The Info List - Patsy Mink

Patsy Matsu Takemoto Mink (竹本 まつ, Takemoto Matsu, December 6, 1927 – September 28, 2002) was an American lawyer and politician from the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Hawaii. Mink was a third generation Japanese American and member of the Democratic Party. She also was the Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. Mink served in the U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives
for a total of 12 terms, representing Hawaii's first and second congressional districts. While in Congress she was noted for co-authoring the Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act.[1] Mink was the first woman of color and the first Asian American
Asian American
woman elected to Congress. She was also the first woman elected to Congress from the state of Hawaii, and became the first Asian American
Asian American
to seek the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party in the 1972 election, where she stood in the Oregon primary as an anti-war candidate.[2] From 1978 to 1981 Mink served as the president of Americans for Democratic Action. On August 30, 2002, Mink was hospitalized in Honolulu's Straub Clinic and Hospital with complications from chickenpox. Her condition steadily worsened, and on September 28, 2002, Mink died in Honolulu
of viral pneumonia, at age 74.


1 Family background 2 Early years and education 3 Family and early career 4 U.S. Representative 5 U.S. Assistant Secretary of State 6 Return to U.S. Representative 7 Death 8 Legacy 9 See also 10 Selected bibliography 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

Family background[edit] Mink's parents were second-generation Japanese Americans or Nisei. She was a Sansei, or third-generation descendant of Japanese emigrants.[3] Her father, Suematsu Takemoto, was a civil engineer. Her mother, Mitama Tateyama, was a homemaker.[4][5] Suematsu Takemoto graduated from the University of Hawaii
in 1922, the first Japanese American
Japanese American
to graduate from the University of Hawaii.[6] For several years, Mink's father was the only Japanese American
Japanese American
civil engineer working in Maui.[6] He was passed over for promotion several times during his career, the positions instead offered to white Americans.[6] He resigned his local position in 1945 in the aftermath of World War II, and moved to Honolulu
with his family. He established his own land surveying company in Honolulu.[6] Mink's maternal grandparents were Gojiro Tateyama and his wife Tsuru. Gojiro was born in the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
during the 19th century. He arrived in the Territory of Hawaii
late in the century, and was employed on a sugarcane plantation. He later moved to Maui, and was initially employed as a worker for the East Maui
Irrigation Company. Subsequently, Gojiro was employed as a store manager and filling station employee. He also delivered mail throughout the backcountry of Maui.[7] The Tateyamas lived in a shack by Waikamoi Stream. They had eleven children.[7] William Pogue, Gojiro's employer at the Irrigation Company, arranged to have the Tateyama female children educated at the Maunaolu Seminary, a boarding school for Christian
girls located in the town of Makawao.[6] Early years and education[edit] Mink was born in Hāmākua Poko on the island of Maui.[7] She attended Maui
High School and in her junior year won her first election to become student body president.[7] The month before her election, Honolulu
was attacked by Japan.[7] As a consequence, most of the student body was uncomfortable with anything that was Japanese-oriented. In order to get elected, Mink had to overcome these hard feelings.[citation needed] Mink was the only female who had ever showed ambition for student office in the school's history, something that was unheard of at the time.[citation needed] She orchestrated a strategy of impressing the various cliques on campus, including the popular football team.[citation needed] Her coalition-building strategy worked and she won a close election. In 1944, Mink graduated from high school as class valedictorian.[7] Mink moved to Honolulu
where she attended the University of Hawaii
at Mānoa with medical school and a career in medicine her ultimate goal.[7] During her sophomore year, she was elected president of the Pre-Medical Students Club and was selected as a member of the varsity debate team.[7] She spent one semester (from September 1946–January 1947) enrolled at Wilson College, a small women's college in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania
Chambersburg, Pennsylvania
before transferring to the University of Nebraska where she once again faced discrimination.[7] The university had a long-standing racial segregation policy whereby students of color lived in different dormitories from the white students.[7] This annoyed Mink, and she organized and created a coalition of students, parents, administrators, employees, alumni, sponsoring businesses and corporations. She was elected president of the Unaffiliated Students of the University of Nebraska, a "separate" student government for non-white students who were prevented from joining fraternities, sororities, and regular dormitories.[7] Mink and her coalition successfully lobbied to end the university's segregation policies the same year.[7] After her successful fight against segregation at the University of Nebraska, Mink experienced a serious thyroid condition that required surgery and moved back to Honolulu
to heal and finish her final year of college at the University of Hawaii.[7] She earned bachelor's degrees in zoology and chemistry from the university.[7] In 1948, none of the twenty medical schools to which she applied would accept women. A disappointed Mink decided the best way to force medical schools to accept women would be through the judicial process. Mink decided to go to law school.[7] Mink applied to the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Law School. Unusually, the school had admitted women from its inception in 1902, and Mink attended law school with several other women. Mink obtained her Juris Doctor degree in 1951.[7] Family and early career[edit] While attending the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Law School, Patsy met hydrologist John Mink while playing bridge at the International House. He would become her husband and lifelong partner.[7] Unable to find work as a married, female, Asian-American attorney, she returned to her student job at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Law School library while her husband found work immediately with the United States
United States
Steel Corporation.[7] In 1952, Patsy gave birth to daughter Gwendolyn (Wendy), who later became a prominent author and educator on labor and women's issues.[7] The family soon moved Hawaii
in August 1952.[7] By law, Patsy was required to take the residency status of her husband after marriage and needed to re-establish her Hawaiian residency in order to prove that she was eligible to take the Hawaii
bar exam.[7] After challenging the statute as sexist, Hawaii's attorney general ruled that since she had not ever physically resided in Pennsylvania, she had not assumed her husband’s Philadelphia residency status.[7] After passing the bar exam in June 1953, Mink continued to face gender discrimination in finding work as an attorney in the private or public sector.[7] She created a solo practice with the help of her father.[7] She was the first Japanese woman to practice law in Hawaiian territory.[7] Mink founded the Everyman Organization, a group that served as the hub of the Young Democrats club on Oahu. She was elected chairman of the territory-wide Young Democrats, "a group that would wield a remarkable influence over Hawaiian politics for several decades."[7] In 1954, Patsy worked to help elect John A. Burns
John A. Burns
to Congress. The following year, she worked as staff attorney during the 1955 legislative session and drafted statutes and observed the inner-workings of the legislature.[7] As the Territory of Hawaii
debated statehood in 1956, Mink was elected to the Hawaii
Territorial Legislature representing her district in the territorial House of Representatives.[7] In 1958, she was elected to serve in the territorial Senate.[7] In 1959, Hawaii
became the 50th state of the Union. From 1962-1964, Mink served in the Hawaii
State Senate.[7] At the 1960 Democratic National Convention, a speech by Mink, a Hawaiian delegate, persuaded two-thirds of the party to keep their progressive stance on civil rights.[8] U.S. Representative[edit]

Patsy Mink
Patsy Mink
during her first career in Congress

Mink with Lyndon Johnson after his trip to Hawaii
for a conference on the Vietnam War, February 1966.

In 1965, Mink became the first Asian-American woman (and first woman of an ethnic minority) to be elected to the United States
United States
Congress.[7] She served six consecutive terms.[7] Mink took what she learned in high school and built some of the most influential coalitions in Congress. Her most important coalition was one to support the Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act, of which she was one of the principal authors and sponsors, prohibiting gender discrimination by federally funded institutions, an outgrowth of the adversities Mink faced through college.[1] In 1970, Mink became the first Democratic woman to deliver a State of the Union response.[9] Mink also introduced the first comprehensive Early Childhood Education Act and authored the Women's Educational Equity Act. All of these laws written by Mink were declared landmark laws by Congress as they advanced equal rights in America beyond what could be imagined during the time. Title IX
Title IX
Amendment of the Higher Education Act was renamed by President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
on 29 October 2002 to become the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act; she co-authored and sponsored the Act while in the House. In 1975 she was the chief sponsor of HR 9924, granting $5 million in total tax-payer contributions ($22.7 million in 2017 dollars) for both the state and National Women's Conference[10] which President Gerald Ford signed into law.[11] From 1975 to 1977, during the 94th Congress, Mink was elected to a position in the House Democratic leadership, as Secretary of the House Democratic Caucus.[12] U.S. Assistant Secretary of State[edit] In 1976, Mink gave up her seat in Congress to run for a vacancy in the United States
United States
Senate. After she lost the primary election for the Senate seat to Spark Matsunaga, President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
appointed Mink as Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. She served under Cyrus Vance
Cyrus Vance
and Edmund Muskie.[7] Return to U.S. Representative[edit] After her service in the Carter Administration, Mink settled in Honolulu, where she was elected to the Honolulu
City Council. Her peers on the council eventually elected her Chairwoman, and she often butted heads with the controversial Mayor of Honolulu
Frank Fasi.[7] In 1990, Mink won back a seat in Congress, serving alongside Neil Abercrombie who represented the First Congressional District of Hawaii.[7] Death[edit] On August 30, 2002, Mink was hospitalized in Honolulu's Straub Clinic and Hospital with complications from chickenpox. Her condition steadily worsened, and on September 28, 2002, Mink died in Honolulu
of viral pneumonia, at age 74.[1] Hawaii
and the nation mourned; Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld ordered all flags at military institutions lowered to half staff in honor of her contributions toward the equal rights of Americans.[13] Mink received a national memorial and was honored with a state funeral in the Hawaii
State Capitol Rotunda attended by leaders and members of Congress. She is buried at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific. In 2007, Central Oahu Regional Park on Oahu
was renamed "Patsy T. Mink Central Oahu
Regional Park" in her honor.[14] Mink's death occurred one week before the 2002 primary election, too late for her name to be removed from the general election ballot.[15] On November 5, 2002, Mink was posthumously re-elected to Congress.[16] Her vacant seat was filled by Ed Case
Ed Case
after a special election on January 4, 2003.[17] Legacy[edit] In 2002 Congress renamed the Title IX
Title IX
Amendment of the Higher Education Act (which Mink coauthored) to the "Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act."[18] Documentary films about Mink's life and role in Title IX
Title IX
include: Rise of the Wahine, directed by Dean Kaneshiro[19] and Patsy Mink: Ahead of the Majority (2008), directed by Kimberlee Bassford.[20] A book called Yell-Oh Girls, which was about the experiences of Asian teenage girls in American society, had collections from noted women such as Michelle Branch
Michelle Branch
and Lucy Liu. Mink contributed a chapter to the book telling of her early political work in post World War II America. She received a posthumous Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
from President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
on November 24, 2014.[21][22] See also[edit]

Biography portal Government of the United States
United States
portal United States
United States
portal Hawaii

Women in the United States
United States
House of Representatives List of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the United States Congress List of United States
United States
Congress members who died in office (2000–)

Selected bibliography[edit]

Mink, Patsy; Hartmann, Heidi I. (Spring 1994). "Wrap-up". Social Justice, special issue: Women and Welfare Reform. Social Justice/Global Options via JSTOR. 21 (1): 110–113. JSTOR 29766793. 


^ a b c Gootman, Elissa (30 September 2002). "Patsy Mink, Veteran Hawaii
Congresswoman, Dies at 74". New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2013.  ^ The Democratic Party Patsy Takemoto Mink (1927 – 2002) Archived 2007-12-20 at Archive.is ^ Nomura, Gail M. (1998). " Japanese American
Japanese American
Women," in The Reader's Companion to U.S. Women's History (Mankiller, Barbara Smith, ed.), pp. 288-290., p. 288, at Google Books ^ Judith A. Leavitt, "American Women Managers and Administrators: A Selective Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-century Leaders in Business, Education, and Government" (1985), page 183 ^ Dorothy C. L. Cordova, Stephen Fugita and Hyung-chan Kim, "Distinguished Asian Americans: A Biographical Dictionary" (1999), page 246 ^ a b c d e Matusda, Mari J. (1992). Called from Within: Early Women Lawyers of Hawaii. United States: University of Hawaii
Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1448-9.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "A Tribute to Patsy Takemoto Mink" (PDF). Asian Pacific Law & Policy Journal. 4 (2). Summer 2003. Retrieved 25 December 2016.  ^ "Democratic National Political Conventions 1832–2008" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2008. pp. 19–20. Retrieved June 6, 2012.  ^ "Joni Ernst will be the 16th woman to respond to the State of the Union: Female politicians have been fighting the same sexist attacks for decades". Slate Magazine.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-09. Retrieved 2013-05-13.  ^ http://www.ilind.net/oldkine_images/woman_alive/WA-Jan1976.pdf ^ "Women Elected to Party Leadership Positions". Women in Congress. U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 2012-06-06.  ^ Kua, Crystal (October 2, 2002). "Mink tributes abound". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved September 26, 2017.  ^ "City Renames Park after Patsy Mink
Patsy Mink
- Hawaii
News Now - KGMB and KHNL". KHNL. Retrieved 2013-11-09.  ^ "Rep. Mink's Name Will Remain on Hawaii
Ballot". Los Angeles Times. October 11, 2002. Retrieved 25 December 2016.  ^ "Dozens of Candidates Vie for 5-Week Congressional Term". The New York Times. November 29, 2002. Retrieved 25 December 2016.  ^ "Case elected to Congress from Hawaii". CNN. January 6, 2003. Retrieved 25 December 2016.  ^ "Title IX". Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ "Rise of the Wahine Documentary Film".  ^ "WOMEN MAKE MOVIES - Patsy Mink: Ahead of the Majority". Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ "President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". The White House. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ "Obama awards Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
to 18". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 


Nomura, Gail M. (1998). " Japanese American
Japanese American
Women," in The Reader's Companion to U.S. Women's History (Mankiller, Barbara Smith, ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 9780618001828; OCLC
43338598 Seed, Suzanne (March 1974). Saturday's Child : 36 women talk about their jobs. Bantam Books. pp. 132–137. OCLC 5462796. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Patsy Mink.

United States
United States
Congress. " Patsy Mink
Patsy Mink
(id: M000797)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress.  Appearances on C-SPAN Her profile in "Distinguished Asian Americans" Her profile in "American Women Administrators" Her profile in "Called from Within" Patsy Mink: Ahead of the Majority, a documentary by Kimberlee Bassford Patsy Mink: Ahead of the Majority, the documentary, Women Make Movies All Politics Profile on CNN Honolulu
Advertiser Special
Edition, September 29, 2002 Honolulu
Advertiser Special
Edition, October 5, 2002 National Organization for Women Memorial of Patsy Mink National Women's History Project Biography of Patsy Mink

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by Thomas Gill Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Hawaii's at-large congressional district 1965–1971 Constituency abolished

New constituency Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Hawaii's 2nd congressional district 1971–1977 Succeeded by Daniel Akaka

Preceded by Daniel Akaka Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Hawaii's 2nd congressional district 1990–2002 Succeeded by Ed Case

Preceded by Norman Mineta Chair of the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus 1995–1997 Succeeded by Robert Underwood

Party political offices

Vacant Title last held by Howard Baker, George H. W. Bush, Peter Dominick, Gerald Ford, Robert Griffin, Thomas Kuchel, Mel Laird, Bob Mathias, George Murphy, Dick Poff, Chuck Percy, Al Quie, Charlotte Reid, Hugh Scott, Bill Steiger, John Tower Response to the State of the Union address 1970 Served alongside: Donald Fraser, Scoop Jackson, Mike Mansfield, John McCormack, Ed Muskie, Bill Proxmire Succeeded by Mike Mansfield

Preceded by Leonor Sullivan Secretary of the House Democratic Caucus 1975–1977 Succeeded by Shirley Chisholm

Political offices

Preceded by Frederick Irving Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs 1977–1978 Succeeded by Tom Pickering

v t e

Members of the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
from Hawaii

Territorial (1899–1959)


Wilcox Kalanianaʻole Baldwin Jarrett Houston McCandless King J. Farrington E. Farrington Burns

One At-large seat (1959–1963)



Two At-large seat (1963–1971)


Gill Mink



Districts (1971–present)

1st district

Matsunaga Heftel Abercrombie Saiki Abercrombie Djou Hanabusa Takai Hanabusa

2nd district

Mink Akaka Mink Case Hirono Gabbard

v t e

(1968 ←) United States
United States
presidential election, 1972 (→ 1976)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries


Richard Nixon

VP nominee

Spiro Agnew


John M. Ashbrook Pete McCloskey

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries


George McGovern

VP nominee

Sargent Shriver


Shirley Chisholm Walter E. Fauntroy Fred R. Harris Vance Hartke Wayne Hays Hubert Humphrey Henry M. Jackson John Lindsay Eugene McCarthy Wilbur Mills Patsy Mink Edmund Muskie Terry Sanford George Wallace Sam Yorty

Third party and independent candidates

American Independent Party


John G. Schmitz

VP nominee

Thomas J. Anderson

Communist Party


Gus Hall

VP nominee

Jarvis Tyner

Libertarian Party


John Hospers

VP nominee

Tonie Nathan

People's Party


Benjamin Spock

VP nominee

Julius Hobson

Prohibition Party


E. Harold Munn

Socialist Labor Party


Louis Fisher

Socialist Workers Party


Linda Jenness Alternate nominee: Evelyn Reed

VP nominee

Andrew Pulley


Gabriel Green

Other 1972 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame



Jane Addams Marian Anderson Susan B. Anthony Clara Barton Mary McLeod Bethune Elizabeth Blackwell Pearl S. Buck Rachel Carson Mary Cassatt Emily Dickinson Amelia Earhart Alice Hamilton Helen Hayes Helen Keller Eleanor Roosevelt Florence Sabin Margaret Chase Smith Elizabeth Cady Stanton Helen Brooke Taussig Harriet Tubman


Abigail Adams Margaret Mead Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias


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Margaret Sanger Sojourner Truth


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Linda G. Alvarado Donna de Varona Gertrude Ederle Martha Matilda Harper Patricia Roberts Harris Stephanie L. Kwolek Dorothea Lange Mildred Robbins Leet Patsy Takemoto Mink Sacagawea Anne Sullivan Sheila E. Widnall


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Louise Bourgeois Mildred Cohn Karen DeCrow Susan Kelly-Dreiss Allie B. Latimer Emma Lazarus Ruth Patrick Rebecca Talbot Perkins Susan Solomon Kate Stoneman



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Abby Kelley
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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 65253631 LCCN: n77007280 US Congress: M000797 SN