HOME
The Info List - Peace


--- Advertisement ---



Peace
Peace
is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility. In a behavioral sense, peace is a lack of conflict and freedom from fear of violence between individuals and heterogenous social groups. Throughout history some of the most extraodinary and benevolent leaders have used peace talks to establish a certain type of behavioral restraint that has resulted in the establishment of regional peace or economic growth through various forms of agreements or peace treaties. Such behavioral restraint has often resulted in de-escalation of rhetorical and physical conflicts, greater economic interactivity, and consequently substantial prosperity. The avoidance of war or violent hostility can be the result of thoughtful active listening and communication that enables greater genuine mutual understanding and therefore compromise. Leaders often benefit tremendously from the prestige of peace talks and treaties that can result in substantially enhanced popularity. “Psychological peace” (such as a peaceful thinking and emotions) is perhaps less well defined yet often a necessary precursor to establishing "behavioral peace." Peaceful behavior sometimes results from a "peaceful inner disposition." Some have expressed the belief that peace can be initiated with a certain quality of inner tranquility that does not depend upon the uncertainties of daily life for its existence.[1] The acquisition of such a "peaceful internal disposition" for oneself and others can contribute to resolving of otherwise seemingly irreconcilable competing interests. Because psychological peace can be important to Behavioral peace, leaders sometimes de-escalate conflicts through compliments and generosity. Small gestures of rhetorical and actual generosity have been shown in psychological research to often result in larger levels of reciprocal generosity (and even virtuous circles of generosity). Such benevolent selfless behavior can eventually become a pattern that may become a lasting basis for improved relations between individuals and groups of people. Peace
Peace
talks often start without preconditions and preconceived notions, because they are more than just negotiating opportunities. They place attention on peace itself over and above what may have been previously perceived as the competing needs or interests of separate individuals or parties to elicit peaceful feelings and therefore produce benevolent behavioral results. Peace talks are sometimes also uniquely important learning opportunities for the individuals or parties involved.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Religious beliefs

2.1 Christianity 2.2 Islam 2.3 Buddhism 2.4 Hinduism

3 Inner peace, meditation and prayerfulness 4 Satyagraha 5 Justice
Justice
and injustice 6 Long periods 7 Movements and activism

7.1 Pacifism 7.2 Organizations

7.2.1 United Nations 7.2.2 League of Nations 7.2.3 Olympic Games 7.2.4 Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize 7.2.5 Rhodes Scholarships
Rhodes Scholarships
and other fellowships 7.2.6 International Peace
Peace
Belt 7.2.7 Gandhi Peace
Peace
Prize 7.2.8 Paul Bartlett Ré Peace
Peace
Prize 7.2.9 Student Peace
Peace
Prize 7.2.10 Culture of Peace News
Peace News
Network 7.2.11 The Sydney Peace
Peace
Prize 7.2.12 Other

8 Monuments 9 Theories

9.1 Game theory 9.2 Balance of power theories 9.3 Democratic peace theory 9.4 Free trade, interdependence and globalization 9.5 Socialism
Socialism
and managed capitalism 9.6 Theory of 'active peace' 9.7 International organization and law 9.8 Trans-national solidarity 9.9 Lyotard post-modernism 9.10 Peace
Peace
without weapons

10 Peace
Peace
and conflict studies 11 Measurement and ranking 12 See also 13 References 14 Notes 15 External links

Etymology[edit] The term-'peace' originates most recently from the Anglo-French pes, and the Old French pais, meaning "peace, reconciliation, silence, agreement" (11th century).[2] But, Pes itself comes from the Latin pax, meaning "peace, compact, agreement, treaty of peace, tranquility, absence of hostility, harmony." The English word came into use in various personal greetings from c.1300 as a translation of the Hebrew word shalom, which, according to Jewish theology, comes from a Hebrew verb meaning 'to be complete, whole'.[3] Although 'peace' is the usual translation, however, it is an incomplete one, because 'shalom,' which is also cognate with the Arabic salaam, has multiple other meanings in addition to peace, including justice, good health, safety, well-being, prosperity, equity, security, good fortune, and friendliness, as well as simply the greetings, "hello" and "goodbye".[citation needed] At a personal level, peaceful behaviors are kind, considerate, respectful, just, and tolerant of others' beliefs and behaviors — tending to manifest goodwill. This latter understanding of peace can also pertain to an individual's introspective sense or concept of her/himself, as in being "at peace" in one's own mind, as found in European references from c.1200. The early English term is also used in the sense of "quiet", reflecting calm, serene, and meditative approaches to family or group relationships that avoid quarreling and seek tranquility — an absence of disturbance or agitation. In many languages, the word for peace is also used as a greeting or a farewell, for example the Hawaiian word aloha, as well as the Arabic word salaam. In English the word peace is occasionally used as a farewell, especially for the dead, as in the phrase rest in peace. Wolfgang Dietrich in his research project which led to the book The Palgrave International Handbook of Peace
Peace
Studies (2011) maps the different meanings of peace in different languages and from different regions across the world. Later, in his Interpretations of Peace
Peace
in History
History
and Culture (2012), he groups the different meanings of peace into five peace families: Energetic/Harmony, Moral/Justice, Modern/Security, Postmodern/Truth, and Transrational, a synthesis of the positive sides of the four previous families and the society. Religious beliefs [edit]

Statue of Eirene, goddess of peace in ancient Greek religion, with her son Pluto.

Religious beliefs often seek to identify and address the basic problems of human life, including the conflicts between, among, and within persons and societies. In ancient Greek-speaking areas the virtue of peace was personified as the goddess Eirene, and in Latin-speaking areas as the goddess Pax. Her image was typically represented by ancient sculptors as that of a full-grown woman, usually with a horn of plenty and scepter and sometimes with a torch or olive leaves. Christianity[edit] Christians, who believe Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth to be the Jewish Messiah called Christ (meaning Anointed One),[4] interpret Isaiah 9:6 as a messianic prophecy of Jesus
Jesus
in which he is called the "Prince of Peace."[5] In the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah celebrates his son John: And you, child, will be called prophet of the Most High, for you will go before the Lord to prepare his ways, to give his people knowledge of salvation through the forgiveness of their sins, because of the tender mercy of our God by which the daybreak from on high will visit us to shine on those who sit in darkness and death's shadow, to guide our feet into the path of peace. Numerous pontifical documents on the Holy Rosary
Rosary
document a continuity of views of the Popes to have confidence in the Holy Rosary
Rosary
as a means to foster peace. Subsequently, to the Encyclical Mense maio,1965, in which he urged the practice of the Holy Rosary, "the prayer so dear to the Virgin and so much recommended by the Supreme Pontiffs," and as reaffirmed in the encyclical Christi Matri, 1966, to implore peace, Pope Paul VI stated in the apostolic Recurrens mensis, October 1969, that the Rosary
Rosary
is a prayer that favors the great gift of peace. Islam[edit] Islam
Islam
derived from the root word salam which literally means peace. Muslims are called followers of Islam. Quran
Quran
clearly stated "Those who have believed and whose hearts are assured by the remembrance of Allah. Unquestionably, by the remembrance of Allah, hearts are assured" and stated "O you who have believed, when you are told, "Space yourselves" in assemblies, then make space; Allah will make space for you. And when you are told, "Arise," then arise; Allah will raise those who have believed among you and those who were given knowledge, by degrees. And Allah is Acquainted with what you do." [6][7] Buddhism[edit] Buddhists believe that peace can be attained once all suffering ends. They regard all suffering as stemming from cravings (in the extreme, greed), aversions (fears), or delusions. To eliminate such suffering and achieve personal peace, followers in the path of the Buddha
Buddha
adhere to a set of teachings called the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
— a central tenet in Buddhist
Buddhist
philosophy. Hinduism[edit] Hindu texts contain the following passages:

May there be peace in the heavens, peace in the atmosphere, peace on the earth. Let there be coolness in the water, healing in the herbs and peace radiating from the trees. Let there be harmony in the planets and in the stars, and perfection in eternal knowledge. May everything in the universe be at peace. Let peace pervade everywhere, at all times. May I experience that peace within my own heart. —  Yajur Veda
Yajur Veda
36.17)

Let us not concord with our own people, and concord with people who are strangers to us. Celestial Twins, create between us and the strangers a unity of hearts. May we unite in our minds, unite in our purposes, and not fight against the heavenly spirit within us. Let not the battle-cry rise amidst many slain, nor the arrows of the war-god fall with the break of day —  Yajur Veda
Yajur Veda
7.52

A superior being does not render evil for evil. This is a maxim one should observe... One should never harm the wicked or the good or even animals meriting death. A noble soul will exercise compassion even towards those who enjoy injuring others or cruel deeds... Who is without fault? — Valmiki, Ramayana

The chariot that leads to victory is of another kind.

Valour and fortitude are its wheels; Truthfulness and virtuous conduct are its banner; Strength, discretion, self-restraint and benevolence are its four horses, Harnessed with the cords of forgiveness, compassion and equanimity... Whoever has this righteous chariot, has no enemy to conquer anywhere. — Valmiki, Ramayana

Inner peace, meditation and prayerfulness[edit] Main article: Inner peace

Buddhist
Buddhist
monk during meditation near Phu Soidao Nationalpark.

Psychological or inner peace (i.e. peace of mind) refers to a state of being internally or spiritually at peace, with sufficient knowledge and understanding to keep oneself calm in the face of apparent discord or stress. Being internally "at peace" is considered by many to be a healthy mental state, or homeostasis and to be the opposite of feeling stressful, mentally anxious, or emotionally unstable. Within the meditative traditions, the psychological or inward achievement of "peace of mind" is often associated with bliss and happiness. Peace
Peace
of mind, serenity, and calmness are descriptions of a disposition free from the effects of stress. In some meditative traditions, inner peace is believed to be a state of consciousness or enlightenment that may be cultivated by various types of meditation, prayer, t'ai chi ch'uan (太极拳, tàijíquán), yoga, or other various types of mental or physical disciplines. Many such practices refer to this peace as an experience of knowing oneself. An emphasis on finding one's inner peace is often associated with traditions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, and some traditional Christian
Christian
contemplative practices such as monasticism,[8] as well as with the New Age movement. Satyagraha[edit] Main article: Satyagraha Satyagraha
Satyagraha
(Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He deployed satyagraha techniques in campaigns for Indian independence and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa. The word satyagraha itself was coined through a public contest that Gandhi sponsored through the newspaper he published in South Africa, 'Indian Opinion', when he realized that neither the common, contemporary Hindu language nor the English language contained a word which fully expressed his own meanings and intentions when he talked about his nonviolent approaches to conflict. According to Gandhi's autobiography, the contest winner was Maganlal Gandhi (presumably no relation), who submitted the entry 'sadagraha', which Gandhi then modified to 'satyagraha'. Etymologically, this Hindic word means 'truth-firmness', and is commonly translated as 'steadfastness in the truth' or 'truth-force'.

Martin Luther King, Jr., president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and Mathew Ahmann, executive director of the National Catholic Conference for Interrracial Justice, at a civil rights march on Washington, D.C.

Satyagraha
Satyagraha
theory also influenced Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
during the campaigns he led during the civil rights movement in the United States. The theory of satyagraha sees means and ends as inseparable. Therefore, it is contradictory to try to use violence to obtain peace. As Gandhi wrote: "They say, 'means are, after all, means'. I would say, 'means are, after all, everything'. As the means so the end..."[9] A contemporary quote sometimes attributed to Gandhi, but also to A. J. Muste, sums it up: 'There is no way to peace; peace is the way.' Justice
Justice
and injustice[edit] Since classical times, it has been noted that peace has sometimes been achieved by the victor over the vanquished by the imposition of ruthless measures. In his book Agricola the Roman historian Tacitus includes eloquent and vicious polemics against the rapacity and greed of Rome. One, that Tacitus
Tacitus
says is by the Caledonian chieftain Calgacus, ends Auferre trucidare rapere falsis nominibus imperium, atque ubi solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant. (To ravage, to slaughter, to usurp under false titles, they call empire; and where they make a desert, they call it peace. — Oxford Revised Translation). Discussion of peace is therefore at the same time a discussion on the form of such peace. Is it simple absence of mass organized killing (war) or does peace require a particular morality and justice? (just peace).[10] A peace must be seen at least in two forms:

A simple silence of arms, absence of war. Absence of war accompanied by particular requirements for the mutual settlement of relations, which are characterized by terms such as justice, mutual respect, respect for law and good will.

More recently, advocates for radical reform in justice systems have called for a public policy adoption of non-punitive, non-violent Restorative Justice
Restorative Justice
methods, and many of those studying the success of these methods, including a United Nations
United Nations
working group on Restorative Justice, have attempted to re-define justice in terms related to peace. From the late 2000s on, a Theory of Active Peace
Peace
has been proposed[11] which conceptually integrates justice into a larger peace theory. Long periods[edit] See also: List of periods of regional peace The longest continuing period of neutrality among currently existing states is observed in Switzerland, which has had an official policy of neutrality and general peace since 1815 (for 202 years as of 2018). This was made possible partly by the periods of relative peace in Europe and the world known as Pax Britannica
Pax Britannica
(1815-1914), Pax Europaea/ Pax Americana
Pax Americana
(since 1950s), and Pax Atomica (also since the 1950s). Other examples of long periods of peace are:

the isolationistic Edo period
Edo period
(also known as Tokugawa shogunate) in Japan 1603 to 1868 (250 years) Pax Khazarica
Pax Khazarica
in Khazar Khanate
Khazar Khanate
(south-east Turkey) about 700-950 AD (250 years) Pax Romana
Pax Romana
in the Roman empire (for 190 or 206 years).

Movements and activism[edit] Pacifism[edit] Main article: Pacifism

A peace sign, which is widely associated with pacifism

Pacifism
Pacifism
is the categorical opposition to the behaviors of war or violence as a means of settling disputes or of gaining advantage. Pacifism
Pacifism
covers a spectrum of views ranging from the belief that international disputes can and should all be resolved via peaceful behaviors; to calls for the abolition of various organizations which tend to institutionalize aggressive behaviors, such as the military, or arms manufacturers; to opposition to any organization of society that might rely in any way upon governmental force. Such groups which sometimes oppose the governmental use of force include anarchists and libertarians. Absolute pacifism opposes violent behavior under all circumstance, including defense of self and others. Pacifism
Pacifism
may be based on moral principles (a deontological view) or pragmatism (a consequentialist view). Principled pacifism holds that all forms of violent behavior are inappropriate responses to conflict, and are morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and inter-personal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found. Pacifists in general reject theories of Just War. Pacifism
Pacifism
tends to place its initial focus on the need for a "peaceful behavior" ahead of any focus on the need for a "peaceful inner disposition." Organizations[edit] United Nations[edit] Main article: United Nations The United Nations
United Nations
(UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achieving world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War
War
II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. See also: List of United Nations
United Nations
peacekeeping missions

UN peacekeeping missions. Dark blue regions indicate current missions, while light blue regions represent former missions.

The UN, after approval by the Security Council, sends peacekeepers to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased or paused to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from resuming hostilities. Since the UN does not maintain its own military, peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states of the UN. The forces, also called the "Blue Helmets", who enforce UN accords are awarded United Nations
United Nations
Medals, which are considered international decorations instead of military decorations. The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1988. League of Nations[edit] The principal forerunner of the United Nations
United Nations
was the League of Nations. It was created at the Paris Peace
Peace
Conference of 1919, and emerged from the advocacy of Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
and other idealists during World War
War
I. The Covenant of the League of Nations
League of Nations
was included in the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
in 1919, and the League was based in Geneva
Geneva
until its dissolution as a result of World War
War
II and replacement by the United Nations. The high hopes widely held for the League in the 1920s, for example amongst members of the League of Nations
League of Nations
Union, gave way to widespread disillusion in the 1930s as the League struggled to respond to challenges from Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Japan. One of the most important scholars of the League of Nations
League of Nations
was Sir Alfred Zimmern. Like many of the other British enthusiasts for the League, such as Gilbert Murray
Gilbert Murray
and Florence Stawell
Florence Stawell
- the so-called "Greece and peace" set - he came to this from the study of the classics. The creation of the League of Nations, and the hope for informed public opinion on international issues (expressed for example by the Union for Democratic Control during World War
War
I), also saw the creation after World War
War
I of bodies dedicated to understanding international affairs, such as the Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations
in New York and the Royal Institute of International Affairs at Chatham House in London. At the same time, the academic study of international relations started to professionalize, with the creation of the first professorship of international politics, named for Woodrow Wilson, at Aberystwyth, Wales, in 1919. Olympic Games[edit] The late 19th century idealist advocacy of peace which led to the creation of the Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize, the Rhodes Scholarships, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and ultimately the League of Nations, also saw the re-emergence of the ancient Olympic ideal. Led by Pierre de Coubertin, this culminated in the holding in 1896 of the first of the modern Olympic Games. Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize[edit] Main article: Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize

Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
was awarded the first-ever Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for his role in founding the International Red Cross.

The highest honour awarded to peace maker is the Nobel Prize in Peace, awarded since 1901 by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. It is awarded annually to internationally notable persons following the prize's creation in the will of Alfred Nobel. According to Nobel's will, the Peace
Peace
Prize shall be awarded to the person who "...shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."[12] Rhodes Scholarships
Rhodes Scholarships
and other fellowships[edit] In creating the Rhodes Scholarships
Rhodes Scholarships
for outstanding students from the United States, Germany and much of the British Empire, Cecil Rhodes wrote in 1901 that 'the object is that an understanding between the three great powers will render war impossible and educational relations make the strongest tie'.[13] This peace purpose of the Rhodes Scholarships
Rhodes Scholarships
was very prominent in the first half of the 20th century, and became prominent again in recent years under Warden of the Rhodes House
Rhodes House
Donald Markwell,[14] a historian of thought about the causes of war and peace.[15] This vision greatly influenced Senator J. William Fulbright in the goal of the Fulbright fellowships to promote international understanding and peace, and has guided many other international fellowship programs,[16] including the Schwarzman Scholars to China created by Stephen A. Schwarzman
Stephen A. Schwarzman
in 2013.[17] International Peace
Peace
Belt[edit] Main article: International Peace
Peace
Belt The International Peace
Peace
Belt, created by artist Wendy Black Nasta, is a living symbol of the peaceful unity of all nations. Gandhi Peace
Peace
Prize[edit] Main article: Gandhi Peace
Peace
Prize

Mahatma Gandhi.

The International Gandhi Peace
Peace
Prize, named after Mahatma Gandhi, is awarded annually by the Government of India. It is launched as a tribute to the ideals espoused by Gandhi in 1995 on the occasion of the 125th anniversary of his birth. This is an annual award given to individuals and institutions for their contributions towards social, economic and political transformation through non-violence and other Gandhian methods. The award carries Rs. 10 million in cash, convertible in any currency in the world, a plaque and a citation. It is open to all persons regardless of nationality, race, creed or sex. Paul Bartlett Ré Peace
Peace
Prize[edit] Main article: Paul Bartlett Ré Peace
Peace
Prize The Paul Bartlett Ré Peace
Peace
Prize, named after the artist Paul Ré, is awarded bi-annually by the University of New Mexico
University of New Mexico
(UNM). Student Peace
Peace
Prize[edit] Main article: Student Peace
Peace
Prize The Student Peace Prize
Student Peace Prize
is awarded biennially to a student or a student organization that has made a significant contribution to promoting peace and human rights. Culture of Peace News
Peace News
Network[edit] Main article: Culture of Peace News
Peace News
Network The Culture of Peace News
Peace News
Network, otherwise known simply as CPNN, is a UN authorized interactive online news network, committed to supporting the global movement for a culture of peace. The Sydney Peace
Peace
Prize[edit] Every year in the first week of November, the Sydney Peace
Peace
Foundation presents the Sydney Peace
Peace
Prize. The Sydney Peace
Peace
Prize is awarded to an organization or an individual whose life and work has demonstrated significant contributions to: The achievement of peace with justice locally, nationally or internationally The promotion and attainment of human rights The philosophy, language and practice of non violence Other[edit] See also: Peace
Peace
museums A peace museum is a museum that documents historical peace initiatives. Many peace museums also provide advocacy programs for nonviolent conflict resolution. This may include conflicts at the personal, regional or international level. Smaller institutions:

Randolph Bourne Institute The McGill Middle East Program of Civil Society
Society
and Peace
Peace
Building International Festival of Peace
Peace
Poetry

Monuments[edit] The following are monuments to peace:

Name Location Organization Meaning Image

Japanese Peace
Peace
Bell New York City, NY, USA United Nations World peace

Fountain of Time Chicago, IL, USA Chicago
Chicago
Park District 100 years of peace between the USA and UK

Fredensborg
Fredensborg
Palace Fredensborg, Denmark Frederick IV The peace between Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
and Sweden, after Great Northern War
War
which was signed 3 July 1720 on the site of the unfinished palace.

International Peace
Peace
Garden North Dakota, Manitoba non-profit organization Peace
Peace
between the US and Canada, World peace

Peace
Peace
Arch border between US and Canada, near Surrey, British Columbia. non-profit organization Built to honour the first 100 years of peace between Great Britain
Great Britain
and the United States
United States
resulting from the signing of the Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent
in 1814.

Statue of Europe Brussels European Commission Unity in Peace
Peace
in Europe

Waterton-Glacier International Peace
Peace
Park Alberta, Montana non-profit organization World Peace

The Peace
Peace
Dome Windyville, MO, USA not-for-profit organization Many minds working together toward a common ideal to create real and lasting transformation of consciousness on planet Earth. A place for people to come together to learn how to live peaceably.[18]

Shanti Stupa Pokhara, Nepal Nipponzan-Myōhōji-Daisanga One of eighty peace pagodas in the World.

Theories[edit] See also: Peace and conflict studies
Peace and conflict studies
§ Conceptions of peace Many different theories of "peace" exist in the world of peace studies, which involves the study of de-escalation, conflict transformation, disarmament, and cessation of violence.[19] The definition of "peace" can vary with religion, culture, or subject of study. One definition is that peace is a state of balance and understanding in yourself and between others, where respect is gained by the acceptance of differences, tolerance persists, conflicts are resolved through dialog, people's rights are respected and their voices are heard, and everyone is at their highest point of serenity without social tension.[20] Game theory[edit] Main article: Peace
Peace
war game The Peace
Peace
& War
War
Game is an approach in game theory to understand the relationship between peace and conflicts. The iterated game hypotheses was originally used by academic groups and computer simulations to study possible strategies of cooperation and aggression.[21] As peace makers became richer over time, it became clear that making war had greater costs than initially anticipated. One of the well studied strategies that acquired wealth more rapidly was based on Genghis Khan, i.e. a constant aggressor making war continually to gain resources. This led, in contrast, to the development of what's known as the "provokable nice guy strategy", a peace-maker until attacked, improved upon merely to win by occasional forgiveness even when attacked. There exists a strategy of multiple players who can continue to gain wealth cooperating with each other while bleeding a constantly aggressive player.[citation needed] Balance of power theories[edit] Main article: Balance of power (international relations) The classical "realist" position is that the key to promoting order between states, and so of increasing the chances of peace, is the maintenance of a balance of power between states - a situation where no state is so dominant that it can "lay down the law to the rest". Exponents of this view have included Metternich, Bismarck, Hans Morgenthau, and Henry Kissinger. A related approach - more in the tradition of Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius
than Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
- was articulated by the so-called "English school of international relations theory" such as Martin Wight in his book Power Politics (1946, 1978) and Hedley Bull in The Anarchical Society
Society
(1977). As the maintenance of a balance of power could in some circumstances require a willingness to go to war, some critics saw the idea of a balance of power as promoting war rather than promoting peace. This was a radical critique of those supporters of the Allied and Associated Powers who justified entry into World War
War
I on the grounds that it was necessary to preserve the balance of power in Europe from a German bid for hegemony. In the second half of the 20th century, and especially during the cold war, a particular form of balance of power - mutual nuclear deterrence - emerged as a widely held doctrine on the key to peace between the great powers. Critics argued that the development of nuclear stockpiles increased the chances of war rather than peace, and that the "nuclear umbrella" made it "safe" for smaller wars (e.g. the Vietnam war
Vietnam war
and the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
to end the Prague Spring), so making such wars more likely. Democratic peace theory[edit] Main article: Democratic peace theory The democratic peace theory holds that democracies will never go to war with one another. Free trade, interdependence and globalization[edit] It was a central tenet of classical liberalism, for example among English liberal thinkers of the late 19th and early 20th century, that free trade promoted peace. For example, the Cambridge economist John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) said that he was "brought up" on this idea and held it unquestioned until at least the 1920s.[22] During the economic globalization in the decades leading up to World War
War
I, writers such as Norman Angell
Norman Angell
argued that the growth of economic interdependence between the great powers made war between them futile and therefore unlikely. He made this argument in 1914. These ideas have again come to prominence among liberal internationalists during the globalization of the late 20th and early 21st century.[23] These ideas have seen capitalism as consistent with, even conducive to, peace. Socialism
Socialism
and managed capitalism[edit] Socialist, communist, and left-wing liberal writers of the 19th and 20th centuries (e.g., Lenin, J.A. Hobson, John Strachey) argued that capitalism caused war (e.g. through promoting imperial or other economic rivalries that lead to international conflict). This led some to argue that international socialism was the key to peace. However, in response to such writers in the 1930s who argued that capitalism caused war, the economist John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes
(1883-1946) argued that managed capitalism could promote peace. This involved international coordination of fiscal/monetary policies, an international monetary system that did not pit the interests of countries against each other, and a high degree of freedom of trade. These ideas underlay Keynes's work during World War
War
II that led to the creation of the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and the World Bank
World Bank
at Bretton Woods in 1944, and later of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (subsequently the World Trade Organization).[24] Theory of 'active peace'[edit] Borrowing from the teachings of Norwegian theorist Johan Galtung, one of the pioneers of the field of Peace
Peace
Research, on 'Positive Peace',[25] and on the writings of Maine Quaker
Quaker
Gray Cox, a consortium of theorists, activists, and practitioners in the experimental John Woolman College initiative have arrived at a theory of "active peace". This theory posits in part that peace is part of a triad, which also includes justice and wholeness (or well-being), an interpretation consonant with scriptural scholarly interpretations of the meaning of the early Hebrew word shalom. Furthermore, the consortium have integrated Galtung's teaching of the meanings of the terms peacemaking, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding, to also fit into a triadic and interdependent formulation or structure. Vermont Quaker John V. Wilmerding posits five stages of growth applicable to individuals, communities, and societies, whereby one transcends first the 'surface' awareness that most people have of these kinds of issues, emerging successively into acquiescence, pacifism, passive resistance, active resistance, and finally into active peace, dedicating themselves to peacemaking, peacekeeping or peace building.[26] International organization and law[edit] One of the most influential theories of peace, especially since Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
led the creation of the League of Nations
League of Nations
at the Paris Peace
Peace
Conference of 1919, is that peace will be advanced if the intentional anarchy of states is replaced through the growth of international law promoted and enforced through international organizations such as the League of Nations, the United Nations, and other functional international organizations. One of the most important early exponents of this view was Sir Alfred Zimmern, for example in his 1936 book The League of Nations
League of Nations
and the Rule of Law.[27] Trans-national solidarity[edit] Many "idealist" thinkers about international relations - e.g. in the traditions of Kant
Kant
and Karl Marx
Karl Marx
- have argued that the key to peace is the growth of some form of solidarity between peoples (or classes of people) spanning the lines of cleavage between nations or states that lead to war.[28] One version of this is the idea of promoting international understanding between nations through the international mobility of students - an idea most powerfully advanced by Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
in the creation of the Rhodes Scholarships, and his successors such as J. William Fulbright.[29] Another theory is that peace can be developed among countries on the basis of active management of water resources.[30] Lyotard post-modernism[edit] Following Wolfgang Dietrich, Wolfgang Sützl[31] and the Innsbruck School of Peace
Peace
Studies, some peace thinkers have abandoned any single and all-encompassing definition of peace. Rather, they promote the idea of many peaces. They argue that since no singular, correct definition of peace can exist, peace should be perceived as a plurality. This post-modern understanding of peace(s) was based on the philosophy of Jean Francois Lyotard. It served as a fundament for the more recent concept of trans-rational peace(s) and elicitive conflict transformation. In 2008 Dietrich enlarged his approach of the many peaces to the so-called five families of peace interpretations: the energetic, moral, modern, post-modern and trans-rational approach.[32] Trans-rationality unites the rational and mechanistic understanding of modern peace in a relational and culture-based manner with spiritual narratives and energetic interpretations.[33] The systemic understanding of trans-rational peaces advocates a client-centred method of conflict transformation, the so-called elicitive approach.[34] Peace
Peace
without weapons[edit] The theory of peace without weapons is as old as philosophy and human consciousness. This theory holds that weapons in and of themselves are causative of violence, aggression, and other non-peaceful activities, and the removal of all weapons and the military, would therefore be a means of preventing such activities, thereby inducing peace. Some philosophical and legal manifests have been written and distributed on this theme in several languages, for select and privileged groups of highly respected and experienced experts in philosophy and law, in many countries in all continents, worldwide.[citation needed] These philosophical peace manifests would be suitable for public lectures at universities in many countries in all continents, worldwide.[citation needed] Some pacifist religious denominations, such as the Quakers, the Amish, and the Mennonites traditionally renounce the ownership of weapons, and routinely lobby against their manufacture and distributuon. Peace
Peace
and conflict studies[edit]

Detail from Peace
Peace
and Prosperity (1896), Elihu Vedder, Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Building, Washington, D.C.

Main article: Peace
Peace
and conflict studies Peace and conflict studies
Peace and conflict studies
is an academic field which identifies and analyses violent and nonviolent behaviours, as well as the structural mechanisms attending violent and non violent social conflicts. This is to better understand the processes leading to a more desirable human condition.[35] One variation, Peace studies
Peace studies
(irenology), is an interdisciplinary effort aiming at the prevention, de-escalation, and solution of conflicts. This contrasts with war studies (polemology), directed at the efficient attainment of victory in conflicts. Disciplines involved may include political science, geography, economics, psychology, sociology, international relations, history, anthropology, religious studies, and gender studies, as well as a variety of other disciplines. Measurement and ranking[edit] Although peace is widely perceived as something intangible, various organizations have been making efforts to quantify and measure it. The Global Peace Index
Global Peace Index
produced by the Institute for Economics
Economics
and Peace is a known effort to evaluate peacefulness in countries based on 23 indicators of the absence of violence and absence of the fear of violence.[36] The last edition of the Index ranks 163 countries on their internal and external levels of peace.[37] According to the 2017 Global Peace Index, Iceland is the most peaceful country in the world while Syria is the least peaceful one.[38] Fragile States Index
Fragile States Index
(formerly known as the Failed States Index) created by the Fund for Peace
Fund for Peace
focuses on risk for instability or violence in 178 nations. This index measures how fragile a state is by 12 indicators and subindicators that evaluate aspects of politics, social economy, and military facets in countries.[39] The 2015 Failed State Index reports that the most fragile nation is South Sudan, and the least fragile one is Finland.[40] University of Maryland publishes the Peace
Peace
and Conflict Instability Ledger in order to measure peace. It grades 163 countries with 5 indicators, and pays the most attention to risk of political instability or armed conflict over a three-year period. The most recent ledger shows that the most peaceful country is Slovenia on the contrary Afghanistan is the most conflicted nation. Besides indicated above reports from the Institute for Economics
Economics
and Peace, Fund for Peace, and University of Maryland, other organizations including George Mason University release indexes that rank countries in terms of peacefulness. See also[edit]

Catholic peace traditions Prayer for Peace Creative Peacebuilding Global Peace
Peace
Index Group on International Perspectives on Governmental Aggression
Aggression
and Peace
Peace
(GIPGAP) Human overpopulation#Warfare and conflict International Day of Peace List of peace activists List of places named Peace Peace
Peace
prizes Moral syncretism Peace
Peace
education Peace
Peace
in Islamic philosophy Peace
Peace
Journalism Peace
Peace
makers Peace
Peace
One Day Peace
Peace
Palace Peace
Peace
symbol Peacekeeping Peacemaking Structural violence Sulh World Cease fire day War
War
resister World peace World Alliance of Religions Peace
Peace
Summit (WARP Summit)

References[edit]

^ Dalai Lama XIV: Quotable Quotes Goodreads. Downloaded Sep 15, 2017 ^ Online Etymology Dictionary, "Peace". ^ Benner, Jeff: Ancient Hebrew Research centre: http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/27_peace.html ^ Benner, Jeff: Ancient Hebrew Research Center:http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/27_messiah.html> ^ "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, 'Prince of Peace'." [New International Version] ^ "peaceful quran".  ^ "peaceful quran".  ^ Essential Writings of Christian
Christian
Mysticism Page 163. 2006. By Bernard McGinn. ^ R. K. Prabhu & U. R. Rao, editors; from section "The Gospel Of Sarvodaya", of the book The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Archived 20 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Ahemadabad, India, Revised Edition, 1967. ^ Šmihula, Daniel (2013): The Use of Force in International Relations, p. 129, ISBN 978-80-224-1341-1. ^ "The Theory of Active Peace". internationalpeaceandconflict.org. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015.  ^ "Excerpt from the Will of Alfred Nobel". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-31.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2013.  ^ Cecil Rhodes's goal of Scholarships promoting peace highlighted - The Rhodes Scholarships
Rhodes Scholarships
Archived 22 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Various materials on peace by Warden of the Rhodes House Donald Markwell in Markwell, "Instincts to Lead": On Leadership, Peace, and Education. Connor Court, 2013. ^ E.g., Donald Markwell, John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes
and International Relations: Economic Paths to War
War
and Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. ^ http://www.politics.ox.ac.uk/materials/news/Fulbright_18May12_Arndt.pdf, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2012.  ^ See, e.g., "The Rhodes Scholarships
Rhodes Scholarships
of China" in Donald Markwell, "Instincts to Lead": On Leadership, Peace, and Education, Connor Court, 2013. ^ "The Peace
Peace
Dome History". peacedome.org.  ^ einaudi.cornell.edu Archived 22 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ https://www.cute-calendar.com/event/world-peace-day/32299.html ^ Shy, O., 1996, Industrial Organization: Theory and Applications, Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT
MIT
Press. ^ Quoted from Donald Markwell, John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes
and International Relations: Economic Paths to War
War
and Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, chapter 2. ^ For sources, see articles on liberalism and classical liberalism. ^ . See Donald Markwell. John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes
and International Relations: Economic Paths to War
War
and Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. ^ Galtung, J: Peace
Peace
by peaceful means: peace and conflict, development and civilization, page 32. Sage Publications, 1996. ^ Wilmerding, John. "The Theory of Active Peace". Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ Macmillan, 1936. ^ See, e.g., Sir Harry Hinsley. Power and the Pursuit of Peace, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962. ^ Discussed above. See, e.g., Donald Markwell. "Instincts to Lead": On Leadership, Peace, and Education (2013). ^ http://strategicforesight.com/publications.php#.WBm94-V94dU ^ Wolfgang Dietrich/Wolfgang Sützl: A Call for Many Peaces; in: Dietrich, Wolfgang, Josefina Echavarría Alvarez, Norbert Koppensteiner eds.: Key Texts of Peace
Peace
Studies; LIT Münster, Vienna, 2006 ^ Wolfgang Dietrich: Interpretations of Peace
Peace
in History
History
and Culture; Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2012 ^ Wolfgang Dietrich, Josefina Echavarría Alvarez, Gustavo Esteva, Daniela Ingruber, Norbert Koppensteiner eds.: The Palgrave International Handbook of Peace
Peace
Studies. A Cultural Approach; Palgrave MacMillan London, 2011 ^ John Paul Lederach: Preparing for Peace; Syracuse University Press, 1996 ^ Dugan, 1989: 74 ^ "Vision of Humanity". visionofhumanity.org.  ^ Jethro Mullen, CNN (25 June 2015). "Study: Iceland is the most peaceful nation in the world - CNN.com". CNN.  ^ https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/06/these-are-the-most-peaceful-countries-in-the-world/ ^ "Fragile States 2014 - Foreign Policy". foreignpolicy.com.  ^ "South Sudan Tops List of World's Fragile States - Again". VOA. 

Notes[edit]

Sir Norman Angell. The Great Illusion. 1909. Raymond Aron, Peace
Peace
and War. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966 Hedley Bull. The Anarchical Society. Macmillan, 1977. Sir Herbert Butterfield. Christianity, Diplomacy and War. 1952. Martin Ceadel. Pacifism
Pacifism
in Britain, 1914-1945: The Defining of a Faith. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980. Martin Ceadel. Semi-Detached Idealists: The British Peace
Peace
Movement and International Relations, 1854-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Martin Ceadel. The Origins of War
War
Prevention: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1730-1854. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. Martin Ceadel. Thinking about Peace
Peace
and War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Inis L. Claude, Jr. Swords into Ploughshares: The Problems and Progress of International Organization. 1971. Michael W. Doyle. Ways of War
War
and Peace: Realism, Liberalism, and Socialism. W.W. Norton, 1997. Sir Harry Hinsley. Power and the Pursuit of Peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962. Andrew Hurrell. On Global Order. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Immanuel Kant. Perpetual Peace. 1795. Donald Markwell. John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes
and International Relations: Economic Paths to War
War
and Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Donald Markwell. "Instincts to Lead": On Leadership, Peace, and Education. Connor Court, 2013. Hans Morgenthau. Politics Among Nations. 1948. Steven Pinker. The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence
Violence
Has Declined. Viking, 2011. Sir Alfred Zimmern. The League of Nations
League of Nations
and the Rule of Law. Macmillan, 1936. Kenneth Waltz. Man, the State and War. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978. Michael Walzer. Just and Unjust War. Basic Books, 1977. J. Whalan. How Peace
Peace
Operations Work. Oxford University Press, 2013. Martin Wight. Power Politics. 1946 (2nd edition, 1978). Letter from Birmingham Jail by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.. "Pennsylvania, A History
History
of the Commonwealth," esp. pg. 109, edited by Randall M. Miller and William Pencak, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002. Peaceful Societies, Alternatives to Violence
Violence
and War
War
Short profiles on 25 peaceful societies. The Path to Peace, by Laure Paquette Prefaces to Peace: a Symposium [i.e. anthology], Consisting of [works by] Wendell L. Willkie, Herbert Hoover and Hugh Gibson, Henry A. Wallace, [and] Sumner Welles. "Cooperatively published by Simon and Schuster; Doubleday, Doran, and Co.; Reynal & Hitchcock; [and] Columbia University Press", [194-]. xii, 437 p.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutPeaceat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Lemonade a la Carnegie accessed 16 October 2012 Research Guide on Peace
Peace
by the United Nations
United Nations
Library at Geneva PeaceWiki Peace
Peace
Monuments Around the World Peace
Peace
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Working Group on Peace
Peace
and Development (FriEnt) Answers to: "How do we achieve world peace?"

v t e

Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

Related articles

Jurisprudence Philosophy and economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history Philosophy of love Philosophy of sex Philosophy of social science Political ethics Social epistemology

Category Portal Task Force

v t e

Peace
Peace
movement/Anti-war movement

Peace
Peace
advocates

Anti-nuclear organizations Anti-war movement Anti-war organizations Bed-In Central Park be-ins Conscientious objectors Counterculture Draft evasion Human Be-In List of peace activists Peace
Peace
and conflict studies Peace
Peace
camp Peace
Peace
churches Peace
Peace
commission Peace
Peace
education Peace
Peace
movement Peace
Peace
walk Teach-in War
War
resisters War
War
tax resisters

Ideologies

Ahimsa Anarcho-pacifism Anarcho-punks Anti-imperialism Anti-nuclear movement Antimilitarism Appeasement Christian
Christian
anarchism Direct action Finvenkismo Hippie Isolationism Non-interventionism Nonkilling Nonviolence Pacificism Pacifism Peace Satyagraha Simple living Socialism Soviet influence on the peace movement

Media and cultural

Art Books Films International Day of Non-Violence International Day of Peace Dialogue Among Civilizations List of places named Peace "Make love, not war" Monuments and memorials Museums Peace
Peace
journalism

Peace
Peace
News

Plays Promoting Enduring Peace Songs Symbols World Game

Opposition to or aspects of war

Afghan War American Civil War Iraq War Landmines Military action in Iran Military intervention in Libya Military taxation Nuclear armament Second Boer War Sri Lankan Civil War Vietnam War War
War
of 1812 War
War
on Terror World War
War
I World War
War
II

Countries

Canada Germany Israel Netherlands Spain United Kingdom United States

v t e

War

Peace
Peace
(list) Conflicts (list) Ideas of War
War
(lists) Civil Wars (list) Attacks (list) Terrorism (list) Massacres (list) Warfare (list) Battles (list) Wars (list) Ongoing armed conflicts (list)

Maps of the world showing all ongoing armed conflicts

Authority control

GND: 4071465-2 SELIBR: 16

.