecostalism in Norway
Pentecostal Church in Poland
Pentecostalism in Romania
The charismatic experiences found in
Pentecostalism have precedents in
earlier movements in Christianity. Church historian Dr. Curtis
Ward proposes the existence of an unbroken Pentecostal lineage from
the early church to the present, with glossolalia and gifts
following.[need quotation to verify] However, early Pentecostals
considered the movement a latter-day restoration of the church's
apostolic power, and historians such as Cecil M. Robeck, Jr. and Edith
Blumhofer write that the movement emerged from late 19th-century
radical evangelical revival movements in America and in Great
Within this radical evangelicalism, expressed most strongly in the
Wesleyan—holiness and Higher Life movements, themes of
restorationism, premillennialism, faith healing, and greater attention
on the person and work of the Holy
Spirit were central to emerging
Pentecostalism. Believing that the second coming of Christ was
imminent, these Christians expected an endtime revival of apostolic
power, spiritual gifts, and miracle—working. Figures such as
Dwight L. Moody
Dwight L. Moody and
R. A. Torrey
R. A. Torrey began to speak of an experience
available to all Christians which would empower believers to
evangelize the world, often termed baptism with the Holy Spirit.
Certain Christian leaders and movements had important influences on
early Pentecostals. The essentially universal belief in the
continuation of all the spiritual gifts in the Keswick and Higher Life
movements constituted a crucial historical background for the rise of
Albert Benjamin Simpson (1843–1919) and his
Christian and Missionary Alliance
Christian and Missionary Alliance (founded in 1887) was very
influential in the early years of Pentecostalism, especially on the
development of the Assemblies of God. Another early influence on
John Alexander Dowie
John Alexander Dowie (1847–1907) and his Christian
Catholic Apostolic Church
Catholic Apostolic Church (founded in 1896). Pentecostals embraced the
teachings of Simpson, Dowie,
Adoniram Judson Gordon
Adoniram Judson Gordon (1836–1895) and
Maria Woodworth-Etter (1844–1924; she later joined the Pentecostal
movement) on healing. Edward Irving's Catholic Apostolic Church
(founded ca. 1831) also displayed many characteristics later found in
the Pentecostal revival.
No one person or group founded Pentecostalism. Instead, isolated
Christian groups were experiencing charismatic phenomena such as
divine healing and speaking in tongues. The holiness movement provided
a theological explanation for what was happening to these Christians,
and they adapted
Wesleyan soteriology to accommodate their new
Early revivals: 1900–29
Charles Fox Parham, who associated glossolalia with the baptism in the
The Apostolic Faith Mission on Azusa Street, now considered to be the
birthplace of Pentecostalism
Charles Fox Parham, an independent holiness evangelist who believed
strongly in divine healing, was an important figure to the emergence
Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. In 1900, he
started a school near Topeka, Kansas, which he named Bethel Bible
School. There he taught that speaking in tongues was the scriptural
evidence for the reception of the baptism with the Holy Spirit. On
January 1, 1901, after a watch night service, the students prayed for
and received the baptism with the Holy
Spirit with the evidence of
speaking in tongues. Parham received this same experience sometime
later and began preaching it in all his services. Parham believed this
was xenoglossia and that missionaries would no longer need to study
foreign languages. After 1901, Parham closed his Topeka school and
began a four-year revival tour throughout Kansas and Missouri. He
taught that the baptism with the Holy
Spirit was a third experience,
subsequent to conversion and sanctification.
the believer, but
Spirit baptism empowered for service.
At about the same time that Parham was spreading his doctrine of
initial evidence in the Midwestern United States, news of the Welsh
Revival of 1904–05 ignited intense speculation among radical
evangelicals around the world and particularly in the US of a coming
move of the
Spirit which would renew the entire Christian Church. This
revival saw thousands of conversions and also exhibited speaking in
In 1905, Parham moved to Houston, Texas, where he started a Bible
training school. One of his students was William J. Seymour, a
one-eyed black preacher. Seymour traveled to Los Angeles where his
preaching sparked the three-year-long
Azusa Street Revival
Azusa Street Revival in
1906. The revival first broke out on Monday April 9, 1906 at 214
Bonnie Brae Street and then moved to 312 Azusa Street on Friday, April
14, 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission
featured an absence of any order of service. People preached and
testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell
in the Spirit. The revival attracted both religious and secular media
attention, and thousands of visitors flocked to the mission, carrying
the "fire" back to their home churches. Despite the work of
Wesleyan groups such as Parham's and D. L. Moody's revivals,
the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the US is
generally considered to have begun with Seymour's Azusa Street
William Seymour, leader of the Azusa Street Revival
The crowds of African-Americans and whites worshiping together at
William Seymour's Azusa Street Mission set the tone for much of the
early Pentecostal movement. During the period of 1906–24,
Pentecostals defied social, cultural and political norms of the time
that called for racial segregation and the enactment of Jim Crow laws.
The Church of God in Christ, the Church of God (Cleveland), the
Pentecostal Holiness Church, and the Pentecostal Assemblies of the
World were all interracial denominations before the 1920s. These
groups, especially in the Jim Crow South were under great pressure to
conform to segregation. Ultimately, North American Pentecostalism
would divide into white and African-American branches. Though it never
entirely disappeared, interracial worship within
not reemerge as a widespread practice until after the civil rights
Women in a Pentecostal worship service
Women were vital to the early Pentecostal movement. Believing
that whoever received the Pentecostal experience had the
responsibility to use it towards the preparation for Christ's second
coming, Pentecostal women held that the baptism in the Holy Spirit
gave them empowerment and justification to engage in activities
traditionally denied to them. The first person at Parham's
Bible college to receive
Spirit baptism with the evidence of speaking
in tongues was a woman, Agnes Ozman. Women such as
Florence Crawford, Ida Robinson, and
Aimee Semple McPherson
Aimee Semple McPherson founded
new denominations, and many women served as pastors, co-pastors, and
missionaries. Women wrote religious songs, edited Pentecostal
papers, and taught and ran
Bible schools. The unconventionally
intense and emotional environment generated in Pentecostal meetings
dually promoted, and was itself created by, other forms of
participation such as personal testimony and spontaneous prayer and
singing. Women did not shy away from engaging in this forum, and in
the early movement the majority of converts and church-goers were
female. Nevertheless, there was considerable ambiguity
surrounding the role of women in the church. The subsiding of the
early Pentecostal movement allowed a socially more conservative
approach to women to settle in, and, as a result, female participation
was channeled into more supportive and traditionally accepted roles.
Auxiliary women's organizations were created to focus women's talents
on more traditional activities. Women also became much more likely to
be evangelists and missionaries than pastors. When they were pastors,
they often co-pastored with their husbands.
The majority of early Pentecostal denominations taught pacifism and
adopted military service articles that advocated conscientious
Spread and opposition
Azusa participants returned to their homes carrying their new
experience with them. In many cases, whole churches were converted to
the Pentecostal faith, but many times Pentecostals were forced to
establish new religious communities when their experience was rejected
by the established churches. One of the first areas of involvement was
the African continent, where, by 1907, American missionaries were
established in Liberia, as well as in South
Africa by 1908.
Because speaking in tongues was initially believed to always be actual
foreign languages, it was believed that missionaries would no longer
have to learn the languages of the peoples they evangelized because
Spirit would provide whatever foreign language was required.
(When the majority of missionaries, to their disappointment, learned
that tongues speech was unintelligible on the mission field,
Pentecostal leaders were forced to modify their understanding of
tongues.) Thus, as the experience of speaking in tongues spread,
a sense of the immediacy of Christ's return took hold and that energy
would be directed into missionary and evangelistic activity. Early
Pentecostals saw themselves as outsiders from mainstream society,
dedicated solely to preparing the way for Christ's return.
An associate of Seymour's, Florence Crawford, brought the message to
the Northwest, forming what would become the
Apostolic Faith Church by
1908. After 1907, Azusa participant William Howard Durham, pastor of
the North Avenue Mission in Chicago, returned to the Midwest to lay
the groundwork for the movement in that region. It was from Durham's
church that future leaders of the Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada
would hear the Pentecostal message. One of the most well known
Pentecostal pioneers was
Gaston B. Cashwell (the "Apostle of
Pentecost" to the South), whose evangelistic work led three
Southeastern holiness denominations into the new movement.
The Pentecostal movement, especially in its early stages, was
typically associated with the impoverished and marginalized of
America, especially African Americans and Southern Whites. With the
help of many healing evangelists such as Oral Roberts, Pentecostalism
spread across America by the 1950s.
Countries by percentage of
Protestants in 1938 and 2010. Pentecostal
Protestant denominations fueled much of the growth in
Africa and Latin America.
International visitors and Pentecostal missionaries would eventually
export the revival to other nations. The first foreign Pentecostal
missionaries were A. G. Garr and his wife, who were
Spirit baptized at
Azusa and traveled to India and later Hong Kong. The Norwegian
Methodist pastor T. B. Barratt was influenced by Seymour during a tour
of the United States. By December 1906, he had returned to Europe and
is credited with beginning the Pentecostal movement in Sweden, Norway,
Denmark, Germany, France and England. A notable convert of
Barratt was Alexander Boddy, the Anglican vicar of All Saints' in
Sunderland, England, who became a founder of British
Pentecostalism. Other important converts of Barratt were German
Jonathan Paul who founded the first German Pentecostal
denomination (the Mülheim Association) and Lewi Pethrus, the Swedish
Baptist minister who founded the Swedish Pentecostal movement.
Through Durham's ministry, Italian immigrant
Luigi Francescon received
the Pentecostal experience in 1907 and established Italian Pentecostal
congregations in the US, Argentina (Christian Assembly in Argentina),
Brazil (Christian Congregation of Brazil). In 1908, Giacomo
Lombardi led the first Pentecostal services in Italy. In November
1910, two Swedish Pentecostal missionaries arrived in Belem, Brazil
and established what would become the
Assembleias de Deus
Assembleias de Deus (Assemblies
of God of Brazil). In 1908, John G. Lake, a follower of Alexander
Dowie who had experienced Pentecostal
Spirit baptism, traveled to
Africa and founded what would become the Apostolic Faith Mission
Africa and the Zion Christian Church. As a result of
this missionary zeal, practically all Pentecostal denominations today
trace their historical roots to the Azusa Street Revival.
The first generation of Pentecostal believers faced immense criticism
and ostracism from other Christians, most vehemently from the Holiness
movement from which they originated. Alma White, leader of the Pillar
of Fire Church, wrote a book against the movement titled Demons and
Tongues in 1910. She called Pentecostal tongues "satanic gibberish"
and Pentecostal services "the climax of demon worship". Famous
holiness preacher W. B. Godbey characterized those at Azusa Street as
"Satan's preachers, jugglers, necromancers, enchanters, magicians, and
all sorts of mendicants". To Dr. G. Campbell Morgan, Pentecostalism
was "the last vomit of Satan", while Dr.
R. A. Torrey
R. A. Torrey thought it was
"emphatically not of God, and founded by a Sodomite". The
Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, one of the largest holiness
groups, was strongly opposed to the new Pentecostal movement. To avoid
confusion, the church changed its name in 1919 to the Church of the
Nazarene. A. B. Simpson's Christian and Missionary Alliance
negotiated a compromise position unique for the time. Simpson believed
that Pentecostal tongues speaking was a legitimate manifestation of
the Holy Spirit, but he did not believe it was a necessary evidence of
Spirit baptism. This view on speaking in tongues ultimately led to
what became known as the "Alliance position" articulated by A. W.
Tozer as "seek not—forbid not".
Zora Neale Hurston's Anthropological Study
Zora Neal Hurston performed anthropological, sociological studies
examining the spread of Pentecostalism. According to scholar of
religion, Ashon Crawley, Hurston's analysis is important because she
understood the class struggle that this seemingly new religiocultural
movement articulated: "The Sanctified Church is a protest against the
high-brow tendency in Negro
Protestant congregations as the Negroes
gain more education and wealth." She stated that this sect was "a
revitalizing element in Negro music and religion" and that this
collection of groups was "putting back int Negro religion those
elements which were brought over from
Africa and grafted onto
Christianity." Crawley would go on to argue that the shouting Hurston
documented evince what Martinique psychoanalyst Franz Fanon caled the
refusal of positionality wherein "no strategic position is given
preference" as the creation of, the grounds for, social form
The first Pentecostal converts were mainly derived from the Holiness
movement and adhered to a
Wesleyan understanding of sanctification as
a definite, instantaneous experience and "second work of grace".
Problems with this view arose when large numbers of converts entered
the movement from non-
Wesleyan backgrounds, especially from Baptist
churches. In 1910, William Durham of Chicago first articulated
the Finished Work, a doctrine which located sanctification at the
moment of salvation and held that after conversion the Christian would
progressively grow in grace in a lifelong process. This teaching
polarized the Pentecostal movement into two factions. The Wesleyan
doctrine was strongest in the Southern denominations, such as the
Church of God (Cleveland), Church of God in Christ, and the
Pentecostal Holiness Church. The Finished Work, however, would
ultimately gain ascendancy among Pentecostals. After 1911, most new
Pentecostal denominations would adhere to Finished Work
In 1914, a group of predominately 300 white Pentecostal ministers and
laymen from all regions of the United States gathered in Hot Springs,
Arkansas, to create a new, national Pentecostal fellowship—the
General Council of the Assemblies of God. By 1911, many of these
white ministers were distancing themselves from an existing
arrangement under an African-American leader. Many of these white
ministers were licensed by the African-American, C. H. Mason under the
auspices of the Church of God in Christ, one of the few legally
chartered Pentecostal organizations at the time credentialing and
licensing ordained Pentecostal clergy. To further such distance,
Bishop Mason and other African-American Pentecostal leaders were not
invited to the initial 1914 fellowship of Pentecostal ministers. These
predominately white ministers adopted a congregational polity (whereas
the COGIC and other Southern groups remained largely episcopal) and
Finished Work understanding of Sanctification. Thus, the
creation of the
Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God marked an official end of
Pentecostal doctrinal unity and racial integration.
Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God would soon face a "new issue" which first
emerged at a 1913 camp meeting. During a baptism service, the speaker,
R. E. McAlister, mentioned that the
Apostles baptized converts once in
the name of
Jesus Christ, and the words "Father, Son, and Holy Ghost"
were never used in baptism. This inspired
Frank Ewart who claimed
to have received as a divine prophecy revealing a nontrinitarian
conception of God. Ewart believed that there was only one
personality in the Godhead—
Jesus Christ. The terms "Father" and
"Holy Ghost" were titles designating different aspects of Christ.
Those who had been baptized in the Trinitarian fashion needed to
submit to rebaptism in Jesus' name. Furthermore, Ewart believed that
Jesus' name baptism and the gift of tongues were essential for
salvation. Ewart and those who adopted his belief called themselves
"oneness" or "Jesus' Name" Pentecostals, but their opponents called
Amid great controversy, the
Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God rejected the Oneness
teaching, and a large number of its churches and pastors were forced
to withdraw from the denomination in 1916. They organized their
own Oneness groups. Most of these joined Garfield T. Haywood, an
African-American preacher from Indianapolis, to form the Pentecostal
Assemblies of the World. This church maintained an interracial
identity until 1924 when the white ministers withdrew to form the
Pentecostal Church, Incorporated. This church later merged with
another group forming the United Pentecostal Church
Members of the
Pentecostal Church of God
Pentecostal Church of God in Lejunior,
for a girl in 1946
While Pentecostals shared many basic assumptions with conservative
Protestants, the earliest Pentecostals were rejected by Fundamentalist
Christians who adhered to cessationism. In 1928, the World Christian
Fundamentals Association labeled
Pentecostalism "fanatical" and
"unscriptural". By the early 1940s, this rejection of Pentecostals was
giving way to a new cooperation between them and leaders of the "new
evangelicalism", and American Pentecostals were involved in the
founding of the 1942 National Association of Evangelicals.
Pentecostal denominations also began to interact with each other both
on national levels and international levels through the Pentecostal
World Fellowship, which was founded in 1947.
Though Pentecostals began to find acceptance among evangelicals in the
1940s, the previous decade was widely viewed as a time of spiritual
dryness, when healings and other miraculous phenomena were perceived
as being less prevalent than in earlier decades of the movement.
It was in this environment that the Latter Rain Movement, the most
important controversy to affect
Pentecostalism since World War II,
began in North America and spread around the world in the late 1940s.
Latter Rain leaders taught the restoration of the fivefold ministry
led by apostles. These apostles were believed capable of imparting
spiritual gifts through the laying on of hands. There were
prominent participants of the early Pentecostal revivals, such as
Stanley Frodsham and Lewi Pethrus, who endorsed the movement citing
similarities to early Pentecostalism. However, Pentecostal
denominations were critical of the movement and condemned many of its
practices as unscriptural. One reason for the conflict with the
denominations was the sectarianism of Latter Rain adherents. Many
autonomous churches were birthed out of the revival.
A simultaneous development within
Pentecostalism was the postwar
Healing Revival. Led by healing evangelists William Branham, Oral
Roberts, Gordon Lindsay, and T. L. Osborn, the Healing Revival
developed a following among non-Pentecostals as well as Pentecostals.
Many of these non-Pentecostals were baptized in the Holy Spirit
through these ministries. The Latter Rain and the Healing Revival
influenced many leaders of the charismatic movement of the 1960s and
Before the 1960s, most non-Pentecostal Christians who experienced the
Pentecostal baptism in the Holy
Spirit typically kept their experience
a private matter or joined a Pentecostal church afterward. The
1960s saw a new pattern develop where large numbers of
Christians from mainline churches in the US, Europe, and other parts
of the world chose to remain and work for spiritual renewal within
their traditional churches. This initially became known as New or
Pentecostalism (in contrast to the older classical Pentecostalism)
but eventually became known as the Charismatic Movement. While
cautiously supportive of the Charismatic Movement, the failure of
Charismatics to embrace traditional Pentecostal taboos on dancing,
drinking alcohol, smoking, and restrictions on dress and appearance
initiated an identity crisis for classical Pentecostals, who were
forced to reexamine long held assumptions about what it meant to be
Spirit filled. The liberalizing influence of the Charismatic
Movement on classical
Pentecostalism can be seen in the disappearance
of many of these taboos since the 1960s. Because of this, the cultural
differences between classical Pentecostals and charismatics have
lessened over time. The global renewal movements manifest many of
these tensions as inherent characteristics of
Pentecostalism and as
representative of the character of global Christianity.
William Boardman (1810–1886)
Alexander Boddy (1854–1930)
John Alexander Dowie
John Alexander Dowie (1848–1907)
Henry Drummond (1786–1860)
Edward Irving (1792–1834)
Andrew Murray (1828–1917)
Jessie Penn-Lewis (1861–1927)
Evan Roberts (1878–1951)
Albert Benjamin Simpson (1843–1919)
Richard Green Spurling father (1810–1891) and son (1857–1935)
James Haldane Stewart
James Haldane Stewart (1778–1854)
A. A. Allen (1911–70) – Healing tent evangelist of the 1950s and
Yiye Ávila (1925–2013) – Puerto Rican Pentecostal evangelist of
the late 20th century
Joseph Ayo Babalola (1904–59) – Oke – Ooye, Ilesa revivalist in
1930, and spiritual founder of Christ Apostolic Church
Reinhard Bonnke – Evangelist
E. W. Kenyon (1867–1948) – A major leader in what became the Word
of Faith movement. Had a particularly strong influence on Kenneth
Hagin's theology and ministry.
William M. Branham
William M. Branham (1909–65) – Healing evangelist of the mid-20th
century, was an American Christian minister and faith healer,
generally acknowledged as initiating the post-
World War II
World War II healing
David Yonggi Cho – Senior pastor and founder of the Yoido Full
Gospel Church (Assemblies of God) in Seoul, Korea, the world's largest
Jack Coe (1918–56) – Healing tent evangelist of the 1950s
Donnie Copeland – Pastor of Apostolic Church of North Little Rock,
Arkansas, and Republican member of the
Arkansas House of
Margaret Court – Tennis champion in the 1960s and 1970s and founder
of Victory Life Centre in Perth, Australia; become a pastor in 1991
Luigi Francescon (1866–1964) – Missionary and pioneer of the
Italian Pentecostal Movement
Donald Gee (1891–1966) – Early Pentecostal bible teacher in UK;
"the apostle of balance"
Joel Hemphill, Sr. – Former pastor in Bastrop, Louisiana; founder of
the award-winning gospel singing group The Hemphills (1967–1990)
Benny Hinn – Evangelist
Rex Humbard (1919–2007) – The first major television evangelist
(1950s–70s), and at one time had the largest TV
audience of an evangelist in the US
George Jeffreys (1889–1962) – Founder of the Elim Foursquare
Gospel Alliance and the Bible-Pattern Church Fellowship (UK)
Kathryn Kuhlman (1907–76) – Evangelist who brought Pentecostalism
into the mainstream denominations
Gerald Archie Mangun (1919–2010) – American evangelist, pastor,
who built one of the largest churches within the United Pentecostal
Charles Harrison Mason
Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) – The Founder of the Church of
God In Christ
Aimee Semple McPherson
Aimee Semple McPherson (1890–1944) – Evangelist, pastor, and
organizer of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
Charles Fox Parham
Charles Fox Parham (1873–1929) – Father of modern Pentecostalism
David du Plessis (1905–87) – South-African Pentecostal church
leader, one of the founders of the Charismatic movement
Oral Roberts (1918–2009) – Healing tent evangelist who made the
transition to televangelism
Bishop Ida Robinson (1891–1946) – Founder of the Mount Sinai Holy
Church of America
William J. Seymour
William J. Seymour (1870–1922) – Azusa Street Mission founder
(Azusa Street Revival)
Jimmy Swaggart – TV evangelist, pastor, musician
Ambrose Jessup ("AJ") Tomlinson (1865–1943) leader of "Church of
God" movement from 1903 until 1923, and of a minority grouping (now
called Church of God of Prophecy) from 1923 until his death in 1943
Smith Wigglesworth (1859–1947) – British evangelist
Maria Woodworth-Etter (1844–1924) – Healing evangelist
Cessationism versus Continuationism
Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals", Executive
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.
^ Livingstone 2013, p. 461.
^ a b
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (December 19, 2011),
Global Christianity: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the
World's Christian Population, p. 67.
^ a b Menzies 2007, pp. 78–79.
^ Dufield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 16–26.
^ Dayton 1980, p. 4.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 187.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 258.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 239.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 225–251.
^ Railey, Jr. & Aker 1994, p. 50.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 262.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 524–525, 563–564.
^ Livingstone 2013, p. 431.
^ a b Arrington 1981, pp. 1–2.
^ a b The
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (2006).
Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals. "While many renewalists
say they attend religious services where speaking in tongues is a
common practice, fewer tend to say that they themselves regularly
speak or pray in tongues. In fact, in six of the ten countries
surveyed, more than four-in-ten Pentecostals say they never speak or
pray in tongues," pp. 16–17.
^ a b Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 281–282.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 282.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 308–309.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 309–310.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 312.
^ Horton 2005, pp. 139–140.
^ Macchia 2006, p. 60.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 314–315.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 317.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 317–318.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 320–321.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 323.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 323–324.
^ a b Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 324–326.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 326.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 327.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, pp. 327–329.
^ Purdy 1994, pp. 489–490.
^ Purdy 1994, pp. 494.
^ Graves 2011, p. 52.
^ Purdy 1994, pp. 508–509.
^ Purdy 1994, pp. 517–518.
^ Purdy 1994, p. 519.
^ Purdy 1994, pp. 520–521.
^ Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 401.
^ a b Duffield & Van Cleave 1983, p. 402.
^ Synan 1997, p. 192.
^ Strangwayes-Booth, Alex (16 August 2013). "
HIV patients 'told to
rely on God'". Retrieved 22 October 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 523.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 530.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, pp. 541–542.
^ Blaising, Craig A.; Bock, Darrell L. (November 1993). Progressive
Dispensationalism. Wheaton, IL: Bridgepoint Books.
^ The Scofield Bible: Its History and Impact on the Evangelical
Church, Magnum & Sweetnam. Pages 188-195, 218.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 331.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, pp. 300–302.
^ a b Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 332.
^ Taylor, Nathan. "Why Miracles Still Happen Today". Beyond A Church.
Retrieved 27 February 2018.
^ a b Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 333.
^ a b Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 340.
^ P. S. Brewster 1976, p. 50
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 335.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 344.
^ a b c d Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 346.
^ W. R. Jones in R. S. Brewster 1976.
^ The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic
Movements, s.v. "Wisdom, Word of".
^ The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic
Movements, s.v. "Knowledge, Word of: 3. The Word of Knowledge in
^ Robeck, Jr. 1980, p. 26.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 347.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 354.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 355.
^ a b Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 341.
^ Robeck 2003, p. 177.
^ Robeck 2003, pp. 174–175.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 345.
^ a b Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 342.
^ Aker, Benny C. "The Gift Of Tongues In 1 Corinthians 14:1–5".
Enrichment Journal. Accessed May 24, 2011.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 343.
^ Poloma 1989, p. 83.
^ Gee, Concerning Spiritual Gifts, p. 49.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 336.
^ Gee, Concerning Spiritual Gifts, pp. 49–51.
^ Talmadge French, Our God is One, Voice and Vision Publishers, 1999,
ISBN 978-1-888251-20-3. The most recent and collegiate work was
David S. Norris, PhD,"I Am: A Oneness Pentecostal
Perspective.", Word Aflame Publishers, 2009,
^ See under "The Son in Biblical Terminology" in Chapter 5 of David
Bernard The Oneness of God Archived 2008-02-16 at the Wayback
Machine.. Retrieved on June 13, 2017.
^ Catechism of the
Catholic Church 1256, "The ordinary ministers of
Baptism are the bishop and priest and, in the Latin Church, also the
deacon. In case of necessity, anyone, even a non-baptized person, with
the required intention, can baptize, by using the Trinitarian
baptismal formula. The intention required is to will to do what the
Church does when she baptizes. The Church finds the reason for this
possibility in the universal saving will of God and the necessity of
Baptism for salvation.59"
^ Calvin M. Johansson in Patterson and Rybarczyk 2007, pp. 60–61.
^ a b c d e f The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and
Charismatic Movements, s.v. "Spirituality, Pentecostal and
^ Johansson, in Patterson and Rybarczyk 2007, pp. 50–51.
^ Johansson, in Patterson and Rybarczyk 2007, pp. 56–57.
^ Duffield and Van Cleave 1983, p. 330.
^ Paul Harvey and Philip Goff, The Columbia documentary history of
religion in America since 1945 (Columbia University Press, 2005), 347.
^ Larry Witham, Who shall lead them?: the future of ministry in
America (Oxford University Press, Jul 1, 2005), 134.
^ Stephen Burns, SCM Studyguide to Liturgy (Hymns Ancient & Modern
Ltd, 2006), 62.
^ Evans 2006, p. 87.
^ a b "Modern Day Manifestations of the Spirit" Archived 2009-07-26 at
the Wayback Machine., paper detailing the "common understanding of
scriptural teaching" of the
Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God USA. Accessed August 26,
^ Shane Jack Clifton, "An Analysis of the Developing
Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God in Australia" Archived 2009-11-12 at the Wayback
Machine. [PhD thesis, Australian Catholic University, 2005], p. 205.
Accessed August 26, 2010.
^ Poloma 1989, p. 85.
^ Poloma 1989, pp. 85–86.
^ a b BBC – Religion & Ethics (2007-06-20). "Pentecostalism".
^ "Abstinence: A Biblical Perspective on Abstinence" (PDF).
Springfield, MO 65802-1894: General Council of the Assemblies of God.
^ This view is held by the
United Pentecostal Church International and
the Church of God in Christ. For the UPCI, see under "The Church," in
Essential Doctrines of the Bible, copyright 1990, by Word Aflame
Press. For the COGIC, see The Doctrine of the Church of God in Christ.
^ For the
Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God USA's position on ordinances, see Article
6 of its Statement of Fundamental Truths which only lists water
baptism and holy communion.
^ Barrett's statistics found in Synan 1997, p. 286.
Pew Forum 2011, p. 70.
Pew Forum 2011, p. 68.
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (2006-04-24). "Moved by the
Spirit: Pentecostal Power and Politics after 100 Years". Retrieved
^ "Pentecostalism". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2007. Retrieved
^ a b c d e The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and
Charismatic Movements, s.v. "Part II Global Statistics".
^ a b Blumhofer 1993, p. 2.
^ a b Rybarczyk in Patterson and Rybarczyk 2007, p. 4.
^ Blumhofer 1993, p. 129.
^ See, for instance, Thomas A. Fudge:
Christianity Without the Cross:
A History of
Salvation in Oneness Pentecostalism. Universal
^ See Essential Doctrines of the Bible, "
New Testament Salvation",
Salvation by grace through faith", Word Aflame Press,
^ Synan 1987, pp. 33–34.
^ Patheos. "Pentecostal Origins". Retrieved 2009-11-03.
^ Johnson, William, The Church Through the Ages, Bethesda Books, 2003
^ Robeck, Jr. 2006, pp. 119–122.
^ Blumhofer 1993, pp. 11–12: "Molded by a view of history that
anticipated that an intense, brief recurrence of pristine New
Testament faith and practice would immediately precede Christ's
physical return to earth, early
Pentecostalism is best understood as
an expression of restorationist yearning that was shaped in
significant ways by the hopes and dreams of disparate groups of late
nineteenth-century restorationists [...]"
^ Blumhofer 1993, pp. 11–12.
^ Blumhofer 1993, pp. 18-19.
^ Blumhofer 1993, pp. 30–31"Moody—whose influence permeated
much of popular evangelicalism at the end of the century—used the
phrase baptism in the Holy
Spirit to describe a profound experience he
claimed had altered his spiritual perception [. . .] Because Torrey
believed that the baptism with the Holy
Spirit alone would facilitate
the evangelization of the world before Christ's return, he taught that
Spirit baptism was mandatory [. . .]
^ "Keswick Theology and
Continuationism or Anti-Cessationism:
Vignettes of Certain Important Advocates of Keswick or Higher Life
Theology and their Beliefs Concerning Spiritual Gifts and Other
Matters: William Boardman, Andrew Murray, Frederick B. Meyer, Evan
Roberts and Jessie Penn-Lewis, A. B. Simpson, John A. MacMillan, and
Watchman Nee," in The Doctrine of Sanctification, Thomas D. Ross, Ph.
D. Diss, Great Plains
Baptist Divinity School, 2015
^ Blumhofer 1993, pp. 20–24.
^ McGee 1999
^ Blumhofer 1989,
Pentecost in My Soul, p. 92.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 89–92.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 93–94.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 86–88.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 92–98.
^ Hyatt 2006, pp.20-22.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 98–100.
^ Blumhofer 1989, The
Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God vol. 1, pp. 97–112
^ Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, 167–186.
^ Wacker 2001, pp. 160–162.
^ a b c Burgess. Encyclopedia of Pentecostal and Charismatic
^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 394.
^ The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic
Movements, s.v. "Ozman, Agnes Nevada".
^ Wacker 2001, pp. 158–59.
^ Wacker 2001, p. 160.
^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 401.
^ Keller. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion. 395–96.
^ Blumhofer 1993, pp. 164–177.
^ Paul Alexander. Peace to War: Shifting Allegiances in the Assemblies
of God (Telford, PA: Cascadia, 2009). Jay Beaman, "Pentecostal
Pacifism" (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2009)
^ Hunter, Harold D. "A Portrait of How the Azusa Doctrine of Spirit
Baptism Shaped American Pentecostalism". Enrichment Journal. Accessed
August 26, 2010.
^ Blumhofer 1993, pp. 3–5.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 103–104.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 113–114.
^ Eskridge, Larry. "
Pentecostalism and the Charismatic Movement".
Pentecostalism and the Charismatic Movement. Wheaton College Institute
for the Study of American Evangelicals. Retrieved 2015-04-20.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 101–102.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 104–105.
^ Synan 1997, p. 131.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 131–132.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 133–134.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 134–135.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 137–138.
^ Synan 1997, p. 105.
^ Quoted in Synan 1997, p. 145.
^ Quotes taken from Synan 1997, p. 146.
^ a b Quotes taken from Synan 1997, p. 147.
^ Zora Neale. Hurston, The Sanctified Church (Berkeley, CA: Turtle
^ Crawley, Ashon T. 2017. Blackpentecostal Breath: The Aesthetics of
Possibility. New York: Fordham University Press. Page 106
^ Synan 1997, p. 149.
^ Synan 1997, p. 150.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 151–152.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 153–154.
^ Synan 1997, p. 155.
^ Synan 1997, p. 156.
^ Blumhofer. The Assemblies of God. Vol 1. pp. 217–239
^ Synan 1997, p. 157.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 158–160.
^ Synan 1997, pp. 160–161.
^ The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic
Movements, s.v. "Evangelicalism".
^ a b c The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and
Charismatic Movements, s.v. "Latter Rain Movement".
^ a b Patterson and Rybarczyk 2007, pp. 159–160.
^ The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic
Movements, s.v. "Charismatic Movement".
^ The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic
Movements, s.v. "Charismatic Movement: A. Earliest Stirrings (Before
^ The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic
Movements, s.v. "Charismatic Movement: B. The Emergence of the
^ Blumhofer 1993, p. 226.
^ Blumhofer 1993, p. 236.
^ Vondey, Wolfgang (2013). Pentecostalism: A Guide for the Perplexed.
London and New York: Bloomsbury. pp. 1–8.
^ "Donnie Copeland". arkansashouse.org. Retrieved April 18,
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