The Info List - Pasay City

Nickname(s): The Travel City

City of Angels of the Philippines Motto(s): Aim High Pasay! Anthem: Pasay, Mabuhay Ka! Location within Metro Manila
Location within Metro Manila
Pasay is located in Philippines">
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Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°33′N 121°00′E / 14.55°N 121°E / 14.55; 121Coordinates: 14°33′N 121°00′E / 14.55°N 121°E / 14.55; 121 Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts Pasay City">Lone District of Pasay City Incorporated December 2, 1863 (town) Incorporated June 21, 1947 (city) Highly Urbanized City December 22, 1979 Barangays 201 Government[1]  • Mayor Antonino Calixto (Liberal)  • Vice Mayor Noel del Rosario (Liberal)  • Representative Imelda Calixto Rubiano (Liberal)  • Sangguniang Panlungsod Area[2]  • Total 18.31 km2 (7.07 sq mi) Population (2015 census)[3]  • Total 416,522  • Density 23,000/km2 (59,000/sq mi) Demonym(s) Pasayeño Time zone PST (UTC+8) ZIP code 1300–1309 Area code +63 (0)2 Website www.pasay.gov.ph

Pasay, officially Pasay City (Filipino: Lungsod ng Pasay),[4] is one of the cities in Metro Manila, the National Capital Region of the Philippines. It is bordered to the north by the City of Manila, Makati to the northeast, Taguig to the east, and Parañaque to the south. Due to its location just south of the City of Manila, Pasay quickly became an urban town during the Philippines (1898–1946)">American colonial period.


Early history

The territorial map of once said to be under the rule of Namayan, which includes Pasay, in modern Metro Manila.

In local folk history about the period before the arrival of Spanish colonizers, Pasay is said to have been part of Namayan (sometimes also called Sapa), a confederation of Barangay state">barangays which supposedly controlled territory stretching from Manila Bay"> Manila Bay to Laguna de Bay, and which, upon the arrival of the Spanish, eventually became known as Sta. Ana de Sapa (modern day Santa Ana, Manila).[5] According to these legends, the ruler of Namayan bequeathed his territories in what is now Culi-culi, Pasay, and Baclaran to one of his sons, named Pasay, explaining the origin of the name.[5]

In another version of the legend, it was Rajah Sulayman of Maynila who bequeathed the territory to his child - also named Pasay, but this time a daughter with the title of Dayang-dayang.[5]

Spanish Era

The Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in what is now the Philippines on March 16, 1521. On May 19, 1571, Miguel López de Legazpi took formal possession of the Rajahnate of Maynila and its surrounding polities in the name of the Spanish crown. For 250 years, the Islands were governed by the Viceroy of Mexico, but in practice Catholic clergymen governed local politics.

Of the many religious orders that came, it was the Augustinian Order who would figure predominantly in the evangelisation of Pasay. The parish of Pasay was governed from the old Namayan capital, since renamed Sta. Ana de Sapa, which was under the jurisdiction of the Franciscans. The promise of space in Heaven prompted early native converts to donate their possessions to the Church, with folklore recounting how a baptised Pasay on her deathbed donated her vast estate to the Augustinians. Most of Pasay went to friar hands either via donation or by purchase; many natives were also forced to divest of their properties to cope with stringent colonial impositions. In 1727, the Augustinians formally took over Pasay and attached it to the Parish of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios in Malate. In that year, Pasay was renamed Pineda in honour of Don Cornelio Pineda, a Spanish horticulturist.

In 1862, a number of prominent citizens of Pasay sent a petition to the civil and ecclesiastical authorities asking that they be allowed to manage their own political and religious affairs. On December 2, 1863, Pasay became a pueblo upon the recommendation of the Archbishop of Manila, Gregorio Melitón Martínez Santa Cruz.

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 led many more Spaniards to this part of the world. The new arrivals carried with them ideas and ideals that led to the political and social reforms. Times were good and Filipinos were delighted but the Spaniards and friars considered the liberal learnings as seeds of heresy. Democratic reforms ended with the collapse of the liberal regime in Madrid, and there were mass executions and much innocent blood was spilled.

Revolution and the Spanish–American War

Pasay produced numerous heroes during the Philippine Revolution. The Katipunan, the organisation founded by Andrés Bonifacio that spearheaded the revolution, had a chapter in Pineda organized by Pascual Villanueva, Jacinto Ignacio, and Valentin Ignacio. Several women also fought for the cause of the Katipunan including Marcela Marcelo. The execution of José Rizal, who authored the novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo (considered seditious by the colonial government) on December 30, 1896, fanned the flames of the Revolution.

On February 25, 1898, President of the United States William McKinley instructed Commodore George Dewey of the American Asiatic Squadron to make Hong Kong his base of operations from whence he could "proceed with offensive operations in the Philippines." War between the United States and Spain was declared on April 25, and Dewey steamed into Manila Bay on the night of April 30. With a few well-directed shots, the American squadron destroyed the Spanish flotilla without any deaths.

General Emilio Aguinaldo meanwhile declared the independence of the First Philippine Republic on June 12, 1898, and issued decrees providing political reorganization in the country. With this, Don Catalino became Pasay's first Presidente municipal (equivalent to today's Mayor).

Pineda was made the command outpost of the Primera Zona de Manila under Gen. Mariano Noriel, but Gen. Merritt appealed that the Pineda outpost turned over to the Americans so that they could be closer to the Spanish lines. Thinking Americans were allies, Noriel left Pineda on July 29, allowing American General Greene to transfer. When Intramuros was finally captured, the Filipinos were denied entry to the walled city. Since then, tension simmered between Filipino and American troops, with both sides assigned respective zones but neither observed boundary lines. On the night of February 4, 1899, four Filipinos crossed the American line in Santa Mesa, Manila, and shots were exchanged, triggering the Philippine–American War.

On May 19, 1899, General Noriel was given command again of Pineda. In June, Noriel together with General Ricarte almost defeated the American forces had they exploited the exhaustion of the enemy in the Battle of Las Piñas. Instead their forces were attacked by American reinforcements and bombarded by warships. The assault forced them to abandon Pineda to occupation by American forces.

American period

Pasay beach, Manila, oil on board by Fabian de la Rosa, 1927

The Philippine–American War ended officially on July 4, 1902, and, to the surprise of the vanquished, the victors buckled down to bring to fruition McKinley's original version of training Filipinos to run their own government. On August 23, 1901, the United States Army transport Thomas docked at Manila Bay carrying six hundred American schoolteachers. As for public works, roads increased from 990 miles, when the Americans first came, to 13,000 miles of road, half of which are first class and all-weather network.

On June 1, 1901, Pineda was incorporated into the Province of Rizal. Antonio Dancel was appointed provincial governor and Pascual Villanueva as municipal president. On August 4, 1901, a resolution was passed petitioning that the original name of Pasay be returned. On September 6, 1901, the Philippine Commission passed Act No. 227 renaming Pineda to Pasay.[6] Two years later, on October 12, 1903, Act No. 942 annexed the municipality of Malibay to Pasay.[7] With a population of 8,100 in 1903, Pasay was placed under fourth-class category together with 9 other municipalities. Friar lands were turned into subdivisions. Soon the Pasay Real Estate Company offered friar lands as residential lots for sale or for lease to foreign investors. Postal, telegraph, and telephone lines were installed and branches of Philippine Savings Bank were established. In 1907 a first-class road from Pasay to Camp Nichols was completed. Others were repaired including the old Avenida Mexico now called the Taft Avenue extension. Transportation services improved. Among the buses plying routes to Pasay were Pasay Transportation, Raymundo Transportation, Try-tran, and Halili Transit.

By 1908, tranvia (electric car) lines linked Pasay to Intramuros, Escolta, San Miguel, San Sebastian, and San Juan. Automobiles took to the streets, testing their maximum 20KPH speed on three new avenues (Rizal, Taft, and Ayala). Marvel after marvel continued to fascinate the Pasayeños. On April 11, 1914, Pasay entered the Aviation Age. Miss Cora Wong, a nurse at the Chinese General Hospital became the first woman in the Philippines to fly as a passenger on a flight with Tom Gunn in a Curtiss seaplane off Pasay Beach. Real estate was cheap. Much of the bayside area beyond Luneta was swamp but American ex-soldiers were quick to seize the opportunity to develop it for residential purposes. By 1918, Pasay had a population of 18,697 because of the exodus of prominent Filipino families and government officials to this seaside town including Manuel L. Quezon.

World War II came and on December 26, 1941, McArthur issued a proclamation declaring Manila and it suburbs (Caloocan, Quezon City, San Juan, Mandaluyong, Makati, and Pasay) an open city. On New Year's Day, 1942 Quezon, while in Corregidor, called his secretary Jorge Vargas and appointed him by executive order "the Mayor of Greater Manila" which included Pasay. The mayor of Pasay was then Rufino Mateo, governing a town of more than 55,161. During the WWII many Pasayeños joined in the fight against the Japanese. Jose P. Maibag, born and bred in Pasay, laid out underground networking. Carlos Mendoza, a resident of Barrio San Roque, together with 14 others, formed a mobile broadcasting station called "The Voice of Juan dela Cruz." Unfortunately on July 11, 1942 Japanese military police pounced the group. Carling Mendoza, alias Juan de la Cruz" and other members of the group were brought to the old Bilibid Prison and suffered the kind of torture they talked about on radio.

Pasay had to redo the signs all over town. Tagalog was ordered to prevail over English. The national language became a core subject in the secondary school curriculum. Nippongo was taught in all levels. Pasay was to prepare for the Second Republic. On October 14, 1943, Japan proclaimed the Second Philippine Republic. Meantime, food had become so scarce that prices soared. Pasay folks began to move away from the city. In October 1944, word came that Gen. MacArthur had landed in Leyte. In the middle of February, Pasay was to witness the ultimate holocaust yet. Pasay and its neighbors Ermita, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Singalong would hear day and night, the shelling at the mouth of the Manila Bay from across Pasig River. Pasay was both witness and victim. In the final days before they lost Greater Manila, the Japanese burned houses and sacked the town. And when the embers cooled, then, and only then, did the Filipinos realize, in shock, that their city was gone forever.

Third Republic and the conversion to city status

On February 27, 1945, General MacArthur turned over the government to President Sergio Osmeña. One of Osmeña's first acts was to dissolve the Greater Manila Complex. Caloocan, San Juan, Mandaluyong, Makati, Pasay, and Paranaque were returned to their original province of Rizal. He then appointed Juan S. Salcedo, born in Pasay in 1904, as Director of Philippine Health, and then as executive officer of the Philippine Rehabilitation Administration in charge of national recovery from the devastation wrought by the Japanese occupation. The postwar reconstruction period was a very trying one for the Pasayeños as they began to pick up the pieces of their shattered lives. Osmeña appointed Adolfo Santos as prewar vice mayor of Pasay, in place of incumbent Moises San Juan who died during the war.

Ignacio Santos Diaz, congressman from the first district of Pasay, pushed for the conversion of the town into a city and it to be named after Rizal. Republic Act No. 183 was signed into law by President Roxas on June 21, 1947, officially establishing Rizal City,[8] with Mateo Rufino as Mayor and a population of 88,738. As of June 1948, the city had revenues of P472,835. There was just one hitch; the residents could not get themselves to call their city by its new name. After two years, eight months, and twelve days of trying, the force of habit continued to prevail. Pasay Congressman Eulogio Rodriguez, Jr. filed a bill returning the city to its original name. On May 3, 1950, President Elpidio Quirino, once a resident of Pasay himself, signed into law Republic Act No. 437, which changed the name of Rizal City to Pasay City.[4]

It was also in the 1940s when houses of faith started rising in different parts of Pasay to help people heal their bruised souls. Among them were the Church of Our Lady of Sorrows, the Libreria de San Pablo Catholic Women's League, Caritas, the nutrition center, and the grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes. In 1951, two parishes were established -the Parish of San Isidro Labrador and the Parish of San Rafael. On June 14, 1955, Pasay City regained its power to choose its leader. Pablo Cuneta ran against one-time Mayor Adolfo Santos and became the city's first elected mayor. In 1959, he campaigned again and won against his former vice mayor, Ruperto Galvez. On December 30, 1965, Ferdinand E. Marcos occupied Malacañang Palace as the new President of the Philippines, with Fernando Lopez, a resident of Pasay, as Vice-President. From that moment Imelda Romualdez Marcos became involved in national affairs. On the northern boundary of Pasay, she started filling the waterfront on Manila Bay to build the Cultural Center which was a world-class arts complex. She would add three more architectural showpieces on reclaimed land in Pasay: the Folk Arts, Film Center, and the Convention Center.

While the First Lady was busy changing Manila's skyline, President Marcos was using his new presidential powers to create a police state for eventual dictatorship. In 1967, Jovito Claudio won for the mayoralty race against Pablo Cuneta. In 1969, Marcos ran for reelection and claimed a margin of one million seven hundred votes over his opponent Sergio Osmeña, Jr. Marcos paid for his campaign in several ways: by printing more money and causing runaway inflation. So obvious was the election fraud that Marcos became the target of unprecedented contempt of students and the opposition. In the following year, an assassination attempt occurred in Pasay. A Crazed Bolivian surrealist painter lunged at Pope Paul VI with a knife grazing his chest. In 1971, Cuneta became mayor once more of the 206,283 Pasayeños. It was the time of crisis since the Maoist New People's Army was getting stronger in the countryside. The government bureaucracy was corrupt, nepotistic, and inept. Anarchy ruled the streets. The nation shuddered with fear in the face of its own implosion.

New Society

On September 21, 1972 Marcos signed Proclamation No. 1081 placing the nation under martial law in an effort to completely consolidate power, which included a string of bombings and the staged assassination plot on his Defense Secretary, Juan Ponce Enrile. Mayors in Greater Manila, including Pablo Cuneta of Pasay were called to Malacañang and asked to join the government party, the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan and nobody dared to refuse the President.

On December 7, 1972, almost two months after martial law was declared, an assassin tried to kill Imelda Marcos. The event took place in Pasay, on live television. While Mrs. Marcos was distributing prizes to the winners of the National Beautification and Cleanliness contest. She suffered some wounds and broken nails but on the whole she emerged unscathed from that close encounter. On the second anniversary of martial law, Marcos issued Presidential Decree No. 557, returning to every barrio in the country the barangays. Not long after the decree had been put into effect, the Metropolitan Manila Commission and the Department of Local Government instructed Pasay to create its own barangays. Mayor Cuneta created 487 barangays. Upon the firm suggestion of Secretary Jose Roño of the Department of Local Government, the number of barangays was trimmed down to two hundred.

On November 7, 1975 Marcos appointed the First Lady as governor of Metro Manila, a new federation created by Presidential Decree No 824. The federation consolidated 13 towns and 4 cities including Pasay. By 1977 an air of stability seemed to settle on the cities and the countryside. The GNP posted an annual increase of 7%, unemployment dropped, foreign investment doubled, and a sense of law and order existed. But it would take time for people to realize the high prize they had to pay for the New Society policies. An estimated six thousand political prisoners had been silenced in jail, including Ninoy Aquino. Bodies disappeared without a trace. More importantly, Marcos's main justification for martial law - to curb Communist threat - had in fact had the opposite way. In 1983, Ninoy Aquino, a political nemesis of Marcos, was assassinated in the Manila International Airport upon his return from self-exile abroad. The event came within 2 years after the LRT Line 1, stretching along Taft Avenue along the city, opened its doors with 3 stations located in Pasay itself, with the southern terminus, Baclaran station, located near the Pasay- Parañaque border. One good note would come of those times with the Miss Universe 1974 pageant held in the reclamation area, bringing the city to the international spotlight.

People Power

The situation changed in the city in the immediate aftermath of the People Power Revolution. Cuneta left his post to be replaced by two acting mayors, Eduardo Calixto and Norman Urbina, only to be reelected in 1988 and serving for three more terms, before handling over to Jovito O. Claudio in 1998. Upon the end of his term he was the city's longest ever city mayor. Claudio, himself replaced by the then vice mayor Wenceslao "Peewee" Trinidad in 2000, saw the building of the Manila Metro Rail Transit System Line 3 southern terminus in the city, and the Pasay City General Hospital was opened.


Pasay City zones and barangays

Pasay City covers a total land area of 18.64 square kilometres (7.20 sq mi),[2][9] making it the third smallest political subdivision in the National Capital Region and fourth in the whole country. It borders City of Manila to the north, Parañaque to the south, Makati and Taguig to the northeast, and Manila Bay"> Manila Bay to the west. The city can be divided into three distinct areas: the city's urban area with an area of 5.505 square kilometres (2.125 sq mi); the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) complex, which include the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) and the Villamor Airbase, with an area of 9.5 square kilometres (3.7 sq mi); and the reclaimed land from Manila Bay with an area of 4.00 square kilometres (1.54 sq mi).[10]

Pasay is composed of seven districts, subdivided into 20 zones, with a total of 201 barangays. The barangays do not have names but are only designated with sequential numbers. The largest zone with an area of 5.10 square kilometres (1.97 sq mi) is Zone 19, which covers barangays 178 and 191. The smallest zone with an area of 10 hectares (25 acres) is Zone 1, covering Barangays 1 to 3 and 14 to 17.[10]

Populated places / barangays in Pasay


Under the Köppen climate classification system, Pasay features a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw).

Climate data for Manila International Airport (1951-1985)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.5
Average low °C (°F) 20.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.3
Average rainy days (≥ 0.10 mm) 3 2 2 2 8 14 18 21 18 14 10 7 119
Average relative humidity (%) 75 70 67 65 70 78 81 82 83 81 80 78 75.8
Source: PAGASA[11]


Population census of Pasay
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1903 8,201 —    
1918 18,697 +5.65%
1939 55,161 +5.29%
1948 88,728 +5.42%
1960 132,673 +3.41%
1970 206,283 +4.51%
1975 254,999 +4.34%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1980 287,770 +2.45%
1990 368,366 +2.50%
1995 408,610 +1.96%
2000 354,908 −2.98%
2007 403,064 +1.77%
2010 392,869 −0.93%
2015 416,522 +1.12%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[3][12][13][14]


Headquarters of Philippine Airlines

Philippine Airlines is headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center beside the World Trade Center Manila in Pasay City.[15] Manila Airlines">Spirit of Manila Airlines has its headquarters in Roxas Sea Front Garden in Pasay City.[16] PAL Express, Cebu Pacific, Air Juan, Interisland Airlines have their headquarters on the grounds of Ninoy Aquino International Airport and in Pasay City.[17][18] Oishi (Liwayway), a snack company, also has its headquarters in Pasay.[19]

National government offices found in Pasay include: Office of the Vice-President of the Philippines, Senate of the Philippines, Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA), Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, Civil Aeronautics Board, Manila International Airport Authority"> Manila International Airport Authority, the Philippine Department of Trade and Industry's export promotions agency – the Center for International Trade Expositions and Missions (CITEM) – located in the International Trade Complex's Golden Shell Pavilion, and the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA), Office for Transportation Security (OTS). The main office of the Philippine National Bank is located in the city.

LBC Express headquarters is located at the Star Cruises Centre in the Newport Cybertourism Zone of Pasay City.

Local government

Elected officials (2016-2019):

  • Councilors Pasay City">1st District:
    • Mark Anthony Calixto
    • Jerome Advincula
    • Antonia Cuneta
    • Alberto Alvina
    • Ricardo Santos
    • Consertino Santos
  • Councilors Pasay City">2nd District:
    • Arnel Regino Arceo Jr.
    • Allan Panaligan
    • Editha Manguerra
    • Jose Calixto Isidro Jr.
    • Donnabel Vendivel
    • Aileen Padua-Lopez



The city shares the location of the Ninoy Aquino International Airport with Parañaque City"> Parañaque City. Terminal 2 and Terminal 3, as well as the terminal of Manila Domestic Airport are located in Pasay City. Villamor Airbase of the Philippine Air Force is also located there.


Highways and main thoroughfares

View of Roxas Boulevard from the Libertad overpass
" Pasay Rotonda", the intersection of EDSA and Taft Avenue

Pasay City is served by several highways and major thoroughfares. Epifanio delos Santos Avenue (EDSA), Roxas Boulevard, Gil Puyat Avenue (Buendia Avenue) and Taft Avenue function as the city's main thoroughfares. Secondary thoroughfares include Andrews Avenue, Antonio Arnaiz Avenue (formerly called Libertad in the Pasay segment), Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard, Ninoy Aquino Avenue and NAIA Road (MIA Road).


Three expressways serve Pasay and other parts of Metro Manila and Calabarzon Metro Manila Skyway"> Metro Manila Skyway, an elevated expressway part of Radial Road 3 (R-3) and Asian Highway 26 (AH26), passes on the Pasay-Taguig boundary. South Luzon Expressway, commonly called as SLEX and also parts of Radial Road 3 and Asian Highway 26, follows a similar route with the Metro Manila Skyway, but rather runs directly on the ground. NAIA Expressway, an elevated toll expressway, serves Terminals 2 and 3 of the Ninoy Aquino International Airport, after fully opened in December 2016. Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]

Public transport


Jeepneys ply the city's arterial roads, and serve the city's populated areas and nearby cities.


Buses provide city (commuter) and provincial (intercity) operation on Pasay. Provincial bus terminals are mostly found near the Buendia LRT station, and a new terminal, the Southwest Provincial Bus Terminal, is found on HK Sun Plaza, adjacent to the Macapagal Boulevard.


The Baclaran LRT Station"> Baclaran Station of Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 1">LRT Line 1

This city has two railway systems, which includes Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 1">LRT Line 1 and Manila Metro Rail Transit System Line 3">MRT Line 3. LRT 1 has four stations, namely Gil Puyat (Buendia), Libertad, EDSA, Baclaran LRT Station">Baclaran, and its depot is located along Airport Road. MRT-3 has only one station, named Taft Avenue MRT Station">Taft Avenue, which serves as an interchange with LRT-1.


Tricycles and pedicabs serves the barangays. Multicab services connects SM Mall of Asia with Baclaran (in Paranaque), Pasay Rotonda, and Cash N' Carry (in Makati). Vans also provide service in the city and other destinations in Metro Manila.

Unity Run

On the list of largest running events in the world, based on the number of participantsm a record 209,000 registered running enthusiasts participated in the 2012 Kahit Isang Araw Lang: Unity Run which started and ended at the SM Mall of Asia grounds in Pasay City.

The second edition of the race surpassed the Guinness World record of 116,086 participants posted in the Run for Pasig River on Oct 10, 2010.[20]


The Department of Education (DepEd) – Division of City Schools – Pasay operates 18 public elementary schools and 8 high schools, and operations divided into four districts: Pasay North, Pasay East, Pasay South, and Pasay South. Special education are provided by the Philippine School for the Deaf and Philippine National School for the Blind, Pasay City SPED Center, and one Alternative Learning System (ALS) center. Numerous private schools, including Catholic and parochial schools, also operate on the city, like the Saint Mary's Academy.

Colleges and universities

Diplomatic missions

Countries that have set up permanent diplomatic offices or embassies in the city include:

Twin towns and sister cities



Notable people

See also


  1. ^ "Cities". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "Commission on Audit – Cities – NCR – Pasay City". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved September 22, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2015). " National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  4. ^ a b "Republic Act No. 437 - An Act Changing the Name of Rizal City to Pasay City". www.chanrobles.com. Philippine Laws, Statutes And Codes - Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. June 7, 1950. Retrieved 3 April 2018. 
  5. ^ a b c Dery, Luis Camara (2001). A History of the Inarticulate. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-1069-0. 
  6. ^ "Act No. 227". Lawyerly.ph. Retrieved December 2, 2017. 
  7. ^ "Act No. 942". Lawyerly.ph. Retrieved December 2, 2017. 
  8. ^ "Republic Act No. 183 - An Act Creating The Rizal City". www.chanrobles.com. Philippine Laws, Statutes And Codes - Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. June 21, 1947. Retrieved 3 April 2018. 
  9. ^ "Enhancing Risk Analysis Capacities for Flood, Tropical Cyclone Severe Wind and Earthquake for the Greater Metro Manila Area Component 5 – Earthquake Risk Analysis" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience Australia. Retrieved May 16, 2016. 
  10. ^ a b "City Profile". asay City Government. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  11. ^ "Climatological Normals of the Philippines (1951–1985) (PAGASA 1987)" (PDF). PAGASA. Retrieved 18 April 2015. 
  12. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). " National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 
  13. ^ Censuses of Population (1903 – 2007). " National Capital Region (NCR)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO. 
  14. ^ "Province of Metro Manila, 4th (Not a Province)". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  15. ^ "About PAL." Philippine Airlines. Retrieved May 19, 2009.
  16. ^ "Contact Us." Manila Airlines">Spirit of Manila Airlines. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
  17. ^ "Call Center / Guest Services / Product Ideas Archived April 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.." Cebu Pacific. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
  18. ^ "Contact Information Archived October 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.." Interisland Airlines. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
  19. ^ "Privacy Policy Archived April 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.." Oishi. Retrieved on April 5, 2014. "Liwayway Marketing Corporation 2225 Tolentino St. Brgy. 129, Pasay City"
  20. ^ Calapre, Frank (January 23, 2012). "Unity Run sets record participants". Manila Times. Archived from the original on April 29, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 

External links