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PAUL BLOBEL (13 August 1894 – 7 June 1951) was a German SS commander during the Nazi era . He is best known as the key figure in organising and executing the Babi Yar massacre in 1941. After the war, Blobel was convicted at the Einsatzgruppen Trial and executed.

EARLY LIFE

Born in the city of Potsdam
Potsdam
, he fought in the First World War , in which by all accounts he served well, being decorated with the Iron Cross first class. After the war, Blobel studied architecture and practiced this profession from 1924 until 1931, when upon losing his job he joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
, the SA , and the SS (he had joined all of these by 1 December 1931).

CAREER

In 1933 Blobel joined the police force in Düsseldorf . In June 1934 he was recruited into the SD . In June 1941 he became the commanding officer of Sonderkommando 4a of Einsatzgruppe C that was active in Ukraine
Ukraine
. Following Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
troops into Ukraine, the Einsatzgruppen were responsible for murdering (sometimes called liquidating) political and racial undesirables. In August 1941 Blobel decided to create a ghetto in Zhytomyr to trap 3,000 Jews who were murdered a month later. On 10 or 11 August 1941, Friedrich Jeckeln ordered him, on behalf of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
, to exterminate the whole Jewish population. On 22 August 1941 the Sonderkommando murdered Jewish women and children at Bila Tserkva with the consent of Field Marshal Walther von Reichenau
Walther von Reichenau
, commander of the 6th Army . SS-Obersturmführer August Häfner testified at his own trial:

The Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
had already dug a grave. The children were brought along in a tractor. The Ukrainians were standing around trembling. The children were taken down from the tractor. They were lined up along the top of the grave and shot so that they fell into it. The Ukrainians did not aim at any particular part of the body....The wailing was indescribable.

Blobel, in conjunction with Reichenau's and Friedrich Jeckeln 's units, organised the Babi Yar massacre in late September 1941 in Kiev , where 33,771 Jews were murdered. In November 1941 Blobel received and activated the first gas vans at Poltava .

Blobel was relieved of his command on 13 January 1942, officially for health reasons, but mostly due to his alcoholism .

In June 1942 he was put in charge of Aktion 1005 , with the task of destroying the evidence of all Nazi atrocities in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. This entailed exhumation of mass graves, then incinerating the bodies. Blobel developed efficient disposal techniques such as alternating layers of bodies with firewood on a frame of iron rails.

In October 1944 he headed an anti-partisan group in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
.

Gitta Sereny relates a conversation about Blobel she once had with one-time Chief of the Church Information Branch at the Reich Security Office, Albert Hartl.

Hartl had told me of a summer evening—that same hot summer in 1942—in Kiev
Kiev
when he was invited to dine with the local Higher SS Police Chief and Brigadeführer, Max Thomas. A fellow guest, SS Colonel Paul Blobel, had driven him to the general's weekend dacha. "At one moment—it was just getting dark," said Hartl, "we were driving past a long ravine. I noticed strange movements of the earth. Clumps of earth rose into the air as if by their own propulsion—and there was smoke; it was like a low-toned volcano; as if there was burning lava just beneath the earth. Blobel laughed, made a gesture with his arm pointing back along the road and ahead, all along the ravine—the ravine of Babi Yar—and said, 'Here lie my thirty-thousand Jews.'"

Up to 59,018 killings are attributable to Blobel, though during testimony he was alleged to have killed 10,000–15,000. He was later sentenced to death by the U.S. Nuremberg Military Tribunal in the Einsatzgruppen Trial . He was hanged at Landsberg Prison shortly after midnight on 7 June 1951.

REFERENCES

* ^ Zentner, Christian Ed; Bedürftig, Friedemann Ed (1991). The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Macmillan. p. 1150. ISBN 0-02-897502-2 . * ^ Ralf Ogorreck, Les Einsatzgruppen (Tallandier 2010), p. 150, ISBN 978-2-286-03062-9 * ^ Ralf Ogorreck, op. cit. p. 203 * ^ Saul Friedländer . The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 , HarperCollins, 2007, p. 217 ISBN 978-0-06-019043-9 * ^ Christopher Browning , The Origins of the Final Solution : The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942 (With contributions by Jürgen Matthäus ), Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, 2004. pp. 291-292 ISBN 0-803-25979-4 OCLC
OCLC
52838928 * ^ 1941: Mass Murder The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Chronicle. p. 270 * ^ Saul Friedländer . The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945, HarperCollins, 2007, p. 234 ISBN 978-0-06-019043-9 * ^ Sereny, Gitta (1974). Into That Darkness: From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder (2005 paperback ed.). London: Pimlico. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7126-7447-8 . Sereny also mentions the story in her 1995 biography of Albert Speer: Sereny, Gitta. Albert Speer: His Battle With Truth (1996 paperback ed.). London: Picador. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-330-34697-9 . * ^ "Five death sentences were confirmed: the sentence against Oswald Pohl, as well as those passed against the leaders of the Mobile Killing Units, Paul Blobel, Werner Braune, Erich Neumann and Otto Ohrlendorf. . . . In the early morning hours of 7 June, the [] Nazi criminals were hanged in the Landesburg prison courtyard." Norbert Frei, Adenauer's Germany and the Nazi Past: The Politics of Amnesty and Integration. Columbia University Press, 2002. p. 165 and p. 173

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* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Ukraine
Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

CRIMES

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobych * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms * Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
* Odessa * Pripyat Swamps

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

* Paul Blobel * Werner Braune * Lothar Fendler * Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Günther Herrmann * Friedrich Jeckeln * Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
* Fritz Katzmann * Erich Koch * Felix Landau * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Otto Ohlendorf * Paul Otto Radomski * Otto Rasch * Walter Schimana * Erwin Schulz * Heinrich Seetzen * Otto Wächter
Otto Wächter
* Dieter Wisliceny

NAZI OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * Police Regiment South * Reichskommissariat Ukraine
Ukraine

COLLABORATORS Individuals Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

GHETTOS, CAMPS AND PRISONS

* Bogdanovka * Drohobych Ghetto * Syrets concentration camp * Vapniarka concentration camp

RESISTANCE AND SURVIVORS

* Priest\'s Grotto * Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste Evidence Graebe affidavit

CONCEALMENT AND DENIAL

* Sonderaktion 1005

INVESTIGATIONS AND TRIALS

* Einsatzgruppen trial * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Klymentiy Sheptytsky * Omelyan Kovch * Hermann Friedrich Graebe

MEMORIALS

* Babi Yar memorials * List of Babi Yar victims

See also History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine
Ukraine

* v * t * e

Camps, ghettos and operations

CAMPS

EXTERMINATION

* Auschwitz-Birkenau * Chełmno * Majdanek

* Operation Reinhard death camps

* Bełżec * Sobibór * Treblinka

CONCENTRATION

* Kraków-Płaszów * Potulice * Soldau * Stutthof * Szebnie * Trawniki * Warsaw

MASS SHOOTINGS

* AB Action * Bronna Góra * Erntefest * Jedwabne * Kielce cemetery * Aktion Krakau * Lviv pogroms * Lwów professors * Palmiry * Sonderaktion Krakau * Tannenberg * Tykocin * Bydgoszcz * Wąsosz * Bloody Sunday

GHETTOS

* List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942)

* Będzin * Białystok * Brest * Częstochowa * Grodno * Kielce * Kraków * Lwów * Łódź * Lubartów * Lublin * Międzyrzec Podlaski * Mizocz * Nowy Sącz * Pińsk * Radom * Siedlce * Sambor * Słonim * Sosnowiec * Stanisławów * Tarnopol * Wilno * Warsaw

OTHER ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Grossaktion Warsaw * Human medical experimentation

* v * t * e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

ORGANIZERS

* Josef Bühler * Eichmann * Eicke * Ludwig Fischer * Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Globocnik * Glücks * Greiser * Himmler * Hermann Höfle * Fritz Katzmann * Wilhelm Koppe * Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger * Kutschera * Erwin Lambert
Erwin Lambert
* Ernst Lerch
Ernst Lerch
* Oswald Pohl * Reinefarth * Scherner * Seyss-Inquart * Sporrenberg * Streckenbach * Thomalla * Otto Wächter
Otto Wächter
* Wisliceny

CAMP COMMAND

* Aumeier * Baer * Boger * Braunsteiner * Eberl * Eupen * Kurt Franz * Karl Frenzel * Karl Fritzsch * Göth * Grabner * Hartjenstein * Hering * Höss * Hössler * Josef Kramer * Liebehenschel * Mandel * Matthes * Michel * Möckel * Mulka * Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
* Oberhauser * Reichleitner * Heinrich Schwarz * Stangl * Gustav Wagner * Christian Wirth

GAS CHAMBER EXECUTIONERS

* Erich Bauer * Bolender * Hackenholt * Klehr * Hans Koch * Herbert Lange
Herbert Lange
* Theuer

PHYSICIANS

* von Bodmann * Clauberg * Gebhardt * Fritz Klein * Mengele * Horst Schumann
Horst Schumann
* Trzebinski * Eduard Wirths

GHETTO COMMAND

* Auerswald * Biebow * Blösche * Bürkl * Konrad * Palfinger * von Sammern-Frankenegg * Stroop

EINSATZGRUPPEN

* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Blobel * Felix Landau * Schaper * Schöngarth * von Woyrsch

PERSONNEL

CAMP GUARDS

* Juana Bormann * Danz * Demjanjuk * Margot Dreschel * Kurt Gerstein * Grese * Höcker * Kaduk * Kollmer * Muhsfeldt * Orlowski * Volkenrath

BY CAMP

* Sobibór * Treblinka

ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * General Government * Hotel Polski * WVHA * RKFDV * VoMi

COLLABORATORS

JEWISH

* Group 13 * Kapo * Żagiew

Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian

* Schutzmannschaft

OTHER NATIONALITIES

* Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Ukrainian collaboration * Lithuanian Security Police * Trawniki * Ypatingasis būrys * Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten

* v * t * e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

ORGANIZATIONS

* AK * AOB * Bund * GL * PKB * ŻOB * ŻZA

UPRISINGS

* Ghetto uprisings * Białystok * Częstochowa * Sobibór * Treblinka * Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

LEADERS

* Mordechai Anielewicz * Icchak Cukierman * Mordechai Tenenbaum * Marek Edelman * Leon Feldhendler * Paweł Frenkiel * Henryk Iwański * Itzhak Katzenelson * Michał Klepfisz * Miles Lerman * Alexander Pechersky * Witold Pilecki * Frumka Płotnicka * Roza Robota * Szmul Zygielbojm

JUDENRAT

* Jewish Ghetto Police * Adam Czerniaków * Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

VICTIM LISTS

GHETTOS

* Kraków * Łódź * Lvov (Lwów) * Warsaw

CAMPS

* Auschwitz * Bełżec * Gross-Rosen * Izbica * Majdanek * Sobibór * Soldau * Stutthof * Trawniki * Treblinka

DOCUMENTATION

NAZI SOURCES

* Auschwitz Album * Frank Memorandum * Höcker Album * Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram
* Katzmann Report * Korherr Report * Nisko Plan * Posen speeches * Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland * Stroop Report
Stroop Report
* Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference

WITNESS ACCOUNTS

* Graebe affidavit * Gerstein Report * Vrba–Wetzler report * Witold\'s Report * Sonderkommando photographs

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

TECHNICAL AND LOGISTICS

* Identification in camps * Gas chamber * Gas van * Holocaust train * Human medical experimentation * Zyklon B
Zyklon B

* v * t * e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

AFTERMATH

* Holocaust survivors * Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
* Bricha * Kielce pogrom * Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 * Ministry of Public Security

TRIALS

WEST GERMAN TRIALS

* Frankfurt Auschwitz trials * Treblinka trials

POLISH, EAST GERMAN, AND SOVIET TRIALS

* Auschwitz trial (Poland) * Stutthof trials * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

MEMORIALS

* Museum of the History of Polish Jews * Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum * Majdanek State Museum * Sobibór Museum * International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz * March of the Living

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Polish Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
* Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust * Garden of the Righteous

* v * t * e

Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos

PEOPLE

DIRECTOR

* Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

* Humbert Achamer-Pifrader * Walther Bierkamp * Horst Böhme * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Wilhelm Fuchs
Wilhelm Fuchs
* Heinz Jost * Erich Naumann * Arthur Nebe * Otto Ohlendorf * Friedrich Panzinger * Otto Rasch * Heinrich Seetzen * Franz Walter Stahlecker * Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

* Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski * Rudolf Batz * Ernst Biberstein * Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Helmut Bischoff * Paul Blobel * Walter Blume * Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock * Otto Bradfisch * Werner Braune * Friedrich Buchardt * Fritz Dietrich * Karl Jäger * Friedrich Jeckeln * Waldemar Klingelhöfer * Wolfgang Kügler * Walter Kutschmann * Rudolf Lange * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Walter Rauff * Martin Sandberger * Hermann Schaper * Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
* Erwin Schulz * Franz Six * Eugen Steimle * Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch
* Martin Weiss * Udo von Woyrsch

OTHER MEMBERS

* August Becker * Lothar Fendler * Joachim Hamann * Emil Haussmann * Felix Landau * Albert Widmann

COLLABORATORS

* Viktors Arājs * Herberts Cukurs * Antanas Impulevičius * Konrāds Kalējs * Algirdas Klimaitis

GROUPS

GERMAN

* SS * RSHA * SD * Orpo * 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer * Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz * Sonderdienst

NON-GERMAN

* Schutzmannschaft (Belarusian , Estonian , Latvian , Lithuanian , Ukrainian ) * Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys

CRIMES

BELARUS

* Łachwa Ghetto * Minsk Ghetto * Slutsk Affair

ESTONIA

* Kalevi-Liiva

LATVIA

* Burning of the Riga synagogues * Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja (Šķēde)

LITHUANIA

* Ninth Fort * Kaunas June 1941 * Kaunas 29 October 1941 * Ninth Fort November 1941 * Ponary

POLAND

* Operation Tannenberg * Intelligenzaktion * AB-Aktion * Operation Reinhard

RUSSIA

* Gully of Petrushino
Gully of Petrushino
* Zmievskaya Balka * Lokot Autonomy

UKRAINE

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobycz * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms * Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
* Odessa

RECORDS

* The Black Book * Commissar Order
Commissar Order
* Einsatzgruppen trial * Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report * Korherr Report * Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen)

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 72206000 * GND :

.