HOME
The Info List - Pedro Menéndez De Avilés


--- Advertisement ---



Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Avilés
(15 February 1519 – 17 September 1574) was a Spanish admiral and explorer from the region of Asturias, Spain, who is remembered for planning the first regular trans-oceanic convoys and for founding St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565. This was the first successful Spanish settlement in La Florida and the most significant city in the region for nearly three centuries. St. Augustine is the oldest continuously-inhabited, European-established settlement in the continental United States. Menéndez de Avilés
Avilés
was also the first governor of Florida (1565–74).[1][2]

Contents

1 Biography 2 La Florida 3 Military 4 Treasure
Treasure
fleet 5 Later years 6 Family 7 Legacy 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Primary resources 12 Further reading

Biography[edit] Menéndez had made his career in the Spanish Navy, in the service of the king, Philip II of Spain. His initial plans for a voyage to Florida revolved around searching for his son, Juan, who had been shipwrecked there in 1561. He could not find his son and he was assumed dead. Following the founding of Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline
in present-day Jacksonville by French Huguenots under René Goulaine de Laudonnière, he was commissioned to conquer the peninsula as Adelantado. He established Saint Augustine, or San Agustín, in 1565; then he seized Fort Caroline and displaced the French.[3] His position as governor now secure, Menéndez explored the area and built additional fortifications. He returned to Spain
Spain
in 1567[4] and was appointed governor of Cuba, in October of that year.[5] He voyaged to La Florida for the last time in 1571, with 650 settlers for Santa Elena, as well as his wife and family.[6][7] Menéndez died of typhus[8] at Santander, Spain, in 1574. La Florida[edit] In 1560, Pedro Menéndez commanded the galleons of the great Armada de la Carrera, or Spanish Treasure
Treasure
Fleet, on their voyage from the Caribbean
Caribbean
and Mexico
Mexico
to Spain. He was appointed by King Philip II of Spain, who chose him as Captain General, and his brother Bartolomé Menéndez as Admiral, of the Fleet of the Indies.[9] When he had delivered the treasure fleet to Spain, he asked permission to go back in search of one lost vessel which had contained his son, other relatives, and friends, but the crown repeatedly refused his request. In 1565, however, the Spanish decided to destroy the French outpost of Fort Caroline, located in what is now Jacksonville. The crown approached Menéndez to fit out an expedition to Florida[10] on the condition that he explore and settle the region as King Philip's adelantado, and eliminate the Huguenot
Huguenot
French,[11] whom the Catholic Spanish considered to be dangerous heretics.[12] Menéndez was in a race to reach Florida before the French captain Jean Ribault,[6] who was on a mission to secure Fort Caroline. The two fleets met in a brief skirmish off the coast, but it was not decisive. On 28 August 1565, the feast day of St. Augustine of Hippo, Menéndez's crew finally sighted land. They landed shortly after to found the settlement they named San Agustín (Saint Augustine). The settlement was founded in the former Timucua
Timucua
village of Seloy. The location of the settlement was chosen for its defensibility and proximity to a fresh water artesian spring. To this day, the locals of St. Augustine claim that it was here that Menéndez held the first Catholic mass in what is now the continental United States. A French attack on St. Augustine was thwarted by a violent squall that ravaged the French naval forces. Taking advantage of this, Menéndez marched his troops overland to Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline
on the St. Johns River, about 30 miles (50 km) north. The Spanish easily overwhelmed the lightly defended French garrison, which had been left with only a skeleton crew of 20 soldiers and about 100 others, killing most of the men and sparing about 60 women and children. The bodies of the victims were hung in trees with the inscription: "Hanged, not as Frenchmen, but as "Lutherans" (heretics)."[13][14] Menéndez renamed the fort San Mateo and marched back to St. Augustine, where he discovered that the shipwrecked survivors from the French ships had come ashore to the south of the settlement. A Spanish patrol encountered the remnants of the French force, and took them prisoner. Menéndez accepted their surrender, but then executed all of them except a few professing Catholics and some Protestant workers with useful skills, at what is now known as Matanzas Inlet
Matanzas Inlet
(Matanzas is Spanish for "slaughters").[15] The site is very near the national monument Fort Matanzas, built in 1740-1742 by the Spanish. Military[edit]

Monument to Pedro Menéndez in Avilés, Spain

Menéndez is credited as the Spanish leader who first surveyed and authorized the building of the royal fortresses at major Caribbean ports. He was appointed Captain-General of the Spanish treasure fleet in 1554, when he sailed out with the Indies fleet and brought it back safely to Spain. This experience assured him of the strategic importance of the Bahama Channel and the position of Havana
Havana
as the key port to rendezvous the annual Flota of treasure galleons. Later, in his capacity as adelantado and the private instrument of his sovereign's will, he was required to implement the royal policies of fortification for the defense of conquered territories in La Florida and the establishment of Castilian governmental institutions in desirable areas.[16] Menéndez' military experience served him well when he led a successful overland expedition from St. Augustine to surprise and destroy the French garrison at Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline
on the St. Johns River. On 20 September 1565, a hundred and thirty-two Frenchmen were massacred within the fort; only the women and children and a few drummers and trumpeters were spared.[17] Menéndez left a Spanish garrison at the captured fort, now renamed San Mateo (it was later destroyed and the Spanish there massacred as revenge by the French in 1568). Menéndez then pursued Jean Ribault, who had already left with four ships to attack the Spanish at St. Augustine. A storm wrecked three of the French ships near what is now the Ponce de León inlet and the flagship was grounded near Cape Canaveral.[18] The survivors made their way up the coast to an inlet, and it was here that Menéndez ordered them to be put to death after their surrender. The slaughter of these men led to the area of their execution being called 'Matanzas' ('Massacre' or 'Slaughters'). With the coast of Florida now firmly in Spanish hands, Menéndez then set to work finishing the construction of a fort in St. Augustine, establishing missions to the natives for the Catholic Church, and exploring the east coast and interior of the peninsula. Treasure
Treasure
fleet[edit] Main article: Spanish treasure fleet Pedro Menéndez de Aviles was appointed Captain General of the Fleet of the Indies in 1554 by King Phillip II of Spain. This position carried great honor, and it was an unusual appointment as the Casa de Contratación in Sevilla had appointed the Captain General in the past. Phillip II and Menéndez maintained a close relationship, Menéndez was even invited to be a part of the Royal Party when Phillip married Mary I, Queen of England.[19] Menéndez was the chief planner of the formalized Spanish treasure fleet
Spanish treasure fleet
convoy system that was to be the main link between Spain
Spain
and her overseas territories. He was also the designer, in partnership with Álvaro de Bazán, of the great galleons that were employed to carry the trade between Cadiz in Spain
Spain
and Vera Cruz in Mexico.[20] Later years[edit] Menéndez traveled to southwest Florida, looking for his son. There he made contact with the Calusa
Calusa
tribe, an advanced maritime people. He negotiated an initial peace with their leader, King Carlos, which was solidified by Menéndez's marriage to Carlos's sister, who took the baptismal name Doña Antonia. The peace was uneasy, and Menéndez's use of his new wife as a hostage in negotiations with her people, as well as his negotiating with the Calusas' enemies, the Tocobagas, helped cause the decline of relations to all out war, which continued intermittently into the next century. Menéndez was unsuccessful in locating his son Juan. Establishing a Spanish garrison of 200 men further up the coast, he sailed to what is today the Georgia coast making contact with the local Indians of St. Catherines Island[21] before returning to Florida, where he expanded Spanish power throughout southeastern Florida. In 1567, he marched south encountering the Ais (Jece) as he reached the Indian River near present-day Vero Beach. In December 1571, Menéndez was sailing from Florida to Havana
Havana
with two frigates when, as he tells it, "I was wrecked at Cape Canaveral because of a storm which came upon me, and the other boat was lost fifteen leagues further on in the Bahama Channel, in a river they call the Ais, because the cacique (chief) is so called. I, by a miracle reached the fort of St. Augustine with seventeen persons I was taking with me. Three times the Indians gave the order to attack me, and the way I escaped them was by ingenuity and arousing fear in them, telling them that behind me many Spaniards were coming who would slay them if they found them."[22] The Ais, like the Tequesta
Tequesta
and Calusa
Calusa
tribes, proved hostile to Spanish settlement as war continued on and off until 1670.[23] Menéndez later made contact with the less hostile Tequesta
Tequesta
at their capital in El Portal
Portal
(Miami) and was able to negotiate for three chieftains to accompany him to Cuba
Cuba
as translators to the Arawak. Although Menéndez left behind Jesuit missionaries Brother Francisco de Villareal and Padre Rogel in an attempt to convert the Tequesta
Tequesta
to Roman Catholicism, the tribe were indifferent to their teachings. The Jesuits returned to St. Augustine after a year. In August 1572, Menéndez led a ship with thirty soldiers and sailors to take revenge for the killing of the Jesuits of the Ajacán Mission in present-day Virginia.[24] At the end of his life, he was appointed as governor of Cuba
Cuba
shortly after his arrival. He died in Santander, Spain, on 17 September 1574. Family[edit]

The house in Avilés
Avilés
where Pedro Menéndez de Aviles was born

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Avilés
was born to an old noble family in the kingdom of Asturias.[25] He was one of the younger sons of Juan Alfonso Sánchez de Avilés, who had served the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
in the war of Granada, and María Alonso y Menéndez Arango. His parents had twenty children, and Pedro was still a child when his father died. When Doña Maria remarried, the boy was sent to live with a relative who promised to oversee his education. Pedro and his guardian did not get along, and he ran away from home. He was found six months later in Valladolid
Valladolid
and taken back to his foster home. Eventually he went off to fight in one of the wars with France, serving in a small armada against the French corsairs
French corsairs
who harassed the maritime commerce of Spain. After two years of fighting, Menéndez returned to his people, having conceived a plan to use part of his inheritance to build his own vessel. He built a patache, a small but fast row-sailer, suitable for patrolling the coast. He was then able to persuade a number of his relatives to sail with him in search of adventure. It was in this little ship that the youthful Menéndez won his first victory of command in an engagement with French corsairs
French corsairs
who attacked three slow Spanish freighters off the coast of Galicia. Through daring and resourceful cunning he separated the two swift zabras (Biscayan frigates) that pursued him and captured them both, and drove away the third. The exploits of Pedro Menéndez soon became a topic of conversation on the waterfronts of Spain
Spain
and France, and even in the royal courts.[26] The Seville merchants and the associated Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) were chagrined by the success of Menéndez' adventures and his growing influence with the Crown. In 1561 he was jailed by Casa officials for alleged smuggling but he was able to get his case transferred to court and win his release. Philip II was alarmed when he received the report from France
France
of the Spanish spy Dr. Gabriel de Enveja that Jean Ribault
Jean Ribault
had secured for himself the title of "Captain-General and Viceroy
Viceroy
of New France", and that an expedition of ships, soldiers and supplies was being fitted at Dieppe
Dieppe
for a voyage to Florida—more than 500 arquebusiers and many dismounted bronze cannons were loaded aboard the vessels. Menéndez was now available to serve the king's purposes, having been granted an appointment as adelantado of La Florida, and standing to receive a large land grant and the title of marquis if he was successful in his commission. He advised the king of the strategic importance of exploring the Florida coast for discovery of trade passages to the riches of China and Molucca—waterways that might lead to the mines of New Spain
Spain
and the Pacific — and of settling in several areas to defend the territory against incursions by the Indians and foreign powers. Menéndez expected to make vast profits for himself and to increase the royal treasury with this Florida enterprise, which was to include the development of agriculture, fisheries, and naval stores. This ambitious venture was supported materially and politically by his kinship alliance of seventeen families from northern Spain, all tied by blood relations and marriage, who pledged their persons and their fortunes to the adelantado, hoping to enrich themselves with large grants of lands and the royal honors of civil and military offices in La Florida. The support of this familial elite of partners sharing his vision of enlarged estate and enhanced prestige gave Menéndez a loyal cadre of lieutenants and officials who not only had blood connection to him, but also had invested their futures in his success.[27] Legacy[edit] Pedro Menendez High School
Pedro Menendez High School
on State Road 206 in Saint Johns County
Saint Johns County
is named after him, as well as several streets in the area. See also[edit]

Florida portal New Spain
Spain
portal Piracy
Piracy
portal Spain
Spain
portal

El Portal, Florida History of Florida Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine St. Augustine, Florida Spanish Florida

Notes[edit]

^ R. A. Stradling (2003). The Armada of Flanders: Spanish Maritime Policy and European War, 1568-1668. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-521-52512-1.  ^ Lyon, Eugene (July 1988). "Pedro Menéndez's Strategic Plan for the Florida Peninsula". The Florida Historical Quarterly. Florida Historical Society. 67 (1): 12. JSTOR 30147920.  ^ Margaret F. Pickett; Dwayne W. Pickett (2011). The European Struggle to Settle North America: Colonizing Attempts by England, France
France
and Spain, 1521-1608. McFarland. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-7864-6221-6.  ^ Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Florida (1 January 1976). Florida: A Guide to the Southernmost State. North American Book Dist LLC. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-403-02161-1.  ^ Willis Fletcher Johnson (1920). The History of Cuba. B.F. Buck, Incorporated. pp. 205, 208.  ^ a b Eugene Lyon (1991). "Pedro Menéndez de Avilés". In Gary Mormino. Spanish Pathways in Florida: 1492-1992/Los Caminos Espanoles En LA Florida 1492-1992 (in English and Spanish). Ann L Henderson (1st ed.). Pineapple Press Inc. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-56164-003-4. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ Antonio de Arredondo; Mary Ross (1925). Arredondo's Historical Proof of Spain's Title to Georgia: A Contribution to the History of One of the Spanish Borderlands. University of California Press. p. 339.  ^ Secrets of Spanish Florida
Spanish Florida
– A Secrets of the Dead Special
Special
pbs.org (December 26, 2017) ^ Woodbury Lowery (1911). The Spanish settlements within the present limits of the United States: Florida, 1562-1574. G.P. Putnam. p. 144. Retrieved 19 November 2012.  ^ Pickett Pickett 2011, p.84 ^ Lowery 1911, p.100 ^ Lowery 1911, p.105 ^ René Goulaine de Laudonnière
René Goulaine de Laudonnière
(1853). L'histoire notable de la Floride: situèe es Indes Occidentales. P. Jannet. pp. 218–219. Retrieved 22 November 2012.  ^ Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire (1773). Essais sur les Moeurs et l'esprit des Nations. p. 75. Retrieved 22 November 2012.  ^ Richard R. Henderson; United States. National Park Service (March 1989). A Preliminary inventory of Spanish colonial resources associated with National Park Service units and national historic landmarks, 1987. United States Committee, International Council on Monuments and Sites, for the U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service. p. 87. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ Eugene Lyon (28 May 1983). The Enterprise of Florida: Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Avilés
and the Spanish Conquest of 1565-1568. University Press of Florida. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-8130-0777-9. Retrieved 23 November 2012.  ^ Lyon 1983, p.122 ^ Lyon 1983, p.124 ^ extracted from the historical text available at http://augustine.com Written History ^ "The galleon evolved in response to Spain's need for an ocean-crossing cargo ship that could beat off corsairs. Pedro de Menéndez, along with Álvaro de Bazán
Álvaro de Bazán
(later a hero of the Battle of Lepanto, is credited with developing the prototypes which had the long hull - and sometimes the oars - of a galley married to the poop and prow of a nao or merchantman. Galeones were classed as 1-, 2- or 3-deckers, and stepped two or more masts rigged with square sails and topsails (except for a lateen sail on the mizzenmast). Capacity ranged up to 900 tons or more. Menéndez' San Pelayo of 1565 was a 900-ton galleon which was also called a nao and galeaza. She carried 77 crewmen, 18 gunners, transported 317 soldiers and 26 families, as well as provisions and cargo. Her armament was iron." Menéndez: Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Captain General of the Ocean Sea. Albert C. Manucy. Pineapple Press, Inc. (1992). p.100 ^ R. Edwin Green (1 November 2004). St. Simons Island: A Summary of Its History. The History Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-59629-017-4. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ Rouse, Irving. Survey of Indian River Archaeology. Yale University Publications in Anthropology 45. ISBN 978-0-404-15668-8.  ^ History of the Tekesta - Part 6. Late Contact Period (1565 to the Present). ^ Seth Mallios (28 August 2006). The Deadly Politics of Giving: Exchange And Violence at Ajacan, Roanoke, And Jamestown. University of Alabama Press. pp. 53–57. ISBN 978-0-8173-5336-0. Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ María Antonia Sáinz Sastre (1992). La Florida, Siglo XVI: Descubrimiento y Conquista. Editorial Mapfre. p. 131. ISBN 978-84-7100-475-8. Retrieved 21 November 2012.  ^ Albert C. Manucy (1983). Menéndez: Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Captain General of the Ocean Sea. Pineapple Press Inc. pp. 9–11. ISBN 978-1-56164-015-7. Retrieved 24 November 2012.  ^ Eugene Lyon (1996). "Settlement and Survival". In Michael Gannon. The New History of Florida. University Press of Florida. pp. 42–44. ISBN 978-0-8130-1415-9. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 

References[edit]

Library resources about Pedro Menéndez de Avilés

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Forbes, James Grant (1821). Sketches, Historical and Topographical, of the Floridas: More Particularly of East Florida. C.S. Van Winkle. Green, R. Edwin. (1 November 2004). St. Simons Island: A Summary of Its History. The History Press. ISBN 978-1-59629-017-4. Henderson, Richard R. (March 1989). A Preliminary inventory of Spanish colonial resources associated with National Park Service units and national historic landmarks, 1987. United States Committee, International Council on Monuments and Sites, for the U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service. History of the Tekesta - Part 6. Late Contact Period (1565 to the Present). Laudonnière, René Goulaine de (1853). L'histoire notable de la Floride: situèe es Indes Occidentales. P. Jannet Lowery, Woodbury. (1911). The Spanish settlements within the present limits of the United States: Florida, 1562-1574. G.P. Putnam. Lyon, Eugene (28 May 1983). The Enterprise of Florida: Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Avilés
and the Spanish Conquest of 1565-1568. University Press of Florida. Lyon, Eugene (1996). The New History of Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1415-8. Lyon, Eugene (1991). "Pedro Menéndez de Avilés". Edited by Gary Mormino (in English and Spanish). Spanish Pathways in Florida: 1492-1992/Los Caminos Espanoles En La Florida 1492-1992. Ann L Henderson (1st ed.). Pineapple Press Inc. ISBN 978-1-56164-003-4. Mallios, Seth. (28 August 2006) The Deadly Politics of Giving: Exchange And Violence at Ajacan, Roanoke, And Jamestown. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 978-0-8173-5336-0. Manucy, Albert C. (1992). Menéndez, Pedro Menéndez de Aviles, Captain General of the Open Sea. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. ISBN 1-56164-015-8. Pickett, Margaret F. ; Pickett, Dwayne W. (15 February 2011). "Four". The European Struggle to Settle North America: Colonizing Attempts by England, France
France
and Spain, 1521-1608. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5932-2. Ponce De Leon's Discovery, Written History section at http://augustine.com Rouse, Irving. Survey of Indian River Archaeology. Yale University Publications in Anthropology 45. ISBN 978-0-404-15668-8. Sáinz Sastre, María Antonia. (1992). La Florida, Siglo XVI: Descubrimiento y Conquista. Editorial Mapfre. ISBN 978-84-7100-475-8. Viele, John (1999). The Florida Keys: True stories of the perilous straits. Pineapple Press Inc. ISBN 1-56164-179-0. Voltaire, Francois Marie Arouet (1773). Essais sur les Moeurs et l'esprit des Nations.

Primary resources[edit]

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Avilés
Sailing Order, 1572 July 3. From the Collections at the Library of Congress

Further reading[edit]

 Hannay, David (1911). "Avilés, Pedro Menéndez de". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.   "Avilés, Pedro Menéndez de". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. 

v t e

Piracy

Periods

Ancient Mediterranean Golden Age

Republic of Pirates Libertatia

21st century

Types of pirate

Privateers Buccaneers Corsairs Sindhi corsairs Timber pirate River pirate Brethren of the Coast Barbary pirates Moro pirates Wōkòu Vikings Ushkuiniks Narentines Cilician pirates Confederate privateer Baltic Slavic pirates Uskoks Cossack pirates Sea Beggars Sea Dogs Fillibusters

Areas

Caribbean Lake Nicaragua British Virgin Islands Strait of Malacca Somali Coast Sulu Sea Falcon Lake South China Coast Anglo-Turkish piracy Port Royal Tortuga Saint-Malo Barbary Coast Lundy Lagos Salé Spanish Main Gulf of Guinea Indonesia Barataria Bay Persian Gulf

Noted pirates

Mansel Alcantra Chui A-poo Louis-Michel Aury Joseph Baker Hayreddin Barbarossa Joseph Barss Samuel Bellamy Charlotte de Berry Black Caesar Blackbeard Eli Boggs Stede Bonnet Anne Bonny Hippolyte Bouchard Abshir Boyah Roche Braziliano Henri Caesar Roberto Cofresí William Dampier Liang Daoming Diabolito Peter Easton Henry Every Alexandre Exquemelin Vincenzo Gambi Charles Gibbs Pedro Gilbert Nathaniel Gordon Laurens de Graaf Michel de Grammont Calico Jack Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah Zheng Jing Jørgen Jørgensen Shirahama Kenki William Kidd Fūma Kotarō Jean Lafitte Limahong Samuel Hall Lord John Hawkins Bully Hayes Piet Pieterszoon Hein Moses Cohen Henriques Albert W. Hicks Nicholas van Hoorn Benjamin Hornigold Pierre Lafitte Olivier Levasseur Edward Low Hendrick Lucifer John Newland Maffitt Samuel Mason Henry Morgan Shap Ng-tsai Gan Ning François l'Olonnais Samuel Pallache Lawrence Prince Cai Qian Redbeard Bartholomew Roberts Lai Choi San Dan Seavey Ching Shih Benito de Soto Klaus Störtebeker Henry Strangways Cheung Po Tsai Dominique You Wang Zhi Zheng Zhilong

Categories

Piracy Pirates By nationality Barbary pirates Female pirates Years in piracy Fictional pirates

Pirate ships

Adventure Galley Fancy Ganj-i-Sawai Queen Anne's Revenge Quedagh Merchant Saladin Whydah Gally Marquis of Havana Ambrose Light York

Pirate hunters

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Angelo Emo Richard Avery Hornsby Jose Campuzano-Polanco Robert Maynard Chaloner Ogle Pompey Woodes Rogers David Porter James Brooke Miguel Enríquez (privateer)

Pirate battles and incidents

Jiajing wokou raids Turkish Abductions Chepo Expedition Battle of Mandab Strait Battle of Pianosa Blockade of Charleston Battle of Cape Fear River Battle of Ocracoke Inlet Capture of the William Sack of Campeche Attack on Veracruz Raid on Cartagena Battle of Cape Lopez Capture of the Fancy Persian Gulf Campaign Battle of New Orleans Anti- Piracy
Piracy
in the Aegean Anti-piracy in the West Indies Capture of the Bravo Action of 9 November 1822 Capture of the El Mosquito Battle of Doro Passage Falklands Expedition Great Lakes Patrol Pirate attacks in Borneo Balanguingui Expedition Battle of Tysami Battle of Tonkin River Battle of Nam Quan Battle of Ty-ho Bay Battle of the Leotung Antelope incident North Star affair Battle off Mukah Salvador Pirates Battle of Boca Teacapan Capture of the Ambrose Light Irene incident 1985 Lahad Datu ambush Operation Enduring Freedom – HOA Action of 18 March 2006 Action of 3 June 2007 Action of 28 October 2007 Dai Hong Dan incident Operation Atalanta Carré d'As IV incident Action of 11 November 2008 Action of 9 April 2009 Maersk Alabama hijacking Operation Ocean Shield Action of 23 March 2010 Action of 1 April 2010 Action of 30 March 2010 Action of 5 April 2010 MV Moscow University hijacking Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden Operation Dawn 8: Gulf of Aden Beluga Nomination incident Battle off Minicoy Island Quest incident MT Zafirah hijacking MT Orkim Harmony hijacking

Slave trade

African slave trade Atlantic slave trade Arab slave trade Barbary slave trade Blockade of Africa African Slave Trade Patrol Capture of the Providentia Capture of the Presidente Capture of the El Almirante Capture of the Marinerito Capture of the Veloz Passagera Capture of the Brillante Amistad Incident Capture of the Emanuela

Fictional pirates

Tom Ayrton Barbe Rouge Hector Barbossa Captain Blood Captain Crook Captain Flint José Gaspar Captain Hook Don Karnage Monkey D. Luffy Captain Nemo One Piece Captain Pugwash Red Rackham Captain Sabertooth Sandokan Long John Silver Jack Sparrow Captain Stingaree Roronoa Zoro

Miscellaneous

Truce of Ratisbon Piracy
Piracy
Act 1698 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1717 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1837 Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law Child pirate Golden Age of Piracy Jolly Roger Walking the plank Treasure
Treasure
map Buried treasure Pirate booty No purchase, no pay Marooning Pirate code Pirate utopia Victual Brothers Pirate Round Libertatia Sack of Baltimore A General History of the Pyrates Mutiny Pegleg Eyepatch Letter of marque Davy Jones' Locker Air pirate Space pirate

Lists

Pirates Privateers Timeline of piracy Pirate films Women in piracy Fictional pirates Pirates in popular culture List of ships attacked by Somali pirates

Literature

Treasure
Treasure
Island Facing the Flag On Stranger Tides Castaways of the Flying Dutchman The Angel's Command Voyage of Slaves Pirate Latitudes

v t e

Spanish Empire

Timeline

Catholic Monarchs Habsburgs Golden Age Encomiendas New Laws
New Laws
in favour of the indigenous Expulsion of the Moriscos Ottoman–Habsburg wars French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War Portuguese Restoration War Piracy
Piracy
in the Caribbean Bourbons Napoleonic invasion Independence of Spanish continental Americas Liberal constitution Carlist Wars Spanish–American War German–Spanish Treaty (1899) Spanish Civil War Independence of Morocco (Western Sahara conflict)

Territories

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia Milan Union with Holy Roman Empire Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France Franche-Comté Union with Portugal Philippines East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) Northern Taiwan Tidore Florida New Spain
Spain
(Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) Spanish Louisiana (Central United States) Coastal Alaska Haiti Belize Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela, Western Guyana New Granada
Granada
(Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) Peru (Peru, Acre) Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands) Chile Equatorial Guinea North Africa (Oran, Tunis, Béjaïa, Peñón of Algiers, Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Ifni
Ifni
and Cape Juby)

Administration

Archivo de Indias Council of the Indies Cabildo Trial of residence Laws of the Indies Royal Decree of Graces School of Salamanca Exequatur Papal bull

Administrative subdivisions

Viceroyalties

New Spain New Granada Perú Río de la Plata

Audiencias

Bogotá Buenos Aires Caracas Charcas Concepción Cusco Guadalajara Guatemala Lima Manila Mexico Panamá Quito Santiago Santo Domingo

Captaincies General

Chile Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Venezuela Yucatán Provincias Internas

Governorates

Castilla de Oro Cuba Luisiana New Andalusia (1501–1513) New Andalusia New Castile New Navarre New Toledo Paraguay Río de la Plata

Economy

Currencies

Dollar Real Maravedí Escudo Columnario

Trade

Manila galleon Spanish treasure fleet Casa de Contratación Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas Barcelona Trading Company Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

Military

Armies

Tercio Army of Flanders Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia Indian auxiliaries Spanish Armada Legión

Strategists

Duke of Alba Antonio de Leyva Martín de Goiti Alfonso d'Avalos García de Toledo Osorio Duke of Savoy Álvaro de Bazán
Álvaro de Bazán
the Elder John of Austria Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Pedro de Zubiaur Ambrosio Spinola Bernardo de Gálvez

Sailors

Christopher Columbus Pinzón brothers Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan de la Cosa Juan Ponce de León Miguel López de Legazpi Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Sebastián de Ocampo Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alonso de Ojeda Vasco Núñez de Balboa Alonso de Salazar Andrés de Urdaneta Antonio de Ulloa Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Columbus Alonso de Ercilla Nicolás de Ovando Juan de Ayala Sebastián Vizcaíno Juan Fernández Felipe González de Ahedo

Conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Pedro de Valdivia Gaspar de Portolà Pere Fages i Beleta Joan Orpí Pedro de Alvarado Martín de Ursúa Diego de Almagro Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Mazariegos Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor

Battles

Old World

Won

Bicocca Landriano Pavia Tunis Mühlberg St. Quentin Gravelines Malta Lepanto Antwerp Azores Mons Gembloux Ostend English Armada Cape Celidonia White Mountain Breda Nördlingen Valenciennes Ceuta Bitonto Bailén Vitoria Tetouan Alhucemas

Lost

Capo d'Orso Preveza Siege of Castelnuovo Algiers Ceresole Djerba Tunis Spanish Armada Leiden Rocroi Downs Montes Claros Passaro Trafalgar Somosierra Annual

New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila Bay Asomante

Spanish colonizations

Canary Islands Aztec Maya

Chiapas Yucatán Guatemala Petén

El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Chibchan Nations Colombia Peru Chile

Other civil topics

Spanish missions in the Americas Architecture Mesoamerican codices Cusco painting tradition Indochristian painting in New Spain Quito painting tradition Colonial universities in Latin America Colonial universities in the Philippines General Archive of the Indies Colonial Spanish Horse Castas Old inquisition Slavery in Spanish Empire British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 107540186 LCCN: n88234987 ISNI: 0000 0001 1779 0625 GND: 119292149 SUDOC: 033522812 BNF: cb12438160t (data) BIBSYS: 12020

.