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Passau
Passau
(German pronunciation: [ˈpasaʊ]' Austro-Bavarian: Båssa) is a town in Lower Bavaria, Germany. It is also known as the Dreiflüssestadt or "City of Three Rivers," because the Danube
Danube
is joined at Passau
Passau
by the Inn from the south and the Ilz
Ilz
from the north. Passau's population is 50,000 of whom about 12,000 are students at the local University of Passau.[2] It is renowned in Germany
Germany
for its institutes of economics, law, theology, computer science and cultural studies.

Contents

1 History 2 Subdivisions 3 Main sights 4 Migrant entry point 5 Twin towns/sister cities 6 Notable people 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] In the 2nd century BC, many of the Boii
Boii
tribe were pushed north across the Alps out of northern Italy
Italy
by the Romans. They established a new capital called Boiodurum by the Romans (from Gaulish Boioduron), now within the Innstadt district of Passau.[3] Passau
Passau
was an ancient Roman colony of ancient Noricum called Batavis, Latin for "for the Batavi." The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe often mentioned by classical authors, and they were regularly associated with the Suebian marauders, the Heruli. During the second half of the 5th century, St. Severinus established a monastery here. In 739, an English monk called Boniface
Boniface
founded the diocese of Passau, which for many years was the largest diocese of the German Kingdom/Holy Roman Empire, covering territory in southern Bavaria
Bavaria
and most of what is now Upper and Lower Austria. From the 10th century the bishops of Passau
Passau
also exercised secular authority as Prince-Bishops in the immediate area around Passau
Passau
(see Prince-Bishopric of Passau (de)).

Passau
Passau
c. 1581

In the Treaty of Passau
Passau
(1552), Archduke Ferdinand I, representing Emperor Charles V, secured the agreement of the Protestant
Protestant
princes to submit the religious question to a diet. This led to the Peace of Augsburg
Augsburg
in 1555. During the Renaissance
Renaissance
and early modern period, Passau
Passau
was one of the most prolific centres of sword and bladed weapon manufacture in Germany
Germany
(after Solingen). Passau
Passau
smiths stamped their blades with the Passau
Passau
wolf, usually a rather simplified rendering of the wolf on the city's coat-of-arms. Superstitious warriors believed that the Passau wolf conferred invulnerability on the blade's bearer, and thus Passau swords acquired a great premium. According to the Donau-Zeitung, aside from the wolf, some cabalistic signs and inscriptions were added.[4] As a result, the whole practice of placing magical charms on swords to protect the wearers came to be known for a time as " Passau
Passau
art". (See Eduard Wagner, Cut and Thrust Weapons, 1969.) Other cities' smiths, including those of Solingen, recognized the marketing value of the Passau
Passau
wolf and adopted it for themselves. By the 17th century, Solingen
Solingen
was producing more wolf-stamped blades than Passau
Passau
was. In 1662, a devastating fire consumed most of the city. Passau
Passau
was subsequently rebuilt in the Baroque style. Passau
Passau
was secularised and divided between the Electorate of Bavaria and the Electorate of Salzburg
Electorate of Salzburg
in 1803. The portion belonging to Salzburg became part of Bavaria
Bavaria
in 1805.

Passau
Passau
1892.

From 1892 until 1894, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and his family lived in Passau.[5] The city archives mention Hitler being in Passau
Passau
on four different occasions in the 1920s for speeches. On November 3, 1902 Heinrich Himmler and his family arrived from Munich. They lived at Theresienstraße 394 (currently Theresienstraße 22) until September 2, 1904. Himmler maintained contact with locals until May 1945. In November 1933, the building of Nibelungenhalle (Hall of the Nibelungs) was announced. Intended to hold 8,000 to 10,000 guests, and another 30,000 in front of it, in 1935 the hall also became quarters for a unit of the Austrian Legion.[6] Beginning in 1934, these troops had occupied a building that belonged to Sigmund Mandl, a Jewish merchant. That building, in turn, was referred to as SA barracks.[7] Beginning in 1940, Passau
Passau
offered the building at Bräugasse 13 to Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle.[8] During World War II, the town also housed three sub-camps of the infamous Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp: Passau
Passau
I (Oberilzmühle),[9] Passau
Passau
II (Waldwerke Passau-Ilzstadt) and Passau III (Jandelsbrunn). On May 3, 1945, a message from Major General Stanley Eric Reinhart’s 261st Infantry Regiment stated at 3:15 am: "AMG Officer has unconditional surrender of PASSAU signed by Burgermeister, Chief of Police and Lt. Col of Med Corps there. All troops are to turn themselves in this morning." It was the site of a post World War II American sector displaced persons camp.

High-water scale 1501-2002 at Passau
Passau
as of September 2012

On June 2, 2013 the old town suffered from severe flooding as a result of several days of rain and its location at the confluence of three rivers [10] Peak elevations of floods as early as 1501 are displayed on a wall at the Old City Hall.[11] Flood water reaches the base of that wall on average once every 5 years.[11]:19 Subdivisions[edit]

Areas of open council in Passau

Until 2013, the City of Passau
Passau
was subdivided into eight statistical districts, which in general coincide with formerly separate municipalities. Since 2013, the city is divided in 16 so-called areas of open council ("Bürgerversammlungsgebiete"). Main sights[edit] Tourism in Passau
Passau
focuses mainly on the three rivers, the St. Stephen's Cathedral (Der Passauer Stephansdom) and the "Old City" (Die Altstadt). With 17,774 pipes and 233 registers,[12] the organ at St. Stephen's was long held to be the largest church pipe organ in the world and is today second in size only to the organ at First Congregational Church, Los Angeles, which was expanded in 1994. Organ concerts are held daily between May and September. St.Stephen's is a true masterpiece of Italian Baroque, built by Italian architect Carlo Lurago and decorated in part by Carpoforo Tencalla. Many river cruises down the Danube
Danube
start at Passau
Passau
and there is a cycling path all the way down to Vienna. It is also notable for its gothic and baroque architecture. The town is dominated by the Veste Oberhaus
Veste Oberhaus
and the former fortress of the Bishop, on the mountain crest between the Danube
Danube
and the Ilz. Right beside the town hall is the Scharfrichterhaus, an important jazz and cabaret stage on which political cabaret is performed.

Passau
Passau
from the Veste Oberhaus. In front the of Danube

Passau
Passau
from the South. In front of the Inn

Migrant entry point[edit] Due to its location on the German-Austrian border, and in the south-east of the country, Passau
Passau
has become a major migrant entry point into Germany. Refugees and economic migrants from the Middle East, Asia and Africa who have reached Europe, often entering either overland via Greece or across the sea via the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(see Operation Triton), then head north and sometimes enter Germany. In 2015 the BBC
BBC
reported that traffickers drive migrants and refugees through Austria
Austria
and leave them on the side of the autobahn. The migrants and refugees then often walk unaccompanied into Passau, the first German town northwards. This situation has caused the government of Passau
Passau
to divert funds from flood prevention to housing and feeding the refugees and migrants, around 10% of whom are unaccompanied children.[13] Twin towns/sister cities[edit] Passau
Passau
has 9 Twin towns/sister cities:[14]

Hackensack, New Jersey, US, since 1952 Cagnes-sur-Mer, France, since 1973 Krems an der Donau, Austria, since 1974 Akita, Japan, since 1984 Málaga, Spain, since 1987[15] České Budějovice, Czech Republic, since 1993 Liuzhou, People's Republic of China, since 1999 Veszprém, Hungary, since 1999 Montecchio Maggiore, Italy, since 2003

Notable people[edit]

Michael Ammermüller
Michael Ammermüller
(born 1986), a race car driver. Joseph Ferdinand Damberger (1795–1859), historian. Alfred Dick (1927–2005), a Bavarian politician. Hans Fruhstorfer
Hans Fruhstorfer
(1866–1922), explorer, insect trader and entomologist, born in Passau. Albert Ganzenmüller
Albert Ganzenmüller
(1905–1996), who served from 1942 to 1945 as the state secretary of the Reich Transportation Ministry, born in Passau. Henry Gerber
Henry Gerber
(1892−1972), early U.S. gay rights activist, born in Passau. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and his family, Passau
Passau
residents for two years from 1892 to 1894. Nicolaus A. Huber (born 1939), composer. Bruno Jonas
Bruno Jonas
(born 1952), a cabaret artist and actor. Joseph Maximilian Ritter von Maillinger (1820–1901), Bavarian general and war minister, born in Passau. Gottlieb Muffat (1690–1770), organist and composer. Anna Rosmus
Anna Rosmus
(born 1960), controversial German author, Third Reich historian. Christian Rub
Christian Rub
(1886–1956), actor, born in Passau. Ludwig Schmidseder (1904–1971), composer and pianist. Heidi Schüller (born 1950), a West German athlete. Florian Silbereisen
Florian Silbereisen
(born 1981), German singer and television presenter. Georg Philipp Wörlen (1886–1954), painter.

See also[edit]

University of Passau

References[edit]

^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). January 2018.  ^ Wir über uns Archived 2007-12-13 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Collis, John. The Celts: Origins, Myth and Inventions. Tempus Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7524-2913-2 ^ Anna Rosmus
Anna Rosmus
Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, pp. 201 ^ Anna Rosmus
Anna Rosmus
Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, pp. 20f ^ Anna Rosmus
Anna Rosmus
Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, pp. 98-101 ^ Anna Rosmus
Anna Rosmus
Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, pp. 102f ^ Anna Rosmus
Anna Rosmus
Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, pp. 241ff ^ Anna Rosmus
Anna Rosmus
Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, pp. 207f ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-22752544 ^ a b Eychaner, J.H. (2015) Lessons from a 500-year record of flood elevations Association of State Floodplain Managers, Technical Report 7 URL accessed 2015-07-31. ^ [1] ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-33208007 ^ "Städtepartnerschaften". passau.de. Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2014.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 

Further reading[edit]

Huber, Gerald: Kleine Geschichte Niederbayerns. 2., überarbeitete und ergänzte Auflage. Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg
Regensburg
2010, ISBN 978-3-7917-2048-7. Wagner, Christoph: Entwicklung, Herrschaft und Untergang der nationalsozialistischen Bewegung in Passau
Passau
1920 bis 1945. Frank & Timme, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-86596-117-4, Passau, Universität, Dissertation, 2005 Weithmann, Michael W.: Kleine Passauer Stadtgeschichte. Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg
Regensburg
2004, ISBN 3-7917-1870-3. John M. Jeep, ed. (2001). "Passau". Medieval Germany: an Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-7644-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Passau.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Passau.

Official website (in German) Passau
Passau
Wiki (in German) Passau
Passau
at Flickr Passau
Passau
Cathedral, which is famous for its organ with 17,774 pipes and 233 registers - the biggest church organ on Earth - Zoomable map and satellite overview (Google Maps). First stop for new arrivals in Germany: bureaucracy (My Way news, September 16th, 2015)

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Bavaria
Bavaria
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Amberg Ansbach Aschaffenburg Augsburg Bamberg Bayreuth Coburg Erlangen Fürth Hof Ingolstadt Kaufbeuren Kempten Landshut Memmingen München (Munich) Nürnberg (Nuremberg) Passau Regensburg Rosenheim Schwabach Schweinfurt Straubing Weiden Würzburg

Rural districts

Aichach-Friedberg Altötting Amberg-Sulzbach Ansbach Aschaffenburg Augsburg Bad Kissingen Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen Bamberg Bayreuth Berchtesgadener Land Cham Coburg Dachau Deggendorf Dillingen Dingolfing-Landau Donau-Ries Ebersberg Eichstätt Erding Erlangen-Höchstadt Forchheim Freising Freyung-Grafenau Fürstenfeldbruck Fürth Garmisch-Partenkirchen Günzburg Haßberge Hof Kelheim Kitzingen Kronach Kulmbach Landsberg Landshut Lichtenfels Lindau Main-Spessart Miesbach Miltenberg Mühldorf München (Munich) Neuburg-Schrobenhausen Neumarkt Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim Neustadt an der Waldnaab Neu-Ulm Nürnberger Land Oberallgäu Ostallgäu Passau Pfaffenhofen Regen Regensburg Rhön-Grabfeld Rosenheim Roth Rottal-Inn Schwandorf Schweinfurt Starnberg Straubing-Bogen Tirschenreuth Traunstein Unterallgäu Weilheim-Schongau Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen Wunsiedel Würzburg

v t e

The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 129000588 LCCN: n80040815 GN

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