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A parkway is a broad, landscaped highway thoroughfare.[1] The term is particularly used for a roadway in a park or connecting to a park from which trucks and other heavy vehicles are excluded.[1] Many parkways originally intended for scenic, recreational driving have evolved into major urban and commuter routes. The term parkway is sometimes applied more generally to a variety of limited-access roads. In Russia, long, broad (multi-lane) and beautified thoroughfares are referred to as prospekts.

Contents

1 United States

1.1 Scenic roads 1.2 Early high speed roads 1.3 New Deal
New Deal
roads 1.4 Post-war parkways

2 Canada 3 United Kingdom

3.1 Bristol (and other) park-and-ride railway stations 3.2 Peterborough 3.3 Plymouth

4 Australia

4.1 Australian Capital Territory

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

United States[edit]

Brooklyn's Eastern Parkway, the world's first parkway, according to the New York City
New York City
Department of Parks and Recreation.

The Clara Barton Parkway
Clara Barton Parkway
in Maryland

Scenic roads[edit] Over the years, many different types of roads have been labeled parkways. The first parkways in the United States
United States
were developed during the late 19th century by landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted
and Beatrix Farrand as roads segregated for[clarification needed] pedestrians, bicyclists, equestrians, and horse carriages, such as the Eastern Parkway, which is credited as the world's first parkway,[2] and Ocean Parkway
Parkway
in the New York City
New York City
borough of Brooklyn. The terminology "parkway" to define this type of road was coined by Calvert Vaux
Calvert Vaux
and Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted
in their proposal to link city and suburban parks with "pleasure roads". Newer roads such as Bidwell in Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
and Park
Park
Presidio Boulevard
Boulevard
in San Francisco, California[3] were designed for automobiles and are broad and divided by large landscaped central medians. During the early 20th century, the meaning of the word was expanded to include limited-access highways designed for recreational driving of automobiles, with landscaping. These parkways originally provided scenic routes without very slow or commercial vehicles, at grade intersections, or pedestrian traffic. Examples are the Merritt Parkway in Connecticut
Connecticut
and the Vanderbilt Motor Parkway
Vanderbilt Motor Parkway
in New York. But their success led to more development, expanding a city's boundaries, eventually limiting the parkway's recreational driving use. The Arroyo Seco Parkway
Parkway
between Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles
and Pasadena, California
Pasadena, California
is an example of lost pastoral aesthetics. It and others have become major commuting routes, while retaining the name "parkway". Early high speed roads[edit] See also: Parkways in New York State In New York City, construction on the Long Island Motor Parkway (Vanderbilt Parkway) began in 1906 and planning for the Bronx River Parkway
Parkway
in 1907. In the 1920s, the New York City
New York City
Metropolitan Area's parkway system grew under the direction of Robert Moses, the president of the New York State Council of Parks and Long Island State Park Commission, who used parkways to create and access state parks, especially for city dwellers. As Commissioner of New York City
New York City
Parks under Mayor LaGuardia, he extended the parkways to the heart of the city, creating and linking its parks to the greater metropolitan systems. Most of the New York metropolitan parkways were designed by Gilmore Clark. The famed "Gateway to New England" Merritt Parkway
Merritt Parkway
in Connecticut
Connecticut
was designed in the 1930s as a pleasurable alternative for affluent locals to the congested Boston Post Road, running through forest with each bridge designed uniquely to enhance the scenery. Another example is the Sprain Brook Parkway
Sprain Brook Parkway
from The Bronx
The Bronx
to become the Taconic State Parkway
Taconic State Parkway
to Chatham, New York. Landscape
Landscape
architect George Kessler
George Kessler
designed extensive parkway systems for Kansas City, Missouri; Memphis, Tennessee; Indianapolis; and other cities at the beginning of the 20th century.

The Natchez Trace Parkway

New Deal
New Deal
roads[edit] In the 1930s, as part of the New Deal
New Deal
the U.S. federal government constructed National Parkways designed for recreational driving and to commemorate historic trails and routes. These divided four-lane parkways have lower speed limits and are maintained by the National Park
Park
Service. An example is the Civilian Conservation Corps
Civilian Conservation Corps
(CCC) built Blue Ridge Parkway
Blue Ridge Parkway
in the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
of North Carolina and Virginia. Others are: Skyline Drive
Skyline Drive
in Virginia; the Natchez Trace Parkway
Natchez Trace Parkway
in Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee; and the Colonial Parkway
Colonial Parkway
in eastern Virginia's Historic Triangle
Historic Triangle
area.[4] The George Washington Memorial Parkway
Parkway
and the Clara Barton Parkway, running along the Potomac River
Potomac River
near Washington, D.C., were also constructed during this era. Post-war parkways[edit] In Kentucky
Kentucky
the term "parkway" designates a controlled-access highway in the Kentucky
Kentucky
Parkway
Parkway
system, with nine built in the 1960s and 1970s. They were toll roads until the construction bonds were repaid, now being freeways since 2006. The Arroyo Seco Parkway
Arroyo Seco Parkway
from Pasadena to Los Angeles, built in 1940, was the first segment of the vast Southern California
Southern California
freeway system. It became part of State Route 110 and was renamed the Pasadena Freeway. A 2010 restoration of the freeway brought the Arroyo Seco Parkway
Parkway
designation back.

Sign informing truckers it is illegal to use a parkway in New York City.

In the New York metropolitan area, contemporary parkways are predominantly controlled-access highways restricted to non-commercial traffic, excluding trucks and tractor-trailers. Some have low overpasses that also exclude buses. The Vanderbilt Parkway, an exception in western Suffolk County, is a surviving remnant of the Long Island Motor Parkway
Long Island Motor Parkway
that became a surface street, no longer with controlled-access or non-commercial vehicle restrictions. The Palisades Interstate Parkway
Palisades Interstate Parkway
is a post-war parkway that starts at the George Washington Bridge, heads north through New Jersey, continuing through Rockland and Orange counties in New York. The Palisades Parkway
Parkway
was built to allow for a direct route from New York City
New York City
to Harriman State Park. In New Jersey, the Garden State Parkway, connecting the urban Northeast U.S. with the rural Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
shoreline and Atlantic City, is restricted to buses and non-commercial traffic north of the Route 18 interchange but is one of the busiest toll roads in the country.[5] In the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
region, two of the major interstates are referred to informally as Parkways. The Parkway
Parkway
East — I-376, formally the Penn-Lincoln Parkway, connects Downtown Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
to Monroeville, Pennsylvania. The Parkway
Parkway
West — I-376 runs through the Fort Pitt Tunnel
Tunnel
and links Downtown to Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
International Airport, Southbound I-79, Imperial, Pennsylvania, and Westbound US 22/30. The Parkway
Parkway
North — I-279 connects Downtown to Franklin Park, Pennsylvania and Northbound I-79. In Minneapolis, the Grand Rounds Scenic Byway
Grand Rounds Scenic Byway
system has 50 miles (80 km) of streets designated as parkways. These are not freeways, having a slow 25-mile per hour speed limit, pedestrian crossings, and stop signs.[6][7] In Cincinnati, parkways are major roads which trucks are prohibited from using. Some Cincinnati
Cincinnati
parkways, such as Columbia Parkway, are high-speed, limited access roads, while others, such as Central Parkway, are multi-lane urban roads without controlled access. Columbia Parkway
Parkway
carries US-50 traffic from downtown towards east-side suburbs of Mariemont, Anderson, and Milford, and is a limited access road from downtown to the Village of Mariemont. Canada[edit]

The Icefields Parkway
Icefields Parkway
runs through the Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
in Jasper National Park
Park
and Banff National Park.

"Parkway" is used in the names of many Canadian roads, including major routes through national parks, scenic drives, major urban thoroughfares, and even regular freeways that carry commercial traffic. Parkways in the National Capital Region are administered by the National Capital Region (Canada). However, some of them are named "Drive" or "Driveway". The term in Canada
Canada
is also applied to multi-use paths and greenways used by walkers and cyclists.[8][9]

Airport Parkway
Parkway
(Ottawa) Aviation Parkway
Parkway
(Ottawa) Colonel By Drive
Colonel By Drive
in Ottawa, Ontario Conestoga Parkway
Conestoga Parkway
in Kitchener, Ontario Don Valley Parkway
Don Valley Parkway
in Toronto, Ontario Emil Kolb Parkway
Parkway
in Bolton, Ontario Erin Mills Parkway in Mississauga, Ontario Forest Hills Parkway
Parkway
in Halifax, Nova Scotia Hanlon Expressway in Guelph, Ontario Icefields Parkway
Icefields Parkway
in Alberta Lauzon Parkway in Windsor, Ontario Lincoln M. Alexander Parkway
Lincoln M. Alexander Parkway
in Hamilton, Ontario Niagara Parkway
Niagara Parkway
in Southern Ontario Ojibway Parkway
Ojibway Parkway
in Windsor, Ontario Queen Elizabeth Driveway
Queen Elizabeth Driveway
in Ottawa, Ontario Red Hill Valley Parkway
Red Hill Valley Parkway
in Hamilton, Ontario Sir John A. Macdonald Parkway
Sir John A. Macdonald Parkway
in Eastern Ontario The Parkway
Parkway
in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador Thousand Islands Parkway
Thousand Islands Parkway
in Eastern Ontario

United Kingdom[edit] Main article: Parkway
Parkway
(other) The United Kingdom has parkways in many large towns and cities.[dubious – discuss] Most examples are motorways or A roads. Some parkways including Chelmsford
Chelmsford
Parkway
Parkway
have flyovers leading to major roads. Bristol (and other) park-and-ride railway stations[edit]

Luton Airport
Luton Airport
Parkway
Parkway
railway station

Several mainly park-and-ride-status railway stations in England have the suffix "Parkway" in their name. The etymology is from the original U.S. meaning as the Bristol Parkway railway station
Bristol Parkway railway station
was named after the adjacent M32 motorway, originally known as The Parkway
Parkway
because of its green-buffered route into the city. Bristol Parkway
Parkway
was the first railway station so named, in 1972. The majority of such stations were opened in the late 20th century to relieve pressure on existing city centre stations. Examples such as Didcot Parkway
Parkway
are renamings following the expansion of the car parking facilities where the name is used promotionally (for example commuters to Oxford are encouraged to leave their car at Didcot and travel to Oxford by train) whereas in others with multi-storey car parks serving modest settlements such as Brookwood and Fleet the suffix has not been adopted. Luton Airport
Luton Airport
Parkway
Parkway
and Southampton Airport
Southampton Airport
Parkway
Parkway
are examples serving Luton and Southampton airports. Some were so named as they are not in easy walking distance of an airport terminal; passengers use shuttle bus services, although Southampton Airport
Southampton Airport
station is within easy walking distance of Southampton Airport
Southampton Airport
and has no separate car parking facilities of its own. Peterborough[edit] Further information: Road
Road
transport in Peterborough The city and third-generation new town Peterborough (population of 184,500 as at 2011 census) has an overall free-capacity system roads branded as "Parkways", which together with other roads provide routes for much through traffic and local traffic sufficient to cope in most peak hours. The majority are dual carriageways, with many of their junctions numbered. Five main parkways (Soke Parkway, Nene Parkway, Fletton Parkway, Frank Perkins Parkway, Paston Parkway) form an orbital outer ring road. Orton Parkway, Werrington Parkway, Longthorpe Parkway
Parkway
are named after the settlements they serve. For example, Werrington Parkway
Parkway
is an arbitrary renaming of a short section of the A15 Lincoln Road. Plymouth[edit] In the City of Plymouth, the A38 is called "The Parkway" and bisects a rural belt of the local authority area, which coincides with the geographical centre; it has two junctions to enter the downtown part of the city. Australia[edit] Australian Capital Territory[edit] The Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
uses the term "Parkway" to refer to roadways of a standard approximately equivalent to what would be designated as an "Expressway", "Freeway", or "Motorway" in other areas. Parkways generally have multiple lanes in each direction of travel, no intersections (crossroads are accessed by interchanges), high speed limits, and are of dual carriageway design (or have high crash barriers on the median).[10] See also[edit]

Look up parkway in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Central reservation Green belt Road
Road
verge Linear park Prospekt (street)

References[edit]

^ a b "parkway."Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Apr. 2007). ^ http://www.nycgovparks.org/about/history/historical-signs/listings?id=196 ^ Alexander, Jeanne. "History of Park
Park
Presidio Boulevard". ppnsf.org/history.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Thornton, Tim; Howell, Isak. "Parkway's Past Haunts Its Future". Archived from the original on October 9, 2012.  ^ "TITLE 16. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION - CHAPTER 32. TRUCK ACCESS" (PDF). New Jersey
New Jersey
Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2010.  ^ "Information Center: About the Grand Rounds". Archived from the original on 2015-02-14. Retrieved 2007-12-18.  ^ "Second Ward, Minneapolis: Traffic Calming Event". Retrieved 2007-12-18.  ^ BC Parkway, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada ^ Welland Canals Parkway
Parkway
Trail, Canada ^ EPBC Referral - Majura Parkway
Parkway
to DEWHA (Revision 1), SMEC, Page 9, 19 August 2009

External links[edit]

Look up parkway in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

NPS: Blue Ridge Parkway
Blue Ridge Parkway
website NPS: Natchez Trace Parkway
Natchez Trace Parkway
website Natchez Trace Compact Long Island Motor Parkway Bronx River Parkway Merritt Parkway The Straight Dope "Why do we drive on the parkway and park on the driveway?" NPS Colonial Parkway
Colonial Parkway
webpage

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Road
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Glossary of road transport terms Road
Road
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.