Pedro Fróilaz de Traba
Pedro Fróilaz de Traba (fl. 1086–1126) was the most powerful
secular magnate in the
Kingdom of Galicia
Kingdom of Galicia during the first quarter of
the twelfth century. According to the Historia compostelana, he was
"spirited ... warlike ... of great power ... a man who feared God and
hated iniquity," for
Diego Gelmírez himself had "fed him, like a
spiritual son, with the nutriment of holy teaching." Brought up at
the court of the Emperor Alfonso VI, Pedro raised the future Emperor
Alfonso VII in his household. Around the latter he and Diego formed a
"Galician party" that dominated that region during the turbulent reign
of Urraca (1109–26). In September 1111 they even had the child
Alfonso crowned king at Santiago de Compostela, but it was Pedro who
was imperator in orbe Galletiae ("emperor in the ambit of
Widely travelled and well-connected, especially through the
prestigious marriages of his many daughters—he had at least sixteen
legitimate children by his two wives—Pedro was, besides a political
and military figure, a religious one. Sometime before 1109 he founded
the first religious house for women in Galicia. As a result of his
generosity to the Cathedral of Saint James in Compostela, Pedro is the
best known Spanish nobleman of his era. One modern historian has
written that he "needs a modern biography, and the materials are
adequate for one." Most existing coverage is outdated or too
heavily reliant on the Historia compostelana.
2 Political career
2.1 Follower of
Raymond of Galicia
Raymond of Galicia (1090–1107)
2.2 Formation of a "Raimundist party" (1107–1109)
2.3 War with
Alfonso the Battler
Alfonso the Battler (1110–1112)
2.4 Guardian of
Alfonso Raimúndez (1112–1122)
2.5 Pedro and Alfonso against Diego and Urraca (1116–1118)
2.6 Final war with Urraca (1120–1123)
3 Religious patronage
The territory ruled by Pedro Fróilaz directly was the Trastámara,
that is, the land beyond the river Tambre, just north of Santiago
Pedro was the son of
Froila Vermúdez de Traba and his wife, Elvira de
Faro. The first reference to Pedro is from 9 November 1086, when
he subscribed to his father's donation to the monastery of San Martín
de Jubia, now Couto. According to the Historia compostelana, Pedro
was raised from childhood at the court of Alfonso VI of León. His
first wife was Urraca Fróilaz, daughter of
Froila Arias and Ardio
Díaz. They were married sometime before 12 August 1088, although a
document surviving only in an eighteenth-century copy records their
marriage on 11 August 1102. By 6 May 1105 Pedro had remarried to
Mayor (Guntroda) Rodríguez (de Bárcena), daughter of Rodrigo
Muñoz. Mayor was a major benefactress of
Lugo Cathedral (14
June 1112) and the monasteries of Jubia (26 December 1114) and
Sahagún (26 March 1125). She is last recorded alive on 6 January 1129
and probably died not long afterwards.
By his first wife Pedro had three sons and two daughters. The eldest
son, Bermudo, would eventually be overshadowed, politically, by the
second, Fernando. His other son was Froila and his daughters Jimena
and Lupa (married Munio Peláez). By his second wife Pedro had six
daughters—Elvira (married Gómez Núñez), Estefanía, Ilduara
Arias Pérez and, as her second husband, the Portuguese
nobleman Afonso Egas), Sancha, Toda (married Gutierre Vermúdez), and
Urraca—and five sons—Rodrigo, García, Martín, Sancho, and
Velasco. The assignment of any one of Pedro's children to one of
his two wives is in many cases uncertain. The record of the cartulary
of the monastery of Sobrado lists only five sons and a daughter
without naming a mother, for instance.
There may have been a second daughter named Toda who married Gutierre
Osorio, from the province of León, as well as a daughter named Eva,
wife of García Garcés de Aza. The historian Enrique Flórez
Gómez Núñez as another son-in-law by at the latest 1117.
Pedro's son García may have married Elvira, illegitimate daughter of
Queen Urraca and her lover Pedro González de Lara. This marriage
would have taken place, if at all, between 1120 and 1126, and would
have been designed to reconcile the Galician faction and the court
Raymond of Galicia
Raymond of Galicia (1090–1107)
In January 1090 Pedro was governing Ferreira in Galicia and is
described in a royal charter as dominator Ferrarie (lord of Ferreira,
today part of Coristanco). The only contemporary reference to Pedro
which names him in the way by which he is now generally known is an
undated fragment of a charter of Alfonso VI, which calls him Petro
Froillaz de Traua. It was the thirteenth-century historian Rodrigo
Jiménez de Rada some hundred years later who initiated the
historiographic tradition, still followed today, which names Pedro and
his descendants "de Traba". His wording—Comes Petrus de Trava in
Gallecia—may be derived from the corresponding passage in the
Historio compostelana, where Pedro is named Petrus Froylaz Comes de
By 11 January 1096 Pedro had received the title of "count" (comes in
Latin), the highest title bestowed in the kingdoms of León and
Castile. In that year he appealed to the king to intervene to
settle a dispute he had with the Abbey of Samos, which the king
did. By March 1098 he was governing Traba, from which his family
was to derive its recurring toponym. In royal charters he is sometimes
called comes de Ferraria (count of Ferreira) and sometimes comes
de Traba (count of Traba). Pedro was a supporter and vassal of
Raymond of Galicia
Raymond of Galicia and his wife, Urraca, whom he probably knew from
his time in the household of her father, Alfonso VI. Shortly after his
birth in 1105, Raymond and Urraca's son, Alfonso Raimúndez, was
placed in the care of
Count Pedro. It was not uncommon for the
scions of noble houses to be raised in others, commonly in those of
Formation of a "Raimundist party" (1107–1109)
The monastery of Sobrado was granted to Pedro's eldest two sons in
1118, although already in 1109 Pedro's territory had been defined by
After the death of Raymond, his widow Urraca donated a Galician
monastery to the Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela, signing the
charter, dated 13 December 1107, as imperatoris filia et totius
gallecie domina. The important Galician bishops of Lugo, Mondoñedo,
Tui, and Ourense, along with Pedro Fróilaz and the Asturian magnate
Suero Vermúdez were present to confirm the donation, which was
probably designed to secure the support of
Diego Gelmírez for
Urraca's rule in Galicia. In 1107 Pedro also confirmed a royal
donation to the monastery of Caabeiro, signing as "
Count Pedro of
Galicia", with his two eldest sons beside him, although the comital
title (count) and the territorial designation (Galicia) were not
directly connected. It is not clear whether he was named as
Raymond's successor in Galicia by Alfonso VI. The authors of the
Historia compostelana certainly did not recognise it, but perhaps for
partisan reasons. Beginning in 1109, however, Pedro's power and
influence in Galicia was such that he was calling himself "
Galicia" (Gallecie comes), although he did not control the entire
province. This had occurred by 22 July, shortly after the death of
Alfonso VI and the succession of Urraca, who was his heiress after the
Sancho Alfónsez at the Battle of Uclés (1108). He continued
using this title until 1122. A judicial document, and thus one not
having royal approval in its particulars, dated 1 November 1109 refers
to "duke Don Pedro Fróilaz who [is] ruling the nearby territory of
Sobrado". A royal charter dated 23 May 1121 and calling Pedro a
count in maritimis ("in the maritime province") is probably an
accurate description of the realm of his public authority: the
Atlantic coastlands of Galicia, specifically those north of the river
Tambre and encompassing A Coruña. It is a sign of his fame that
he was referred to as Petro Galliciensi comite ("Pedro, Galician
count") in a letter from William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, to Diego
Gelmírez on the occasion of his pilgrimage to Santiago.
Alfonso the Battler
Alfonso the Battler (1110–1112)
“Galicia, behind its mountain shield, had become almost a third
power rather than a province, ruled in uneasy alliance by the bishop
of Compostela and
Count Pedro Fróilaz. [The queen's] son, Alfonso
Raimúndez, was the ward of those two and the ultimate basis of their
practical ability to govern there in near independence of her.”
When, in the autumn of 1109, Urraca married Alfonso the Battler, the
King of Aragon
King of Aragon and Navarre, Pedro opposed the marriage, which might
have interfered with the succession of Urraca's son by Raymond. Within
months of the wedding Pedro had rebelled in Galicia against Urraca's
authority. Early in May 1110
Alfonso the Battler
Alfonso the Battler entered Galicia with
an army. At some point before early July he ravaged the lands of Pedro
Fróilaz, but without much effect. Late that summer, a faction of
Galicians, led by Pedro with the young Alfonso in tow, visited Urraca
Castrojeriz and there became convinced that she was making peace
with her estranged husband. This prompted Pedro to seek the advice of
Count of Portugal, a relative of
Raymond of Galicia
Raymond of Galicia and the
most powerful man in the west of the kingdom. On Henry's advice
Pedro arrested the partisans of the queen who had journeyed with him
and returned to Galicia, where he opened negotiations with the queen.
In exchange for the freedom of her supporters she surrendered the
castle of Santa María de Castrelo on the Galician border with
Portugal. This acquisition secured communication with Henry for the
In the fall of 1110 Pedro placed his wife, Mayor Rodríguez, and his
ward, Alfonso, in his newly acquired castle. One of the queen's
supporters, a minor nobleman named Arias Pérez, attacked suddenly and
forced Pedro to retreat, leaving his wife and charge besieged in the
castle. Pedro pleaded with
Diego Gelmírez to negotiate terms, but no
sooner had he done so and the siege had been lifted than Urraca
imprisoned Pedro, Diego, Alfonso, and Mayor. The bishop was
soon released so that negotiations could begin with
directly. He was released probably in January 1111.
On 19 September 1111, Diego and Pedro had the young Alfonso crowned
king in Santiago de Compostela. According to the Historia
compostelana, Pedro acted as steward (dapifer) at the coronation
festivities. After the coronation, Pedro and Diego gathered an
army to subject Galicia to his rule, first attacking Lugo, which was
still loyal to Alfonso the Battler. They captured it and probably
left a detachment there before crossing the mountains in the direction
of the capital, León. They were ambushed about twenty miles from the
city by Alfonso and defeated in the Battle of Viadangos, whereat Pedro
was captured. Diego escaped with the young Alfonso Raimúndez
and brought the boy to Urraca in Galicia, marking the first time the
queen had physical custody of her son since she began ruling in
Coat-of-arms of Oleiros, showing a castle on the sea. The castle at
Oleiros was probably originally built as protection against Vikings
and it was granted to Pedro Fróilaz in 1112.
By May 1112 Pedro had been released, possibly in order to cause
division among the Galicians, who had gone over to Urraca after
Viadangos. Urraca was soon forced to recognise Alfonso as her heir
and co-ruler, although he was then too young to possess any real
power, making the effect of such a concession the increase in power of
Pedro and Diego. At about this time, the young Alfonso was put once
again in the physical custody of Diego and Pedro in return for their
support against Alfonso the Battler. In May 1112, a royal castle
at Leyro (perhaps Oleiros) in the north of
Nendos was granted to
Pedro. For the duration of the year 1112, however, no divisions
appear among the followers of Urraca, united in their opposition to
Alfonso the Battler.
Alfonso Raimúndez (1112–1122)
Between 1112 and 1122 Pedro served
Alfonso Raimúndez in various
capacities as a tutor. In the earliest instance, May 1112, he is
described by Alfonso's mother, Queen Urraca, as he "who raised and
nourished my son the lord king Alfonso", a fact justified by his being
raised at the court of her father, the previous lord king Alfonso.
On 5 July 1118, in a document from Celanova, Alfonso is called a
clientulus ("little dependent") of Pedro. As late as 22 March 1122
Alfonso was still referring to Pedro as regis altor (royal protector).
It was around this time, in 1121 or 1122, that Pedro made a final
peace with his old enemy, Arias Pérez, by marrying to him his own
daughter Ildaria. By 1121 Pedro's second son, Fernando, was
already a count, because of his influence at the court of Theresa,
Countess of Portugal. On 25 July 1122, Pedro's eldest son, Vermudo,
made over the bridewealth to his wife Urraca Enríquez, daughter of
Theresa of Portugal. This marriage was contracted through Fernando
and the bridewealth was given to Vermudo by his father for that
express purpose. At some point early in the century Pedro gave a
Moorish cook named Martín to Fernando. This has been taken to
indicate Pedro's "taste for Moorish cooking".
In July 1114 Urraca ventured into Galicia with the intention of
depriving Diego of his secular powers. In this she was joined by Pedro
Fróilaz, Munio Peláez, Suero Vermúdez, Guter Vermúdez, and Rodrigo
Vélaz, but not by her son. A contemporary charter records that
"the queen Doña Urraca reigning with her son Don Alfonso in the
kingdom of Spain [and] discord also remaining between them." The
conspiracy against Diego is mentioned in a royal charter of 23 July,
in the Historia compostelana, and in a private document of the
Cathedral of León
Cathedral of León (26 July). Diego and Pedro were not always on good
terms, with the
Historia compostelana accusing of Pedro of depredating
the Galician church and at times even robbing the poor. In July
1114, however, Pedro changed his mind and supported Diego. After Diego
successfully defended himself from Urraca's charges, the queen left
Compostela for Salnes, planning to kidnap Diego at Iria Flavia. The
archbishop was warned in a secret message from Pedro and evaded the
queen's men. Negotiations were then opened and the queen, Pedro,
Muño, and Rodrigo all swore oaths to respect the rights of the
archdiocese to its tenancies.
Pedro and Alfonso against Diego and Urraca (1116–1118)
In March or April 1116 Pedro was fighting along with Alfonso
Raimúndez in the region around Toledo on behalf of Urraca.
Through this he learned of a plot by the queen to have the archbishop
seized and for a second time duly forewarned him. Pedro and
Alfonso promptly returned to Galicia and raised the standard of
revolt. Urraca marched via
Triacastela and Mellid, the route usually
taken by pilgrims to Compostela, into Galicia, gaining many supporters
on the way. Surprisingly, the citizens of Compostela were prepared to
fight for her against their lord, Diego, and his allies. The
rebels were forced to abandon the capital of Galicia to Urraca, who
hastily arranged a new alliance with Diego.
Castle of Sobroso, where Pedro surprised and besieged Queen Urraca.
On 18 May 1116 Urraca granted Diego a charter that was subscribed by
Pedro, indicating that at least initially he too was drawn into the
alliance with the queen. But when Urraca campaigned against Gómez
Núñez, whose lands guarded the roads into Portugal from Galicia, she
was surprised and besieged in
Sobroso by Pedro in alliance with the
Countess Theresa. The queen was forced to retreat to Compostela
and thence to León. Pedro's breach with Urraca mirrored a temporary
change in his relations with Diego. Not perfectly respecting his oath
to the archbishop, in 1116 Pedro was chased by Diego from the
territories of his archiepiscopal lordship into the mountains around
Deza. The Historia also records that he led raids to scoff serfs
In the autumn of 1116 Urraca held court at
Sahagún and there opened
negotiations with the party of her son Alfonso, led by Diego and
Pedro. The only secure date for these negotiations comes from a
charter of 15 October, which the queen issued from Sahagún.
Urraca was able to draw her son Alfonso at least temporarily out of
the orbit of Pedro Fróilaz and
Diego Gelmírez by granting him the
Kingdom of Toledo
Kingdom of Toledo as an appanage. By November, when Alfonso was twelve
years old, he had entered Toledo to rule it. The Historia
compostelana also claims that Urraca conceded to her son, and by
implication to his guardians, the rule of Galicia, although there is
no documentary evidence of this. It seems especially unlikely in light
of the apparent weakness of Diego and Pedro's alliance at the time,
and the lack of support for them in
Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela itself.
In the spring of 1117, probably in June, Urraca, after campaigning
against Theresa in southern Galicia, came to Santiago to mediate
between Diego and the council (concejo), which had been ruling the
town de facto for the past year. During a private meeting between
Urraca and Diego in the episcopal palace, the townspeople revolted and
forced the two to take refuge in a cathedral tower then under
construction, which they promptly lit on fire. When the queen came out
she was seized by the mob, stripped, and pelted with stones before
certain moderates rescued her. Extracting from her promises of
amnesty, they freed her to leave the city. She and Diego—who had
managed to escape unscathed—then joined the army that had assembled
under Pedro Fróilaz and Alfonso. On seeing the approach of Pedro's
forces the town surrendered. Its leaders were exiled and their
properties confiscated. The town was assessed an indemnity and the
rule of the archbishop was restored.
Final war with Urraca (1120–1123)
Pico Sacro ("sacred peak"), where Urraca camped her army to threaten
In the years 1118–19, Pedro Fróilaz is revealed in the surviving
documents of the period to have been the most important lay supporter
of the royal prerogative and the imperial pretensions of Alfonso
Raimúndez. In the spring of 1120 Urraca returned to Galicia and
formed a tenuous military alliance with Diego against certain
supporters of Pedro Fróilaz. The local campaigning was a success.
During the subsequent campaign against Theresa of Portugal, however,
Urraca had imprisoned Diego and attempted to assert her authority in
his lordship directly. At that juncture her son left her camp and
joined that of Pedro in the vicinity of Santiago. This incited some
citizens to riot in support of Diego, and Urraca was forced to release
him on 28 July 1120, although she would not restore his secular
authority. The archbishop then enlisted the aid of Pedro, Alfonso,
and Theresa. In the fall the queen was forced to concede the fiscal
Sahagún to her son's direct rule.
In 1121 Urraca confiscated the secular lordship of the archbishop of
Santiago, including his fortresses and castles. This led to a dispute
with the papacy, and
Pope Calixtus II sent letters to the queen
threatening excommunication. Negotiations between the monarch and
the bishop were reopened, but they were soon broken off and Urraca
gathered an army and invaded Galicia. She marched to the castle of
Cira, thence to
Tabeiros and Salnes, and finally camped at the mount
of Picosacro, close by Santiago de Compostela. Archbishop Diego and
Count Pedro raised an army and fought a few skirmishes, but the
prelate soon arranged a peace. A royal document of 23 May records
Urraca in obsidione super Acromonte ("in siege above Acromonte"),
probably a reference to Picosacro. It indicates that, contrary to the
testimony of the Historia compostelana,
Alfonso Raimúndez was then
with his mother's forces, not those of Pedro Fróilaz. Diego was
able ultimately to force the return of his church's lands, and
probably Pedro received an equally favourable settlement from the
queen. He was with the queen on 22 March 1122, when she confirmed
Alfonso's donation of the monastery of
San Martín de Pinario
San Martín de Pinario to the
church of Compostela, and was with her again on 8 March 1123 at
Lugo, with most of the Galician high nobility. Sometime after
this, and perhaps before she came to an understanding with Diego on 27
March, Queen Urraca had Pedro arrested and imprisoned along with his
sons. Her exact motive is unclear, although his fiefs were
confiscated. Pedro remained a royal prisoner at least until
Urraca's death, and his sons continued to support her enemy, Theresa
of Portugal. The Chronicon iriense, a history of the diocese of
Santiago de Compostela, may have been written between the years 1121,
when Pedro and the Galician magnates were forced to swear oaths to
Bishop Diego, and 1123, when Pedro and his sons were imprisoned by the
queen. On this account, the Chronicon was designed to bolster Diego's
claims by a recourse to the history.
Apse of the monastery of Jubia, a major beneficiary of Pedro's
religious patronage and which he eventually gave to Cluny.
Pedro was a major patron of
Benedictine monasticism and of the Cluniac
reform. He made donations to Jubia, Nemeño, and
Pedroso. On 14 December 1113 Pedro and his siblings granted Jubia
to the Abbey of Cluny. There are also three suspicious donations
recorded to the regular clergy of Caabeiro. Sometime in the early
1120s, persuaded by Diego Gelmírez, Pedro granted the church a
Cospindo near Traba to the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela.
His other benefactions to the see were so numerous that the author of
Historia compostelana refused to list them all. The motive behind
this generosity was Pedro and his second wife's desire to be buried in
the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. Pedro is also known to
have made donations to the diocese of Mondoñedo, to the immediate
east of his domains.
Historia compostelana records that there were no nunneries in
Galicia around the year 1100. This was rectified by Pedro Fróilaz
sometime before 1108. The monastery of
Cines (Cinis), long abandoned,
he had recently resurrected as a community of nuns. Early in 1108,
with papal and episcopal support, a certain Abbot Nuño (Munio), with
a community of monks, expelled the ladies and re-established a
monastery there. Pedro in turn removed the men and in their place
re-installed the women. These may have included two of his three known
sisters. Visclavara, who never married and was a prolific religious
donor—to Jubia, Cines, Carboeiro, and the cathedral of
Santiago—was still in secular life in 1097, but was described as a
"handmaid of the handmaids of God" (ancillarum Dei ancilla) in 1114.
The other sister, Munia, is consistently called "vowed to God" (Deo
vota) in the sources. She lived until 1145 and was also a donor to
The removal of the monks of
Cines provoked a controversy which was
eventually brought before Pope Paschal II. Initially he was persuaded
by the expelled monks and sent a letter dated 1 May 1109 to the
bishops of Compostela, Mondoñedo, and
Lugo ordering them to protest
Count Pedro's actions. A second letter was sent to Bernard de
Sedirac, the apostolic legate, at the same time. Pedro responded by
making a pilgrimate to
Rome with the archives of the monastery of
Cines to plead his case before the curia Romana. There he
persuaded Paschal that the monastery was a family possession. Paschal
sent a new letter to Bernard and Diego, dated 11 April 1110, ordering
them to re-establish the women at Cines.
Pedro's relationship to the monastery of Caabeiro is perhaps somewhat
falsified in the surviving documents, but a document from here is one
of the last records of Pedro (1125) and the only one that names his
countship as Trastámara, that is, the lands beyond (tras) the Tambre
Pedro is not recorded in any royal document after his imprisonment in
1123. His wife does name him as co-donor of the
Tresancos and Némitos
to Jubia on 27 February 1125. A document of Caabeiro, dated 1125,
refers to Pedro as count in Trastámara, a title his descendants would
frequently bear. Pedro is last recorded in a document dated 25
March 1126. On 3 May his widow made a donation to the monastery of
Sahagún for the sake of his soul, possibly indicating that he had
died in the interim. The
Historia compostelana records that Pedro
made a division of his properties amongst his heirs on his deathbed,
with the consent of his wife and children, although no written record
of this division has survived. Several modern sources date Pedro's
death to 1128, but few give reasons. The deathbed munificence of
Pedro in favour of the see of Compostela, which is recorded in the
Historia compostelana, has been dated to 1128.
Richard A. Fletcher has noted how well-travelled and
well-connected Pedro was for a nobleman of his time: "His upbringing
at the peripatetic court of Alfonso VI must have familiarized him with
most corners of the kingdom of León-Castile; he had spent some time
in captivity in Aragon; [and] he numbered among his acquaintances the
princes of southern France." He was buried in the cathedral of
Compostela, where his tomb, surmounted by an effigy carved in stone,
still lies in the "Chapel of Relics". In the central plaza of
Compostela, he had once had an iron statue of himself put up, which
does not survive.
^ a b c d e f Fletcher (1984), 37–38.
^ Monteagudo García (1952), 490. Pallarés and Portela (1993), 833,
reads orbem Galletie imperante, "ruling the ambit of Galicia".
^ a b Reilly (1982), 360–62.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Barton (1997), 278–79.
^ For Pedro's full, known ancestry, cf. Torres Sevilla-Quiñones de
León (), 304–305.
^ a b Fletcher (1984), 36.
^ Barton (1997), 47–48.
^ For Urraca's ancestry, cf. Torres Sevilla-Quiñones de León (),
^ On that date Urraca comes domnus Petrus in coniugem accepit.
^ Canal Sánchez-Pagín (1989), 124; Canal Sánchez-Pagín (1991),
23–24, where she is called Gontrodo Roiz. She had no relation to
Ermengol V of Urgell, as sometimes alleged. Cf. also Alonso Álvarez
^ Quoted in Alonso Álvarez (2007), 700: De domno Petro Froyle natus
est comes domnus Fernandus et domnus Ueremudus et domnus Garssia et
domnus Uelascus et comes domnus Rodericus dictus Uelusu et domna Luba.
^ Fletcher (1984), 41.
^ Alonso Álvarez (2007), 668, denies that Eva is a daughter of Pedro
and Mayor. This Eva is sometimes identified with a wife of Pedro
González de Lara and García Ordóñez de Nájera.
^ Reilly (1982), 290.
^ The first record of Elvira dates to 1117, cf. Reilly (1982), 217.
^ a b Pallarés and Portela (1993), 829.
^ Reilly (1968), 480, surmises that this may indicate a weakening of
the authority of
Raymond of Galicia
Raymond of Galicia at this time.
^ E.g. on 21 August 1096.
^ E.g. on 28 March 1098.
^ Reilly (1988), 341–42.
^ Comes Petrus de Gallecia.
^ a b Pallarés and Portela (1993), 833.
^ Reilly (1982), 288 n41, cites as the last known reference to this
title a document of 22 March 1122. However, contrary to Barton (1997),
278, he cites 29 March 1110 as the first known instance of the title.
^ dux domnus Petrus Froile qui territorio citerio Superaddo imperanti.
^ Reilly (1982), 288–89.
^ a b Reilly (1982), 87.
^ Reilly (1982), 66. Our sources for this campaign are the Historia
compostelana and the Crónicas anónimas de Sahagún.
^ a b Reilly (1982), 69–70.
^ Barton (1997), 50–51.
^ Barton (1997), 14.
^ Quoted in Alonso Álvarez (2007), 694 n379: Deinde, missa ex more
solempniter celebrata, regem nouum deducens ad palatium suum episcopus
omnes Gallicie proceres ad regale inuitatuit conuiuium, in quo
clarissimus comes Petrus regius dapifer extitir eiusque filius
Rudericus clipeum et frameam ad regis scapulas alferecis tenuit.
^ a b c Reilly (1982), 77–78.
^ Canal Sánchez-Pagín (1984), 45.
^ Reilly (1982), 81–85.
^ Reilly (1982), 268 n49.
^ ideo quod pater meus rex dominus Adefonsus uos criauit et nutriauit
et pro fideli seruitio uestro quod de uobis cognoui usque in hunc diem
et quod criastis et nutristis filium meum regem dominum Alfonsum.
^ This document is published in Sánchez (1944), 188–89.
^ Probably reluctantly, considering the different social strata of the
two families thus united, cf. Barton (1997), 51.
^ The carta de arras is edited in Barton (1997), 308–10.
^ Barton (1997), 54.
^ Barton (1997), 59–60.
^ a b Reilly (1982), 98–99.
^ regnante regina domna Urraca cum filio suo donno Adefonso in espanie
regno discordia tamen inter eos manente.
^ Barton (1997), 218.
Historia compostelana reads: puerum commorantem in Extremitatem
Comes P. Froylaz.
^ a b c Reilly (1982), 109–11.
^ Barton (1997), 213.
^ a b c Barton (2000).
^ a b Reilly (1982), 114–17.
^ a b Reilly (1982), 124–25.
^ Reilly (1982), 125–144.
^ Reilly (1982), 145.
^ Reilly (1982), 146–47.
^ Reilly (1982), 151.
^ a b Reilly (1982), 155–56.
^ Reilly (1982), 158.
^ Reilly (1982), 166.
^ a b Reilly (1982), 174–75.
^ Barton (1997), 112.
^ Reilly (1982), 191–92.
^ Isla Frez (1984), 430.
^ On 12 August 1088, 14 December 1113, 27 February 1125.
^ On 6 May 1105.
^ On 25 March 1126.
^ Dated 25 July 1086, 24 June 1092, and 6 April 1108. The last he
signs as Ego comes Petrus, principis Gallecie, una cum uxore mea
Count Pedro, prince of Galicia, together with my wife
^ Barton (1997), 188.
^ Barton (1997), 207.
^ Fletcher (1984), 35.
^ Garrigós (1943), 393–94.
^ Barton (1997), 211.
^ López Sangil, "La fundación," 14.
^ Canal Sánchez-Pagín (1991), 35.
^ in Trastamar comite Petrus Froylaz.
^ Barton (1997), 57.
^ Reilly (1982), 192 n45.
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