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The Paralympic sports
Paralympic sports
comprise all the sports contested in the Summer and Winter Paralympic Games. As of 2016, the Summer Paralympics was included 22 sports and 526 medal events,[1] and the Winter Paralympics include 5 sports and disciplines and about 72 events.[2] The number and kinds of events may change from one Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
to another. The Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
are a major international multi-sport event for athletes with physical disabilities or intellectual impairments. This includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and cerebral palsy. Paralympic sports
Paralympic sports
refers to organized competitive sporting activities as part of the global Paralympic movement. These sports are organized and run under the supervision of the International Paralympic Committee
International Paralympic Committee
and other international sports federations.

Contents

1 History 2 Organization 3 Disability categories 4 Classification 5 Summer Paralympics

5.1 Current summer sports 5.2 Discontinued summer sports

6 Winter Paralympics

6.1 Current winter sports 6.2 Discontinued winter sports 6.3 Possible future winter sports

7 Abbreviations 8 Notes 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit]

Archery: Lindsey Carmichael
Lindsey Carmichael
from the United States, at the 2008 Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
in Beijing.

Organized sport for persons with physical disabilities developed out of rehabilitation programs. Following World War II, in response to the needs of large numbers of injured ex-service members and civilians, sport was introduced as a key part of rehabilitation. Sport
Sport
for rehabilitation grew into recreational sport and then into competitive sport. The pioneer of this approach was Ludwig Guttmann of the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in England. In 1948, while the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
were being held in London, England, he organized a sports competition for wheelchair athletes at Stoke Mandeville. This was the origin of the Stoke Mandeville
Stoke Mandeville
Games, which evolved into the modern Paralympic Games.[3] Organization[edit]

The Paralympic symbol

Globally, the International Paralympic Committee
International Paralympic Committee
is recognized as the leading organization, with direct governance of nine sports, and responsibility over the Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
and other multi-sport, multi-disability events. Other international organizations, notably the International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation
International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation
(IWAS), the International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA), International Sports Federation for Persons with Intellectual Disability (INAS) and the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA) govern some sports that are specific to certain disability groups.[4] In addition, certain single-sport federations govern sports for athletes with a disability, either as part of an able-bodied sports federation such as the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI), or as a disabled sports federation such as the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation.[5] At the national level, there are a wide range of organizations that take responsibility for Paralympic sport, including National Paralympic Committees,[6] which are members of the IPC, and many others.[citation needed] Disability categories[edit]

Cycling: Karissa Whitsell and Mackenzie Woodring
Mackenzie Woodring
(pilot) from the United States, compete in Beijing 2008

Biathlon: Andy Soule
Andy Soule
from the United States, at the 2010 Paralympics in Vancouver.

Athletes who participate in Paralympic sport are grouped into ten major categories, based on their type of disability: Physical Impairment - There are eight different types of physical impairment recognized by the movement:

Impaired muscle power - With impairments in this category, the force generated by muscles, such as the muscles of one limb, one side of the body or the lower half of the body is reduced, e.g. due to spinal-cord injury, spina bifida or polio. Impaired passive range of movement - Range of movement in one or more joints is reduced in a systematic way. Acute conditions such as arthritis are not included. Loss of limb or limb deficiency - A total or partial absence of bones or joints from partial or total loss due to illness, trauma, or congenital limb deficiency (e.g. dysmelia). Leg-length difference - Significant bone shortening occurs in one leg due to congenital deficiency or trauma. Short stature - Standing height is reduced due to shortened legs, arms and trunk, which are due to a musculoskeletal deficit of bone or cartilage structures. Hypertonia - Hypertonia is marked by an abnormal increase in muscle tension and reduced ability of a muscle to stretch. Hypertonia may result from injury, disease, or conditions which involve damage to the central nervous system (e.g. cerebral palsy). Ataxia
Ataxia
- Ataxia
Ataxia
is an impairment that consists of a lack of coordination of muscle movements (e.g. cerebral palsy, Friedreich’s ataxia). Athetosis
Athetosis
- Athetosis
Athetosis
is generally characterized by unbalanced, involuntary movements and a difficulty maintaining a symmetrical posture (e.g. cerebral palsy, choreoathetosis).

Visual Impairment - Athletes with visual impairment ranging from partial vision, sufficient to be judged legally blind, to total blindness. This includes impairment of one or more component of the visual system (eye structure, receptors, optic nerve pathway, and visual cortex).[7] The sighted guides for athletes with a visual impairment are such a close and essential part of the competition that the athlete with visual impairment and the guide are considered a team. Beginning in 2012, these guides (along with sighted goalkeepers in 5-a-side football
5-a-side football
became eligible to receive medals of their own.[8][9] Intellectual Disability - Athletes with a significant impairment in intellectual functioning and associated limitations in adaptive behaviour. The IPC primarily serves athletes with physical disabilities, but the disability group Intellectual Disability has been added to some Paralympic Games. This includes only elite athletes with intellectual disabilities diagnosed before the age of 18.[7] However, the IOC-recognized Special Olympics World Games
Special Olympics World Games
are open to all people with intellectual disabilities.[10][11] The disability category determines who athletes compete against and which sports they participate in. Some sports are open to multiple disability categories (e.g. cycling), while others are restricted to only one (e.g. Five-a-side football). In some sports athletes from multiple categories compete, but only within their category (e.g. athletics), while in others athletes from different categories compete against one another (e.g. swimming). Events in the Paralympics are commonly labelled with the relevant disability category, such as Men's Swimming Freestyle S1, indicating athletes with a severe physical impairment, or Ladies Table Tennis 11, indicating athletes with an intellectual disability.[12] Classification[edit] See also: Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
§ Functional classification (since 1980s), and Disability sport classification

Swimming at the 2008 Summer Paralympics

A major component of Paralympic sport is classification.[7] Classification provides a structure for competition which allows athletes to compete against others with similar disabilities or similar levels of physical function. It is similar in aim to the weight classes or age categories used in some non-disabled sports. Athletes are classified through a variety of processes that depend on their disability group and the sport they are participating in. Evaluation may include a physical or medical examination, a technical evaluation of how the athlete performs certain sport-related physical functions, and observation in and out of competition. Each sport has its own specific classification system which forms part of the rules of the sport.[citation needed] Summer Paralympics[edit] Current summer sports[edit] The following table lists the currently practiced Paralympic sports,

Wheelchair basketball: Iran vs South Africa at the 2008 Summer Paralympics.

Sport Eligible impairments Governing body Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
status

Physical Visual Intellectual

Archery

Yes

WA Summer sport (since 1960)

Athletics

Yes Yes Yes IPC Summer sport (since 1960)

Boccia

Yes

BISFed Summer sport (since 1984)

Cycling: Track cycling

Yes Yes

UCI Summer sport (since 1988)

Road cycling

Yes Yes

UCI Summer sport (since 1984)

Equestrian

Yes Yes

FEI Summer sport (since 1996)

Football 5-a-Side

Yes

IBSA Summer sport (since 2004)

Goalball

Yes

IBSA Summer sport (since 1980)

Judo

Yes

IBSA Summer sport (since 1988)

Para-badminton

Yes Yes Yes BWF Summer sport (starting in 2020)

Paracanoe

Yes

ICF Summer sport (since 2016)

Paratriathlon

Yes Yes

ITU Summer sport (since 2016)

Powerlifting

Yes

IPC Summer sport (since 1964)

Rowing

Yes Yes

FISA Summer sport (since 2008)

Shooting

Yes

IPC Summer sport (since 1976)

Swimming

Yes Yes Yes IPC Summer sport (since 1960)

Table tennis

Yes

Yes ITTF Summer sport (since 1960)

Volleyball

Yes

WOVD Summer sport (since 1976)

Wheelchair basketball

Yes

IWBF Summer sport (since 1960)

Wheelchair fencing

Yes

IWAS Summer sport (since 1960)

Wheelchair rugby

Yes

IWRF Summer sport (since 2000)

Wheelchair tennis

Yes

ITF Summer sport (since 1992)

Discontinued summer sports[edit]

Sport Eligible impairments Governing body Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
status

Physical Visual Intellectual

Basketball ID

Yes INAS-FID Summer sport (2000)

Football 7-a-Side

Yes

CP-ISRA Summer sport (1984-2016)

Lawn bowls

Yes Yes

IPC Summer sport (1968–1988, 1996)

Sailing

Yes Yes

IFDS Summer sport (2000-2016)

Snooker

Yes

IWAS Summer sport (1960–1976, 1984–1988)

Dartchery

Yes

IPC Summer sport (1960–1980)

Weightlifting

Yes

Summer sport (1964–1992)

Wrestling

Yes

Summer sport (1980–1984)

Winter Paralympics[edit] Current winter sports[edit]

Alpine skiing: Talan Skeels-Piggins
Talan Skeels-Piggins
from Great Britain at the Winter Paralympics 2010 in Vancouver.

Sport Eligible impairments Governing body Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
status

Physical Visual Intellectual

Alpine skiing

Yes Yes Yes IPC Winter sport (since 1976)

Para ice hockey

Yes

IPC Winter sport (since 1994)

Nordic skiing: Biathlon

Yes Yes

IPC Winter sport (since 1988)

Cross-country skiing

Yes Yes

IPC Winter sport (since 1976)

Wheelchair curling

Yes

WCF Winter sport (since 2006)

Para-Snowboarding

Yes

IPC Winter sport (since 2014)

Bobsleigh

Yes

IBSF Winter sport (starting in 2022)

Discontinued winter sports[edit]

Sport Eligible impairments Governing body Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
status

Physical Visual Intellectual

Ice sledge racing

Yes

Winter Sport
Sport
(1980–1988, 1994–1998)

Possible future winter sports[edit] Bob Balk, the chairman of the International Paralympic Committee
International Paralympic Committee
(IPC) Athletes' Council, launched a campaign in early 2012 to have sliding sports (bobsleigh, luge and skeleton) included at the 2018 Winter Paralympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea.[13] Abbreviations[edit]

Governing bodies:

BISFed — Boccia
Boccia
International Sports Federation CP-ISRA — Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association IFDS — International Association for Disabled Sailing IBSA — International Blind Sports Federation ICF — International Canoe Federation ICF — International Curling Federation FEI — International Federation for Equestrian Sports IPC — International Paralympic Committee
International Paralympic Committee
(including Paralympic athletics, Paralympic swimming, Paralympic shooting, Paralympic powerlifting, Para-alpine skiing, Paralympic biathlon, Paralympic cross-country skiing, Para ice hockey) ISF — International Snowboard Federation INAS-FID — International Sports Federation for Persons with an Intellectual Disability FISA — International Rowing Federation ITTF — International Table Tennis Federation ITF — International Tennis Federation ITU — International Triathlon Union IWAS — International Wheelchair and Amputee Sport
Sport
Federation IWBF — International Wheelchair Basketball Federation IWRF — International Wheelchair Rugby Federation UCI — Union Cycliste Internationale WCF — World Curling Federation WA — World Archery WOVD — World Organization Volleyball for Disabled

Notes[edit] The categories listed represent all those groups that participate in this sport at some level. Not all these categories are represented in competition at the Paralympic Games. The governing bodies listed represent those organizations responsible for the broadest level of participation. In some cases, other disability-specific organizations will also have some governance of athletes in that sport within their own group. For example, the IPC governs multi-disability athletics competitions such as the Paraympic Games; however, CP-ISRA, IBSA, and IWAS provide single-disability events in athletics for athletes with cerebral palsy, visually impaired athletes, and wheelchair and amputee athletes respectively. Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
status details the years these sports were practiced as full medal events at the Paralympic Games. See also[edit]

Paralympics portal

Olympic sports

References[edit]

^ "About Rio 2016". paralympic.org. Retrieved 22 May 2014.  ^ "Sochi 2014 Paralympics scheduled released". paralympic.org. 16 Oct 2013.  ^ "History of the Paralympic Movement" (PDF). paralympic.org. International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 9 March 2018.  ^ "International Organisations of Sports for the Disabled". paralympic.org. Retrieved 22 May 2014.  ^ "International Sport
Sport
Federations". paralympic.org. Retrieved 22 May 2014.  ^ "National Paralympic Committees". paralympic.org. Retrieved 22 May 2014.  ^ a b c "Introduction to IPC Classifications". paralympic.org. Retrieved 21 May 2014.  ^ Visually impaired skiers put fate in guide's hands, thestar.com, March 13, 2010 ^ "Paralympics 2012: The able-bodied athletes at the Games". BBC
BBC
News. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.  ^ Special Olympics
Special Olympics
and the Olympic Movement Archived 2011-10-07 at the Wayback Machine., Official website of the Special
Special
Olympics, 2006 ^ "Making sense of the categories". BBC
BBC
Sport. 2000-10-06. Retrieved 2010-04-07.  ^ "Guide to the London
London
2012 Paralympic Games, Appendix Threel" (PDF). London
London
Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-04. Retrieved 8 Sep 2012.  ^ "Campaign launched to get sliding sports into Paralympics for Pyeongchang 2018". insideworldparasport.biz. 2012-01-03. Retrieved 2012-08-12. [permanent dead link]

External links[edit]

International Paralympic Committee Paralympic sports
Paralympic sports
at IPC web site Cerebral Palsy International Sport
Sport
and Recreation Association International Blind Sports Association INAS-FID: International Sports Federation for Persons with Intellectual Disability International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation Discussion forum of Disabled sports

v t e

Paralympic sports
Paralympic sports
recognized by the IPC

Alpine skiing Archery Athletics Biathlon Boccia Canoeing Cross-country skiing Cycling Equestrian Football 5-a-side Football 7-a-side Goalball Ice sledge hockey Judo Powerlifting Rowing Sailing Shooting Sitting volleyball Swimming Table tennis Triathlon Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair curling Wheelchair DanceSport Wheelchair fencing Wheelchair rugby Wheelchair tennis

See also: Summer Olympic sports
Olympic sports
and Winter Olympic sports

v t e

Sports at the Paralympic Games

Summer sports

Archery Athletics Badminton Boccia Cycling Equestrian Football 5-a-side Goalball Judo Paracanoe Paratriathlon Parataekwondo Powerlifting Rowing Shooting Swimming Table tennis Volleyball Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair fencing Wheelchair rugby Wheelchair tennis

Winter sports

Alpine skiing Biathlon Cross-country skiing Para ice hockey Snowboarding Wheelchair curling

Past sports

Football 7-a-side Basketball ID Dartchery Ice sledge racing Lawn bowls Sailing Snooker Weightlifting Wrestling

Demonstration sports

.