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Peisistratos
Peisistratos
(Greek: Πεισίστρατος; died 528/7 BC), Latinized Pisistratus, the son of Hippocrates, was a ruler of ancient Athens
Athens
during most of the period between 561 and 527 BC.[citation needed] His legacy lies primarily in his instituting the Panathenaic Festival, historically assigned the date of 566 B.C., and the consequent first attempt at producing a definitive version of the Homeric epics. Peisistratos' championing of the lower class of Athens, the Hyperakrioi, (see below) is an early example of populism. While in power, Peisistratos
Peisistratos
did not hesitate to confront the aristocracy, and he greatly reduced their privileges, confiscated their lands and gave them to the poor, and funded many religious and artistic programs.[1] Peisistratus was the brother-in-law of Cleisthenes; however, Peisistratus was much older. Peisistratids is the common term for the three tyrants who ruled in Athens
Athens
from 546 to 510 BC, namely Peisistratos
Peisistratos
and his two sons, Hipparchus and Hippias.

Contents

1 Rise 2 Periods of power 3 Popular tyrant

3.1 Three attempts at tyranny 3.2 Policies

4 Legacy 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

Rise[edit] Peisistratos
Peisistratos
was a distant relative of Solon
Solon
from northern Attica.[citation needed] He had made a name for himself by capturing the port of Nisaea in nearby Megara
Megara
by creating a successful coup in 565 BC.[2] Peisistratos
Peisistratos
was backed by the Men of the Hill, the poorer and majority of the population. This victory opened up the unofficial trade blockage that had been contributing to food shortage in Athens during the past several decades.[3] In the period after the Megaran defeat, several political factions competed for control in the government of Athens. These groups were both economically and geographically partitioned.[4]

Pedieis: the population that resided on the plains, led by Lycurgus. These landowners produced grain, giving them leverage during the food shortage. Paralioi: the population living along the coast, led by Megacles, an Alcmaeonid, the Paralioi party was not as strong as the Pedieis, primarily because they could not produce grain, as did the plainsmen. With the Megarans patrolling the sea, much of Athens' import/export power was limited. Hyperakrioi: not previously represented by formal party, dwelled primarily in the hills and were by far the poorest of the Athenian population. Their only production was barter in items like honey and wool. Peisistratos
Peisistratos
organised them into the Hyperakrioi, or hill dwellers. This party grossly outnumbered the other two parties combined.

His role in the Megaran conflict gained Peisistratos
Peisistratos
popularity in Athens, but he did not have the political clout to seize power. Herodotus
Herodotus
tells us how he intentionally wounded himself and his mules in order to demand from the Athenian people bodyguards for protection, which he received. By obtaining support from the vast number of the poorer population as well as bodyguards, he was able to seize the Acropolis and the reins of government. The Athenians were open to a tyranny similar to that under Solon
Solon
– and possible stability and internal peace – and Peisistratos' ruse won him further prominence.[5] With this in his possession, and the collusion of Megacles
Megacles
and his party, he declared himself tyrant.[6] Periods of power[edit] Peisistratos
Peisistratos
was ousted from political office and exiled twice during his reign. The first occurrence was circa 555 BC after the two original parties, normally at odds with each other, joined forces and removed Peisistratos
Peisistratos
from power. Actual dates after this point become unclear. Peisistratos
Peisistratos
was exiled for 3 to 6 years during which the agreement between the Pedieis and the Paralioi fell apart. Peisistratos
Peisistratos
returned to Athens
Athens
and rode into the city in a golden chariot accompanied by a tall woman appearing to be Athena. Many returned to his side, believing he had the favour of the goddess.[7] Differing sources state that he held the tyranny for one to six years before he was exiled again. During his second exile, he gathered support from local cities and resources from the Laurion silver mines near Athens. After 10 years he returned in force, regained his tyranny, and held power until his death in 527 BC. Popular tyrant[edit]

Didrachm
Didrachm
of Athens, 545-510 BC

Obv: Four-spoked wheel Rev: Incuse square, divided diagonally

Silver didrachm of Athens
Athens
of heraldic type from the time of Peisistratos, 545–510 BC

Obol of Athens, 545-525 BC

Obv: An archaic Gorgoneion Rev: Square incuse

An archaic silver obol of Athens
Athens
of heraldic type from the time of Peisistratos, 545–525 BC

As opposed to the modern definition of a tyrant, which is a single ruler, often violent and oppressive, Peisistratos' career was a model example of tyranny, a non-heritable position taken by purely personal ability, often in violation of tradition or constitutional norms. We see this in remarks by both Herodotus
Herodotus
and Aristotle. Herodotus, in his Histories, wrote that Peisistratos, "not having disturbed the existing magistrates nor changed the ancient laws… administered the State under that constitution of things which was already established, ordering it fairly and well",[8] while Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote that "his administration was temperate…and more like constitutional government than a tyranny".[9] Peisistratos
Peisistratos
often tried to distribute power and benefits rather than hoard them, with the intent of easing stress between the economic classes. The elites who had held power in the Areopagus
Areopagus
Council were allowed to retain their archonships. For the lower classes, he cut taxes and created a band of travelling judges to provide justice for the citizens. Peisistratos
Peisistratos
enacted a popular program to beautify Athens
Athens
and promote the arts. He minted coins with Athena's symbol (the owl), although this was only one type on the so-called Wappenmünzen (heraldic coins) and not a regular device as on the later, standard silver currency. Under his rule were introduced two new forms of poetry, the dithyramb and tragic drama, and the era also saw growth in theatre, arts, and sculpture. He commissioned the permanent copying and archiving of Homer's two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, and the canon of Homeric works is said to derive from this particular archiving. Three attempts at tyranny[edit] With Peisistratos' successful invasion and capture of Nisaea, he attained great political standing in the assembly. He initially met with resistance from nobles like Megacles, the son of Alcmaeon, and Lycurgus, the son of Aristolaïdes, who had shared power between them. Megacles
Megacles
came over to Peisistratos' side and, with his help, Peisistratos
Peisistratos
was accepted as tyrant by the Athenian assembly in 561, and, according to Herodotus, he "administered the state constitutionally and organized the state's affairs properly and well."[10] However, he was soon thereafter ousted. Herodotus
Herodotus
explains his exile “Not much later, however, the supporters of Megacles
Megacles
and those of Lycurgus came to an understanding and expelled him”. He soon had a second chance. Megacles
Megacles
invited him back in 556 on condition that he marry Megacles' daughter. Peisistratos
Peisistratos
returned in triumph accompanied by a tall, local woman named Phye, whom he passed off as Athena. The awestruck Athenians thus accepted his second tyranny. Peisistratus, however, refused to impregnate Megacles' daughter, which ended their coalition. Peisistratos
Peisistratos
was forced to leave Attica entirely. During his nearly ten-year exile, he created an alliance with powerful allies and accumulated great wealth. With his powerful personal army, he marched to Marathon and from there to Athens. His popularity soared and many locals supported him. Thus, in 546 BC, he began his third and final tyranny.[11] Policies[edit] Peisistratos' main policies were aimed at strengthening the economy, and similar to Solon, he was concerned about both agriculture and commerce. He offered land and loans to the needy. He encouraged the cultivation of olives and the growth of Athenian trade, finding a way to the Black Sea and even Italy and France. Under Peisistratos, fine Attic pottery travelled to Ionia, Cyprus, and Syria. In Athens, Peisistratos' public building projects provided jobs to people in need while simultaneously making the city a cultural centre. He replaced the private wells of the aristocrats with public fountain houses. Peisistratos
Peisistratos
also built the first aqueduct in Athens, opening a reliable water supply to sustain the large population.[12] Legacy[edit] Peisistratos
Peisistratos
died in 527 or 528 BC. His eldest son, Hippias, succeeded him as tyrant of Athens. Hippias and his brother, Hipparchus, ruled the city much as their father had. After a successful murder plot against Hipparchus conceived by Harmodius and Aristogeiton, Hippias became paranoid and oppressive. This change caused the people of Athens
Athens
to hold Hippias in much lower regard. The Alcmaeonid family helped depose the tyranny by bribing the Delphic oracle
Delphic oracle
to tell the Spartans to liberate Athens, which they did in 508 BC. The Peisistratids were not executed, but rather were mostly forced into exile. The surviving Peisistratid ruler, Hippias, went on to aid the Persians in their attack on Marathon (490 BC), acting as a guide.[13] See also[edit]

Herodotus Histories Aristotle Politics

Notes[edit]

^ Shanaysha M. Furlow Sauls (2008). The Concept of Instability and the Theory of Democracy in the Federalist, p. 77 ^ Chester G. Starr, ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA Peisistratus TYRANT OF ATHENS Archived 2016-07-01 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, David Tandy, Ancient Greece: a political, social, and cultural history(United States of America: 2012) Oxford University Press, New York, p191-2025 ^ Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution, Part 13 ^ Goušchin, Valerij (1999). "Pisistratus' Leadership in A. P. 13.4 and the Establishment of the Tyranny of 561/60 B. C.". The Classical Quarterly. New Series. 49 (Cambridge University Press): 14–23. doi:10.1093/cq/49.1.14. JSTOR 639486.  ^ Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution, Part 13; Herodotus, The Histories, 1.59; Plutarch, “Life of Solon”, in Plutarch’s Lives (London: Printed by W. M'Dowell for J. Davis, 1812), 185. ^ Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution, Part 14; Herodotus, The Histories, 1.60. ^ Herodotus, The Histories, 1.59. ^ Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution, Part 16. ^ Herodotus. The Histories. Oxford University Press Inc. ISBN 9780199535668.  ^ Lavelle, Brian (2010). "Pisistratos". Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome.  ^ Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, David Tandy, Ancient Greece: a political, social, and cultural history(United States of America: 2012) Oxford University Press, New York, p.191–2025 ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
(1998). The Histories. Translated by Waterfield, Robin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192824257. 

References[edit]

Berti, Monica. Fra tirannide e democrazia: Ipparco figlio di Carmo e il destino dei Pisistratidi ad Atene. Alessandria: Edizioni Dell’Orso, 2004 Borthwick, Edward K. “Music and Dance.” Civilization of the Ancient Mediterranean World: Greece and Rome. Eds. Grant, Michael and Kitzinger, Rachel. 3 vols. New York: Scribner’s, 1988. Vol. 1, 1507-8. Cahill, Thomas. Sailing the Wine Dark Sea: Why the Greeks Matter. New York: Doubleday, 2003. French, A. “The Party of Peisistratos.” Greece & Rome. Vol. 6, No. 1, March 1959. 45-57 Garland, Robert. “Greek Spectacles and Festivals.” Civilization of the Ancient Mediterranean World: Greece and Rome. Eds. Grant, Michael and Kitzinger, Rachel. 3 vols. New York: Scribner’s, 1988. Vol. 1, 1148. Hornblower, Simon and Spawforth, Anthony eds. “Peisistratus.” The Oxford Classical Dictionary. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, 2003. Lavelle, B. M. Fame, Money and Power: The Rise of Peisistratos
Peisistratos
and “Democratic” Tyranny at Athens. The University of Michigan Press, 2005. Lavelle B. M. “The Compleat Angler: Observations on the Rise of Peisistratos
Peisistratos
in Herodotos (1.59-64). The Classical Quarterly. New Series, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1991. 317-324. Thucydides. “Funeral Oration of Pericles.” The Peloponnesian War. Trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1881. Ed. Paul Brians. December 18, 1998. <http://katie.luther.edu/moodle/mod/resource/view.php?id=68564> Roisman, Joseph, and translated by J.C Yardley, Ancient Greece from Homer
Homer
to Alexander (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2011) ISBN 1-4051-2776-7

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Cimon
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Peisistratos
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